Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science"

See other formats


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofindv89indi 



PROCEEDINGS 

of the 

Indiana Academy 
of Science 

Founded December 29, 1885 



Volume 89 
1980 



BENJAMIN MOULTON, Editor 

Indiana State University 

Terre Haute, Indiana 



Spring Meeting 

April 27, 1979 

St. Meinrad College 

St. Meinrad, Indiana 

Fall Meeting 

October 18, 19, 1979 

Manchester College 

North Manchester, Indiana 

Published at Indianapolis, Indiana 
1979 



1. The permanent address of the Academy is the Indiana State Library, 140 North 
Senate Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204. 

2. Instructions for Contributors appear at the end of this volume. 

3. Exchanges. Items sent in exchange for the Proceedings and correspondence con- 
cerning exchange arrangements should be addressed: 

John Shepard Wright Memorial Library of the Indiana Academy of Science 

c/o Indiana State Librai-y 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

4. Proceedings may be purchased through the State Library at $7.00 per volume. 

5. Reprints of technical papers can often be secured from the authors. They cannot 
be supplied by the State Library nor by the officers of the Academy. 

6. The Constitution and By-Laws reprinted from Vol. 74 are available to members 
upon application to the Secretary. Necrologies reprinted from the various volumes can be 
supplied to relatives and friends of deceased members by the Secretary. 

7. Officers whose names and addresses are not known to correspondents may be 
addressed care of the State Library. Papers published in the Proceedings of the Academy 
of Science are abstracted or indexed in appropriate services listed here : 

Annotated Bibliography of Economy Geology 

Bibliography of North American Geology 

Biological Abstracts 

Chemischer Informationsdienst 

Current Geographical Publications 

Geological Abstracts 

Metals Abstracts 

Pesticides Documentation Bulletin 

Review of Applied Entomology 

The Torrey Bulletin 

Zoological Record 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Officers and Committees for 1979 3 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (Executive Committee) 16 

Minutes of the Spring Meeting (General Session) 20 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (Executive Committee) 22 

Minutes of the Fall Meeting (General Session) 27 

Annual Financial Report 31 

Annual Report, Indiana Junior Academy of Science 36 

Biological Survey Committee Report 39 

Necrology 44 

New Members for 1979 55 

Indiana Academy of Science Constitution and By-Laws 57 

ADDRESSES AND CONTRIBUTED PAPERS 

Presidential Address 

"The Distribution of Indiana's Birds and Birdwatcher's", 

J. Dan Webster 68 

Anthropology 

Donald R. Cochran — Mounds State Park: Recent Archaeological 

Investigations* 82 

Francis S. Grollig — Mexican Art and Archaeology* 82 

Charles P. Warren — Identification of Military Remains: Field and 
Laboratory Problems* 82 

Julanne McCarthy — Examination of Stature for Inbreeding De- 
pression Among Mennonite and Amish Children in Daviess County, 
Indiana* 83 

Curtis H. Tomak — Alton: A Paleo-Indian Site in Southern In- 
diana 84 

Botany 

Philip A. Orpurt — Angelica atropurpurea L. in Indiana* 91 

William J. Tinkle — Color of Plants in Relation to Natural Selec- 
tion* 91 

Marilyn S. Veselack and Jerry J. Nisbet — Differences in the Ana- 
tomical Structure of Good and Unusable Clarient Reed Material 
{Arundo donax L.) * 92 

Everett F. Morris — The Imperfect State of the Genus Peni- 
cilliopis* 92 

* Abstracts 

iii 



iv Table of Contents 

Page 
Jay H. Jones and Leonard I. Ganz — A Reevaluation of Three Simi- 
lar Leaf Types, Dryophyllum puryearensis Berry, Banksia saffordi 
Berry, and Banksia tenuifolia Berry, from the Middle Eocene of 
Kentucky and Tennessee* 93 

Susan Leigh Lane and Jay H. Jones — A Reexamination of Dryo- 
phyllum moorii (Lesq.) Berry from the Middle Eocene Clairborne 
Formation of Western Kentucky and Tennessee* 93 

Robert D. Williams — Period in Stratification Hastens Germination 
of Black Walnut Seed* 94 

Larry R. Yoder — Establishment of Prairie Vegetation from Local 
Ecotypes in Marion County, Ohio* 94 

Gary E. Dolph and Julie Young — Cuticular Variation in Five Gen- 
era of the Apocynaceae* 94 

William D. Macklin and David L. Dilcher — Leaf Morphology of 
Nyssa I. A Description of the Modern Species* 95 

Cell Biology 

Philip A. Beachy, Jerry D. Smucker, James A. Sweigard, and 
Stanley N. Grove — Effects of Antibiotic A-23187 on Spore Germi- 
nation and Apical Growth in Fungi* 97 

James A. Sweigard, Alan R. Kurtz, and Stanley N. Grove — 
Effects of Cytochalasin A on Spore Germination and Growth in 
Fungi* 97 

Jane R. Shoup — Pattern Formation in Sexine Development of Silene 
Alba (Caryophyllaceae) Pollen* 98 

William L. Elliott, D. James Morre, and P. F. Heinstein — Ele- 
vated Uridinediphosphate Kinase and Cytidinetriphosphate Syn- 
thetase Activities in Transplantable Rat Hepatomas* 98 

Sue L. Deutscher, Kim E. Creek, and D. James Morre — Cinnamic 
Acid Derivatives Inhibit the Golgi Apparatus in Two Model Test 
Systems* 99 

Vivian P. Walter, L. Seretto, K. E. Creek, M. Forman, and 
D. James Morre — Subcellular Localization of the Early Enzymes 
of Glycosphingolipid Biosynthesis of Rat Liver* 99 

Sandra Schiller Smith and D. James Morre — Degradation of 
Adenylate Nucleotides by Golgi Apparatus Membranes* 100 

Emily Yeo, Dorothy M. Morre, and William E. Elliott — Altered 
Glycogen Accumulation During 2-Acetylaminofluorene-Induced 
Liver Tumorigenesis in the Rat* 100 

Warren C. MacKellar,* F. L. Crane, D. J. Morre, T. Ramasarma, 
and H. Low — Adriamycin Effects on Plasma Membrane NADH 
Dehydrogenase* 101 



* Abstracts 



Table of Contents v 

Page 

Mohinder S. Jarial — Ferritin Uptake from the Tubular Fluid in 
the Initial Segment of the Malpighian Tubules in Cenocorixa 
bifida* 102 

Zafar Iqbal — Fast Transported Calcium-Binding Protein is Simi- 
lar to Calmodulin* 102 

M. E. Jacobs — Influence of Omega Amino Acids in Production of 
Tanning Pigments in Integuments* 103 

Lisa Anselmino* and Kara Eberly — Syngeneic Spleen Cell Ther- 
apy of a Transplantable Rat Myeloma* 103 

Anton W. Neff — Lipase Activity of Phospholipase C from Clos- 
tridium welchii and Bacillus cereus on Cultured Chick Embryo 
Muscle Cells 1 05 

T. M. Sullivan, R. J. Vetter, and W. V. Kessler — In Vitro Re- 
sponse of Hamster Melanoma KF Line to Combined Co-60 and 
Hyperthermic Treatments 114 

I. L. Sun and D. P. Gustafson — Production of Incomplete Pseudo- 
rabies Viruses in Enucleated Pig Kidney Cells 120 

Chemistry 

Darlene E. Taylor and Eric R. Johnson — Copper-zinc Superoxide 
Dismutase Stability in Water-miscible Organic Solvent Sys- 
tems* 128 

Brenda R. Lindley and Eric R. Johnson — Studies on the Specificity 
of a Denaturant Stable Protease Isolated from a Commercial 
Protease Preparation, Pronase* 128 

Douglass B. Williams and Eric R. Johnson — Anion Effects on the 
Thermal Denaturation of Bovine Copper-zinc Superoxide Dismu- 
tase* 128 

Eugene Schwartz — Molar Refractions — A New Look at an Old 
Term* 129 

Lois M. Ounapu, John M. Risley, J. A. Mosbo, and B. N. Storhoff 
— Ligand Steric Effects on Tungsten (O) Substitution Reac- 
tions* 129 

Lois M. Ounapu, P. L. Bock, T. L. Kruger, and J. A. Mosbo — 
Equilibria Between Diols and the NMR Shift Reagent EU 
(fod) 3 * 129 

Howard Dunn, Andrew Jorgensen, Robert DeWeese, and Michael 
Walker — The Dehydration of 2-Methyl-l-Phenylcyclohexanol* . . . 130 

Janice T. DeSanto, P. L. Bock, J. A. Mosbo, and B. N. Storhoff — 
Phosphorous Ligand Cone Angles from MINDO/3 Optimized Geo- 
metries* 130 

Daniel P. Harper and Bruce N. Storhoff — Ambidentate Phosphine 
Ligands* 131 

* Abstracts 



vi Table of Contents 

Page 
Donald J. Cook and Larry Boardman — The Chlorination of Several 

2-Pyridones* 131 

Lynn Sousa, Kevin Willard, and Marcus McKinley — The Stereo- 
specificity of A New Photochemical Synthesis of B-Lactam Mole- 
cules* 131 

Lawrence L. Garber — The Synthesis and Properties of TRIS-(u-l- 
substituted tetrazole) hexadimolybdenum Complexes* 131 

Robert C. Howe and Roberta C. Howe — The Application of Isoelec- 
tric pH and Isoelectric Point (Isokinetic Potential) for Solids — 
Liquid Separation* 132 

Joseph R. Siefker and Paul E. Catt — Gas Chromatographic Deter- 
mination of Organic Compounds in River Water 133 

E. Campaigne and E. M. Yokley — Tetrahydropyrrolidoacenaphthene 
and Benzazapropellane Derivatives as Potential Analgetics and 
Narcotic Antagonists 1 136 

Ecology 

Robert P. McIntosh — Terrestrial Ecology: A Review of the Present 
State of Knowledge* 142 

W. Herbert Senft II and Byron G. Torke — A Classification and 
Management Plan for Indiana Lakes* 142 

J. R. Gammon — A Proposed Stream Classification* ". . . 143 

H. E. McReynolds — Spatial Distribution of Resource Management 
Activities in Riparian Zones* 143 

Paul McKelvey — The Indiana University Biological Station — Four 
Score and Five* 144 

Deborah S. Torrey and Charles M. Kirkpatrick — Pre- and Post- 
Treatment Results of Aquatic Herbicide Application at Purdue 
Wildlife Area* 145 

B. J. Hankins and C. L. Rhykerd — Mixed Cropping of Beans and 
Tomatoes Ekpo Ossom 146 

Edwin R. Squiers — Size-Class and Age-Class Structure in an Aspen- 
White Pine Successional System* 146 

Edwin R. Squiers and Jane E. Klosterman — Competition and Spa- 
tial Patterning in an Aspen-White Pine Successional System* . . . 146 

James Keith — Distribution of Barrens Vegetation in Harrison and 
Washington Counties, Indiana* 147 

H. H. Hobbs III — Population Studies of Indiana Cavernicolous Os- 
tracods (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae)* 147 

D. F. Spencer and C. A. Lembi — Influence of Nutrient Concentra- 
tions on the Spatial Distribution of Pithophora Aedogonia (Chlo- 
rophyceae) in Surrey Lake, Indiana* 148 



* Abstracts 



Table of Contents vii 

Page 

T. S. McComish — Notes on the Biology of the Yellow Perch in Indi- 
ana Waters of Lake Michigan in the 1970's* 148 

Craig E. Nelson — What Determines the Species Composition of Lar- 
val Amphibian Pond Communities in South Central Indiana?* . 149 

Robert A. Hunchberger and W. Herbert Senft — Factors Regulat- 
ing the Abundance of Volvox aureus in a Small Borrow Pit 
Pond* 149 

B. J. Hankins, C. L. Rhykerd, G. 0. Mott, and B. 0. Blair— His- 
tory of Lotus corniculatus L. in Indiana 151 

Mark McReynolds and J. Dan Webster — Parasites of the Yellow 
Bass from Two Southern Indiana Lakes 154 

Marion T. Jackson — A Classification of Indiana Plant Communi- 
ties 159 

Clarence F. Dineen — Plankton and Benthos of Spicer Lake 173 

Byron G. Torke — Current Developments in Applied Limnology .... 180 

Engineering 

J. W. Delleur and G. Padmanabhan — A Statistical and Stochastic 
Analysis of Synthetically Generated Storm Drainage Quantity and 
Quality Data* 188 

Ji Han and A. R. Rao — Automatic Calibration of Urban Runoff 
Models* 188 

H. Yazicigil, G. H. Toebes, and A. R. Rao — A Daily Flow Forecast- 
ing Model for the Green River Basin in Kentucky* 189 

Hasan Yazicigil and Mark H. Houck — "A Chance Constrained Sto- 
chastic LP Model to Include Risk Explicity in Optimal Reservoir 
Planning* 189 

Robert H. L. Howe — Lowering of Well Water Temperature by Nat- 
ural Heat Equalization* 190 

Aldo Giorgini and A. O. Rao — Move Away, Moody Diagram!* .... 190 

R. H. L. Howe — A New Look at the K La Temperature Relationship 
in Oxygenation Processes Below 100 Degrees* 190 

Christopher B. Burke and Donald D. Gray — A Comparative Ap- 
plication of the Rational Method and the Illinois Urban Drainage 
Area Simulator to an Indiana Subdivision 191 

Entomology 

R. R. Pinger, P. R. Grimstad, and M. J. Sinsko — Arbovirus Isola- 
tions from Delaware County Mosquitoes, 1978* 204 

Ronald A. Hellenthal and Roger D. Price — Automated Taxomatic 
Procedures Applied to a Revision of Geomydoecus Lice from Pocket 
Gophers of the Thomomys bottae-umbrinus Complex* 204 

* Abstracts 



viii Table of Contents 

Page 

Erik S. Runstrom and Gary W. Bennett — Statistical Analysis of 
Insecticide Efficacy Data for Urban Cockroach Control — A Com- 
parative Study* 205 

Robert M. Corrigan and Gary W. Bennett — Methods of Evaluat- 
ing a Rodenticide Tracking Powder on Laboratory and Field Pop- 
ulations of Nuisance Bats* 205 

Gene R. Kritsky — Possible Insect-Plant Coevolution in the Late 
Paleozoic* 206 

A. K. Nelson and R. T. Huber — A New Beginning for Heat Units 
and the Alfalfa Weevil* 206 

Mark Jansen and H. David Vail — How Midges Swarm: A Spatial 
Temporal Analysis of Chironmus riparius Flight by Computer* . . 207 

E. L. Pang and H. D. Vail — Examination of the Generalized Root 
Modal RHIZOS in its Ability to Stimulate Corn Root Growth* ... 207 

James W. Yonker and Donald L. Schuder — The Biology of the 
Zimmerman Pine Moth (Dioryctria zimmermani) in Indiana Land- 
scapes with Reference to its Control* 207 

Bridget Hoban, Durland Fish, and George B. Craig, Jr. — The In- 
fluence of Organic Substrates Upon Oviposition Site-Selection in 
the Mosquito Culex restuans* 208 

William J. Berry, Durland Fish, and George B. Craig, Jr. — The 
Use of an Ovitrap Grid for Measuring Adult Movement and 
Population Density of the Tree-Hole Mosquito Aedes triseri- 
atus* 208 

Robert W. Meyer — Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Im- 
portance in Indiana During 1979 210 

T. E. Mouzin, D. K. Reed, and W. E. Chaney — Influence of Honey 
Bees on Cantaloupe Production in Indiana 215 

E. E. Grafton-Cardwell and H. D. Vail — Selected Factors Influ- 
encing the Number of Eggs Laid During Each Ovipositional 
Attack by Meteorus leviventris ( Hymenoptera : Braconidae) .... 218 

D. G. Davis, N. J. Tromley, T. T. Y. Wong, and D. K. Reed— Lesser 
Peachtree Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Influence of Water and 
Chemical Washes on Collection and Hatchability of Eggs 225 

Environmental Quality 

Howard E. Dunn, Jeffrey Adler, Bernard Denning, and Lana 
Rademacher — Chloroform in the Atmosphere Around Water 
Treatment Plants — Its Effect on Trace Analysis for Chloroform 
in Water Samples* 231 

Howard E. Dunn, Bernard E. Denning, and Jeffrey Adler — 
Household Carbon Filters for Water Purification, Good or 
Bad?* 231 



* Abstracts 



Table of Contents ix 

Page 

Patrick J. Sullivan — The Environmental Assessment of New Tech- 
nology* 231 

Robert H. L. Howe — Modification of the Stream Reaeration Coef- 
ficient-Temperature Relationship* 232 

Timothy J. Decker and Horst F. Siewert — A Study to Determine 
Effects of Elwood, Indiana, on the Water Quality of Big Duck 
Creek* 232 

John Buck and Horst F. Siewert — Effects of Low pH Levels on 
Body Weight of Crayfish* 232 

Dorothy Adalis and Richard Ringlespaugh — The Effect of Ozone 
on Hamster Tracheal Ring Explants* 233 

Thad Godish — Field Investigations of Chloride Air Pollution Injury 
on Vegetation* 233 

Richard W. Miller, Orie L. Loucks, Thomas V. Armentano, 
Ronald W. Usher, and Larry Wong — The Impact of Air Pol- 
lutants on Crops in the Ohio River Basin* 234 

Roland W. Usher — Assessment of Air Pollution Injury to Eastern 
White Pine in Indiana* 234 

Jack Barnes, Howard Dunn, and Graham Schuler — Air Monitor- 
ing and Health Data Needed in Southern Indiana 236 

Richard L. Edmonds and Thad J. Godish — Fractionating Particu- 
late Studies in Indianapolis, Indiana II. Comparative Studies of 
Ambient Particulate Sampling Methods 246 

R. A. Llewellyn and M. J. Llewellyn — Airborne Particulates 
Baseline of a Surface Coal Mine Expansion Area 250 

Howard E. Dunn and Robert L. Koch II — A New Water Treatment 
System for the Removal of Chloroform and Other Volatile Organ- 
ics from Drinking Water 255 

Darrell W. Nelson — Nitrification in the Wabash River 260 

Thad Godish — The Effect of Photoperiodic Pretreatments on Symp- 
tom Development in Plants Exposed to Ozone 268 

Geography — Geology 

Gerald J. Shea — Concerning Jet Stream Induced Vibrations in the 
Earth and Atmosphere* 272 

Henry H. Gray and Patricia G. Davis — Bedrock Topographic Map 
of Indiana* 272 

Kevin L. Strunk — Relationships Between the Roger and Porter 
Cave Systems and Glacial Lake Quincy, Indiana, USA* 273 

Stephen D. Maegerlein — Design and Application of an Automated 
Fluorescence Filter Spectrograph for Underground Water Trac- 
ing* 273 

* Abstracts 



x Table of Contents 

Page 
Robert D. Miles — Fifty Years of Aerial Surveys of Flood Plains* . . 274 

William R. Gommel and Dianne L. Reuter — Air Temperature 
Fluctuation in North Dakota During the Eclipse of 26 February 
1979* 274 

Curtis H. Ault, Dan M. Sullivan, and George F. Tanner — Fault- 
ing in Posey and Gibson Counties, Indiana 275 

Diane M. Symber — The Use of Slope Distributions in Denning Phys- 
iographic Regions in Southern Indiana 290 

Gregory A. Brodie and Terry R. West — Engineering and Environ- 
mental Geology for Land Use Planning in Hamilton County, 
Indiana 300 

Roger F. Boneham — Environmental Geology of Fountain, Parke, 
and Vermillion Counties, Indiana 310 

Stephan J. Stadler and John E. Oliver — The Spatial Distribution 
of Perceived Air Quality in Terre Haute, Indiana 320 

History of Science 

William W. Bloom — Biology at Valparaiso University* 327 

Everett F. Morris — The Need for an Incorporation of Science His- 
tory into the History of the Development of Western Civiliza- 
tion* 327 

B. Elwood Montgomery — The Development of American Odon- 
tology 328 

John Sevier — The Mid-Victorian Physicists and the Founding of 
the Cavendish Laboratory 330 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Janie K. Blackburn and Donald A. Hendrickson — The Isolation 
of Alkalinophilic Bacteria from an Organic Polymer* 340 

William Chang and Ronald Rossmann — A Numerical Simulation 
of Trichromatic Equations in Chlorophyll Estimation Using the 
Spectrophotometric Technique* 340 

Edward M. Hale — Levels of Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen De- 
mand in the Muncie Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent* 340 

Carl E. Warnes and J. Scott Bryson — Incidence of the Pathogen 
Aeromonas hydrophila in the West Fork White River, Muncie, 
Indiana* 341 

Michael R. Langona — Hospitalization and Nosocomial Infections* . . 341 

Karen S. Troxel, Rita Barr, and Frederick L. Crane — The Role of 
Ca 2 + in Electron Transport of Spinach Chloroplasts 343 



* Abstracts 



Table of Contents xi 

Page 
Physics 

George Unger and Uwe J. Hansen— Mars Orbit for the High School 

Classroom* 350 

Vincent A. Dinoto, Jr. and Walter H. Carnahan — Microprocessor 

Monitoring of a Flat Plate Solar Hot Water Collector* 350 

Donald B. Deyoung — Defects in the Jupiter Effect* 350 

Melissa Perucca and Vincent Dinoto — Water Analysis of Otto 

Creek* 350 

Patricia A. Harris and Uwe J. Hansen — Bismuth Under Pressure 

— Cyclotron Resonance* 351 

Carl C. Sartain — Meetings of the Physics Division of I.A.S. since 

1935* 351 

Plant Taxonomy 

Larry A. Hauser — A Numerical Analysis of the Tribes of the 
Brassicaceae* 352 

Theodore J. Crovello — Relationships Between Area and Number 
of Taxa of the Brassicaceae in the Soviet Union* 352 

Clifton Keller — A Botanical Expedition to Mexico* 352 

Richard J. Jensen and Judith F. Knops — Patterns of Morpho- 
logical and Phenolic Variation in a Hybridizing Population of 
Quercus* 353 

James R. Aldrich and Henry Woolsey — The Rediscovery of Note- 
worthy Plants in Indiana* 353 

Samuel W. Witmer — Present Status of Certain Recent Additions to 
our Natural Flora* 353 

Robert D. Waltz and Elaine G. Hendricks — New Plant Records 
for Wayne County, Indiana* 354 

Thomas P. Seasly, Theodore J. Crovello, and Barbara J. Hellen- 
thal — Distribution and Boundaries Of Trees In Several Midwest- 
ern States* 354 

R. H. Maxwell — Indiana Plant Distribution Records, Clark 
County* 355 

Fay Kenoyer Daily — Central Cells of the Stem Node and Charo- 
phyte Taxonomy 356 

John A Bacone and Cloyce L. Hedge — A Preliminary List of En- 
dangered and Threatened Vascular Plants in Indiana 359 

Lois Mittino Gray and John A Bacone — A Floristic Inventory of 
Hemlock Bluff Nature Preserve 372 

Science Education 

Charles L. Gehring — Utilizing Predicted Grades* 380 

* Abstracts 



xii Table of Contents 

Page 

William G. Wert — Using a "Discovery" Approach to Teaching the 
Scientific Method* 380 

Gary E. Dolph— EXPER SIM as an Aid in Developing High School 
Science Projects* 381 

G. M. Bodner and Thomas J. Greenbowe — Lap-Dissolve Slide Pro- 
jection Sequences* 381 

C. R. Ward, T. J. Greenbowe, and D. A. Davenport — Electrochem- 
istry Demonstrations with an Overhead Projector* 382 

Marvin Bratt — Attitudes Towards Teaching Science: A Demo- 
graphic Study* 382 

C. L. Rhykerd, B. O. Blair, A. R. Hilst, R. C. Keen, and A. D. 
Goecker — Agronomic Coop Intern Program for Undergraduate 
Students* 382 

Larry Yoder and Marvin Bratt — Field Studies for Elementary 
Children : A Role for Colleges in Their Communities* 383 

Soil and Atmospheric Science 

D. P. Franzmeier, G. C. Steinhardt, and R. B. Bryant — Loess Dis- 
tribution in Wabash County, Indiana and Characteristics of Late 
Wisconsin Tills in Northeastern Indiana* 384 

G. C. Steinhardt and D. P. Franzmeier — Composition of the Clay 
Mineralogy of the Argillic and Fragipan Horizons of Soils of 
the Cincinnati Catena* 384 

Thomas G. VanHorn and William W. McFee — Acid Rainfall Sensi- 
tive Soils of the Eastern United States* 385 

Patrick McGarrahan and Robert F. Dale — Predicting Soil Tem- 
peratures with Air Temperature and Soil Moisture 386 

Russell K. Stivers — High Rates of Residual Nitrogen Fertilizer 
Change Corn Leaf Composition and Yields 394 

J. W. Lightner, C. L. Rhykerd, B. O. Blair, B. J. Hankins, V. L. 
Lechtenberg, and J. M. Hertel — Response of Poa pratensis L. to 
NPK on Shallow Muck Soil 400 

Zoology 

T. J. McNitt, R. D. Lyng, and M. Balestra — Effect of Light Densi- 
ty on Post Weaning Growth of Deermice* 404 

Robert S. Benda — Occurrence of Argulus appendiculosus Wilson 
1907 (Crustacea: Branchiura) in Indiana* 404 

Thomas A. Lesh — Transient Hyperinflation After Brief Period of 
Artificial Ventilation in Rabbits* 404 

Edward N. Mendelson and Larry R. Ganion — The Production of 
Antisperm Antibodies in Vesectomized Male Mice* 405 

* Abstracts 



Table of Contents xiii 

Page 
Jack L. Albright and Richard L. Miller — Behavior and Comfort 
of Calves Housed in Elevated Metal Stalls or Straw Bedded 

Pens* 405 

J. L. Esch, W. V. Kessler, and R. J. Vetter — Effect of Experi- 
mentally Altered Thyroid States on 5-Fluorouracil Metabolism in 

the Rat 407 

G. C. Marshall, W. V. Kessler, and R. J. Vetter — Effect of Experi- 
mentally Altered Thyroid States on the Uptake of Monovalent 
Cations in Liver and Muscle of Rats 412 

Mary E. Wassel, John 0. Whitaker, Jr., and Edwin J. Spicka — 
The Ectoparasites and Other Associates of the Cottontail Rabbit, 
Sylvilagus floridanus, In Indiana 418 

David M. Sever — Observations on the Nasolabial Groove of the 
Plethodontid Salamander Eurycea quadridigitata 421 

Ronald L. Richards — Rice Rat (Oryzomys cf. palustris) Remains 
from Southern Indiana Caves 425 

Robert K. Rose — Habitat Associations of Small Mammals in South- 
western Indiana 432 

* Abstracts 



Proceedings 

of the 

Indiana Academy 

of Science 



INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
Officers and Committees 1979 

OFFICERS 



President J. Dan Webster, Department of Biology 

(1979) Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 

President-Elect Robert E. Henderson, Indianapolis Center 

for Advanced Research 
1219 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 46202 

Secretary Robert E. Van Atta, Department of Chemistry 

(1978-80) Ball State University, Muncie, IN 4730' 

Treasurer John A. Ricketts, Department of Chemistry 

(1979-81) DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 

Director of 

Public Relations Walter A. Cory, Jr., Coordinator for 

(1979-81) School Science 

Memorial Hall West 108, Indiana University 

Bloomington, IN 47405 

Editor Benjamin Moulton, Department of 

(1978-80) Geography /Geology 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

SECTION CHAIRMEN AND CHAIRMEN-ELECT FOR 1979 

Anthropology 

Chairman Charles P. Warren, Department of Anthropology 

University of Illinois at Chicago Circle 

Chicago, IL 60680 

Chairman-Elect Ernst von Rahl, Department of 

Anthropology and Sociology 
IUPU South Bend, South Bend, IN 46615 

Botany 

Chairman Anne A. Susalla, Department of Biology 

St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Chairman-Elect Gary Dolph, Department of Botany 

Indiana University-Kokomo, Kokomo, IN 46901 

Cell Biology 

Chairman Mary F. Asterita, Indiana University 

School of Medicine 
3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 

Chairman-Elect Stanley N. Grove, Department of Biology 

Goshen College, Goshen, IN 46526 

3 



4 Indiana Academy of Science 

Chemistry- 
Chairman John R. Ricketts, Department of Chemistry 

DePauw University, Greencastle, IN 46135 

Chairman-Elect Edward Miller, Department of Chemistry 

Manchester College, North Manchester, IN 46962 
Ecology 

Chairman Harold E. McReynolds, R. 12, Western Hills 

Bedford, IN 47421 

Chairman-Elect W. Herbert Senft, 1706 N. Maddox Drive 

Muncie, IN 47304 
Engineering 

Chairman. . Milton E. Harr, School of Civil Engineering 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Chairman-Elect Ramachandra A. Rao, School of Civil 

Engineering 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Entomology 

Chairman Alan C. York, Department of Entomology 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Chairman-Elect Michael J. Sinsko, Indiana State Board 

of Health 
133 W. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Geology and Geography- 
Chairman John H. Cleveland, Department of Geography/ 

Geology 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Chairman-Elect Kenneth R. Brehob, Department of 

Earth Sciences 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

History of Science 

Chairman William W. Bloom, Department of Biology 

Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 

Chairman-Elect Patrick H. Steele, Huddleston Farmhouse 

Inn Museum 
R.R. 1, Box 555, Cambridge City, IN 47327 

Microbiology and Molecular Biology 

Chairman Carl E. Warnes, Department of Biology 

Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Chairman-Elect Donald A. Hendrickson 

Physics 

Chairman Ralph Llewellyn, Department of Physics 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 

Chairman-Elect Gerald P. Thomas, Department of Physics 

and Astronomy 
Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 
Plant Taxonomy 

Chairman Donald L. Burton, Department of Botany 

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 



Officers and Committees 15 

Winona H. Welch DePauw University 

Greencastle, IN 47135 

Harry C. Day Department of Home Economics 

Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 46405 

Howard H. Michaud 301 East Stadium Drive 

Lafayette, IN 47906 

SPECIAL APPOINTMENTS OF THE YOUTH ACTIVITIES 

COMMITTEE 

Indiana Science Talent Search Committee 

Walter A. Cory, Jr., Director . Coordinator for School Science 

Memorial Hall West 108 
Indiana University 
Bloomington, IN 47405 

Mark Bambenek Department of Chemistry 

St. Mary's College 
Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Robert L. Henry Department of Physics 

Wabash College 
Crawfordsville, IN 47933 

Alfred Schmidt Department of Mathematics 

Rose-Hulman Institute 
Terre Haute, IN 47803 

Howard Youse Department of Botany 

DePauw University 
Greencastle, IN 46135 

Harold Zimmack Department of Zoology 

Ball State University 
Muncie, IN 47306 

Editorial Committee for Proceedings 

Benjamin Moulton, Chairman 

and Editor Indiana State University 

Rita Barr (1979-1980) Purdue University 

Charlotte Boener (1979-1980) Indiana State University 

Ernest Compaigne (1979-1980) . . University of Indiana 

James Gammon (1979-1980) DePauw University 

John Pelton (1979-1980) Butler University 

Carl Sartain (1979-1980) Indiana State University 

B. K. Swartz (1979-1980) Ball State University 



SPRING MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

April 27, 1979 

The meeting was called to order by President J. Dan Webster at 
4:15 p.m. in Room 104, Benet Hall, at Saint Meinrad College, St. 
Meinrad, Indiana. The minutes of the Executive Committee and of 
the General Session of the Fall 1978 meeting were approved. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

Treasurer John A. Ricketts presented a brief financial report for 
the period January 1 through April 25, 1979, a summary of which 
follows : 



Academy 
Accounts 



Administered 
Accounts 



Totals 



Balance, January 1, 1979 $9,367.07 $10,979.68 $20,346.75 

1979 Income 4,010.96 5,718.75 9,729.71 

1979 Expenditures 6,319.05 3,284.25 9,603.30 

Balance, April 25, 1979 $7,058.98 $13,414.18 



), 473.16 



No information on current membership status was available. The 
Treasurer's report was approved. 

ELECTED COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Academy Foundation Committee. William A. Daily, Chairman, 
reported that the John S. Wright Invested Income Account, currently 
yielding over 10%, held $47,000, and that the market values of the 
Foundation Account and John S. Wright Fund were $25,240 and 
$577,057, respectively, representing just over 5% increases. 

Research Grants Committee. Ralph A. Llewellyn, Chairman, re- 
ported that 18 proposals had been received; 3 were funded in full and 
15 were partially funded. A total of $5,606 was awarded, with an 
average grant of $312. The committee noted that the new proposal 
guidelines apparently had an important effect in improving overall 
quality of proposals. 

Director of Public Relations. Walter A. Cory, Director, reported on 
present and future Newsletter status and related questionnaires. 



PRESIDENTIAL APPOINTIVE COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Publications Committee. William R. Eberly, Chairman, expressed 
some current interests of the committee: (1) whether or not Proceedings 
should be continued as an annual publication or in some other periodical 
form, (2) concern for procedures for review of manuscripts submitted 
for publication in Proceedings. After some discussion, the following 
motion was presented : 

16 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 17 

Motion : That an Editorial Board for the Proceedings be appointed 
by the President. The board shall consist of 6 to 10 
members selected in consultation with the Chairman of 
the Publications Committee and the Editor. 
The term of each board member shall be 3 years, con- 
current with the term of office of the Editor; board 
members may be reappointed for additional terms. Edi- 
torial Board members will be selected for their knowledge 
of particular fields of science so that the total board may 
constitute a broad spectrum of scientific expertise. 
The function of the Editorial Board shall be to assist and 
advise the Editor in editing and publishing the Proceedings 
of the Indiana Academy of Science. The board will assist 
the Editor in reading, selecting and refining papers sub- 
mitted for publication; this activity shall not abrogate 
the Editor's right to submit any manuscript to additional 
reviewers inside or outside the membership of the Academy. 
Seconded and carried. 

The committee also announced that a manuscript entitled "Echto- 
parasites in Mammals of Indiana", prepared by John Whitacre has 
been accepted for publication as Monograph No. IV. 

Academy Representative to AAAS and AAS. Earl A. Holmes re- 
ported on the Houston meeting and current activities of Section X. He 
reported that the name change from AAS to NAAS (National As- 
sociation of Academies of Science) was approved to remove confusion 
between AAAS and AAS. 

Youth Activities Committee. Donald R. Winslow, Chairman, pre- 
sented the list of 13 winners and 10 finalists who received certificates 
at the Indiana Science Talent Search, as well as the names of the 
two Thomas A. Edison and four Indiana Science Education Fund 
Scholarship winners. An interim report on the status of 8 of the 11 1979 
Science and Engineering Fairs was also presented. 

Library Committee. William A. Daily, reporting for Lois Burton, 
commented that Proceedings Volume 87 had been distributed to the mem- 
bership and approximately 500 exchange agencies. The Volume 88 
printing will again include 800 hard-bound and 525 paper-back copies, 
to be supported by an $8000 state appropriation. 

Program Committee. William R. Eberly reported that arrangements 
for the Fall meeting at Manchester College are well under way. 

Science and Society Committee. Robert E. Henderson, Chairman, 
reported that the current interests of the committee include activities 
in conjunction with the Research Grants Committee, the prospect of 
arranging for speakers and special programs on affairs of current 
interest, and state action on PCB incidents. 

Membership Committee. Robert E. Henderson reported that the 
committee is sending letters to former members, including the new 
membership brochure, in an attempt to encourage them to re-affiliate 
with the Academy. 



18 Indiana Academy of Science 

NEW BUSINESS 

Due to the press of time and other commitments of one of the 
members, a special item of new business was considered prior to com- 
pletion of committee reports. Thad Godish presented an application 
for a new specialty section, which led to the following motion: 

Motion: That the Executive Committee approve the establishment 
of a new section on Environmental Quality, to meet for 
the first time during the Fall 1979 meeting of the Academy. 
Seconded and carried. 

President Webster appointed Thad Godish as 1979 Section Chair- 
man of the newly approved section. 

President Webster announced that there would be a brief meeting 
of the Fall Section Chairmen in Room 104, Benet Hall, at 8:00 p.m., 
following the dinner in St. Jude Guest House, and preceding the General 
Session Meeting. 

The Executive Committee Meeting was temporarily adjourned at 
6:00 p.m., to be reconvened in Room 106, Benet Hall, immediately 
following adjournment of the General Session Meeting. 

The Executive Committee Meeting was reconvened at 8:55 p.m. 
in Room 106, Benet Hall, by President J. Dan Webster. Presidential 
Appointive Committee reports were continued as follows: 

Invitations Committee. J. Dan Webster, reporting for Philip St. 
John, announced that the 1980 meeting will be held at St. Joseph's College 
the weekend of November 8th; Program Chairman is Dr. Duvall Jones 
of that college. The site of the Spring Meeting has not yet been de- 
termined. An invitation has been received from Wabash College for 
the 1981 Fall Meeting. The Executive Committee was reminded that 
the 1985 Centennial Meeting will be held at Butler University. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Biological Survey Committee. J. Dan Webster, reporting for Theo- 
dore Crovello, Chairman, stated that the committee report had not 
been received by mail, but that the committee work continues on 
several projects. 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee. No report. 

Speaker-of-the-Year Committee. John B. Patton reported that the 
committee had agreed upon a speaker, but that the selection was not 
yet confirmed. The speaker's name will be announced through the 
Newsletter. The committee is following past principles in its operations 
with regard to source, subject, and distribution of appearances of the 
speaker. His lecture will be presented at the Fall meeting as usual. 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee. Robert H. Cooper, Chairman, 
reported that the following individuals have requested and are eligible 
for Emeritus Membership status (initial membership years shown in 
parentheses) : 

HERBERT C. BROWN (1949) 
HAROLD W. CROWDER (1952) 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 19 

MARGARET HODSON (1944) 
WALTER J. WEBER (1954) 

Motion: That the names presented for Emeritus Membership be 
approved. 
Seconded and carried. 

NEW BUSINESS 

After brief discussion, the following motion was presented : 

Motion: That the name of the Physics Section be changed to the 
Physics and Astronomy Section. 
Seconded and carried. 

Reports of all Elected, Presidential Appointive, and Special Com- 
mittees were approved. 

The meeting was adjourned at 9:20 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Robert E. Van Atta 
Secretary 



SPRING MEETING 

Minutes of the General Session 

April 27, 1979 

The meeting was called to order by President J. Dan Webster at 
8:10 p.m. in Room 106, Benet Hall, at Saint Meinrad College, St. 
Meinrad, Indiana. 

President Webster introduced President Rector Rev. Thomas Ostdick 
of Saint Meinrad College, who welcomed the Academy and presented a 
brief description of Saint Meinrad College history and operations as 
the largest seminary school in the United States. 

John B. Patton introduced the speaker, Dr. Donald D. Carr of the 
Indiana Geological Survey, who presented a stimulating slide-illustrated 
lecture entitled ''The Third Coal Age". 

The Secretary presented a brief summary of committee reports 
and actions taken by the Executive Committee at its meeting on April 
27, 1979. 

Howard R. Youse, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, pre- 
sented the following Resolution: 

WHEREAS : The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful 
to Saint Meinrad College for their invitation to 
hold its Spring Meeting on their campus, and 

WHEREAS: Administration, faculty, and students alike have 
cooperated in providing us their facilities for this 
meeting, be it 

RESOLVED: That the Academy members here assembled express 
their sincere appreciation to President Rector Rev. 
Thomas Ostdick, OSB, for all the courtesies that 
Saint Meinrad College has extended to the Academy 
during this first meeting on their campus. 

We are especially grateful to Rev. Damian Schmelz, 

OSB, program chairman for the Spring Meeting, 

for all the arrangements of the entire program, and 

especially the excellent dinner provided by the staff 

at the St. Jude Guest House. 

We also wish to thank Dr. Donald D. Carr for his 

address on "The Third Coal Age" and all members 

of the Academy that offered their services for the 

morning field trips. 

We will long remember our first visit to Saint 

Meinrad. 

Motion: That the resolution presented by the Resolutions Commit- 
tee be approved. 
Seconded and carried. 

20 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 21 

Several announcements regarding Saturday morning field trips 
were made by Damian Schmelz, Program Chairman. 

The meeting was adjourned at 8:45 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta 
Secretary 



FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETING 

October 18, 1979 

The meeting was called to order by President J. Dan Webster at 
7:05 p.m. in Room S-100 of the Holl-Kintner Hall of Science at Man- 
chester College, North Manchester, Indiana. The minutes of the Execu- 
tive Committee and of the General Session of the Spring 1979 meeting 
were approved. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

Treasurer John A. Ricketts presented a financial report for the 
period January 1, 1979 through October 6, 1979, summarized as follows: 



Academy 
Accounts 



Administered 
Accounts 



Totals 



Balance, January 1, 1979 $ 9,367.07 $10,979.68 $20,346.75 

1979 Income 11,645.58 19,062.99 30,708.57 

1979 Expenditure 13,525.71 16,770.31 30,296.02 

Balance, October 6, 1979 $ 7,486.94 $13,272.36 $20,759.20 



The Treasurer's report listed 851 currently paid-up members, including 
435 senior members, with 70 new member applications. The Treasurer's 
report was approved. 

OLD BUSINESS 

President Webster reported on two actions of the Council during 
the past Summer: (1) approval of a contract with the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service for a grant of $14,000 for investigation of endangered 
plant species in Indiana, Theodore Crovello, principal investigator, and 
(2) appointment of the Editorial Committee for Proceedings, as au- 
thorized by the Executive Committee at the last Spring meeting. Mem- 
bers of the committee, each appointed for a two-year term are: 

Benjamin Moulton, Indiana State University, 

Chairman and Editor 
Rita Barr, Purdue University 
Charlotte Boener, Indiana State University 
Ernest Campaigne, Indiana University 
James Gammon, DePauw University 
John Pelton, Butler University 
Carl Sartain, Indiana State University 
B. K. Swartz, Ball State University 

STANDING COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Academy Representative to NAAS. Earl A. Holmes reported that 
he will represent the Academy at the January 1980 meeting. 
Auditing Committee. No report. 



22 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 23 

Youth Activities Committee. Donald R. Winslow, Chairman, briefly 
outlined current committee activities, announcing that four $1000 uni- 
versity scholarships will be maintained by the Indiana Science Educa- 
tion Fund, Inc., and that the Indiana Science Talent Search will be 
supported by $2500 in 1980 from Kappa Kappa Kappa, in addition to 
two new $1000 scholarships to an outstanding young man and woman 
participating in the Talent Search. He also called attention to the 
extensive Junior Academy meeting scheduled concurrently with the 
Senior Academy event. Science Fair Coordinator Karl L. Kaufman 
reported that 11 regional fairs had been held during the past year 
and that Indiana students won the second highest number of awards 
by state at the International Fair. Walter A. Cory reported on the 
Science Talent Search and noted that Indiana student participation 
has not declined, in contrast with the national trend. 

Library Committee. Lois Burton, Chairwoman, reported that Pro- 
ceedings, Volume 87, had been distributed to 500 agencies, that 82 
new titles had been received by the library, and that 264 volumes of 
the library's journals have been bound. During the past year 209 inter- 
library loan requests have been filled. 

Nominations Committee. Frank A. Guthrie, Chairman, presented 
the committee report and made the following motion: 

Motion: That the slate of candidates presented by the Nomina- 
tions Committee and the indicated terms of office be ac- 
cepted and presented to the membership at the General 
Session Meeting. 
Seconded and carried. 

Program Committee. William R. Eberly, Chairman, made a num- 
ber of announcements concerning the current meeting. Duvall Jones, 
Chairman for the 1980 meeting at St. Joseph's College, announced that 
the Spring meeting will be held at the Geneva Center near Rochester 
on April 25-26; the dates for the 1980 Fall meeting are November 6-8. 

Publications Committee. William R. Eberly, Chairman, reported 
that work is continuing on the John Whitacre monograph and some of 
the Academy Centennial publications. The committee continues to seek 
members who wish to prepare additional titles for the Centennial. 

Science and Society Committee. Robert E. Henderson, reporting 
for Chairman William Beranek, Jr., called attention to the symposium 
program on "Science and Public Policy in Indiana," scheduled as a 
feature event in the Academy Program for October 19. 

Membership Committee. Robert E. Henderson, Chairman, reported 
that the Academy has 1047 current members and that the new mem- 
bership brochure has been made available. 

Fellows Committee. Richard L. Conklin, Chairman, presented the 
committee report and made the following motion: 

Motion: That the following persons, recommended by the Fellows 
Committee, be elected as Fellows of the Academy: 
Byron O. Blair Robert Henderson 



24 Indiana Academy of Science 

Della Collins Cook Alan Charles York 
Walter Cory 

Seconded and carried. 
Resolutions Committee. No report. 

Invitatio?is Committee. Gary Steinhardt, reporting for Chairman 
Philip A. St. John, reminded the committee that invitations accepted 
for future meetings include: 1980 - St. Joseph's College, 1981 - Wabash 
College, 1982 - University of Notre Dame, and 1985 (the Centennial 
Year) - Butler University. Invitations for 1983 and 1984 are solicited. 

Necrologist. No report. 

Parliamentarian. Clarence Dineen, Parliamentarian, reported that 
work on the constitutional condensation and review has been completed 
in rough draft and, following editing, will be published in Proceedings. 

The reports of the standing committees were approved. 

ELECTED COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Academy Foundation Committee. William A. Daily, Chairman, pre- 
sented a report summarized as follows : 

I. Foundation Account 

Balance as of September 30, 1978 $ 910.24 

Income as of September 30, 1979 1,621.76 

Disbursements to Academy 300.00 

Transferred to Principal 2,000.00 



Cash balance as of September 30, 1978 $ 232.00 

II. John S. Wright Fund 

Balance as of September 30, 1978 $ 36,000.00 

Income as of September 30, 1979 27,852.07 

Cash balance as of September 30, 1979 1,119.34 
Disbursements from Investment Income Account 

Research Grants 6,096.00 

IAS Proceedings Volume 87 5,543.98 

Indiana National Bank Fee 2,279.00 

Cash balance 1,052.43 



Balance in Invested Income Account $ 50,000.00 

III. Market Value of all Securities $623,626.56 

Mr. Daily noted that the Academy portfolio has increased by 
$77,040 during the past year (14.1%), and that the Invested Income 
Account presently contains $47,000, yielding about 11% annually. 

Bonding Committee. No report. 

Research Grants Committee. Ralph A. Llewellyn, Chairman, re- 
ported that 33 proposals had been received during the past year, of 
which five had been funded in full and 25 in part, representing 12 
institutions and one private individual. A total of $10,240 was granted, 
ranging from $120 to $960, averaging $341 per grant. Three Secondary 



Minutes of the Executive Committee 25 

School grants totaling $673, jointly sponsored by the Academy 
(through the Indiana Science Education Fund) and the NAAS, were 
funded. 

Editors Report. Benjamin Moulton, Editor, reported that Pro- 
ceedings, Volume 88, will be off the press in late December and that 
the 10-year index is being prepared. 

Director of Public Relations. Walter A. Cory, Director, renewed 
his appeal for newsletter items from members. He also read a bio- 
graphical sketch of Herbert C. Brown, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 
for 1980, and an emeritus member of the Academy. 

The reports of the elected committees were approved. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORTS 

Biological Survey Committee. Theodore Crovello, Chairman, dis- 
tributed a report summarizing current activities of the committee on 
the Literature Project, the Endangered Species Project, the Flora 
Indiana Project, the Indiana Vascular Plant Atlas, Indiana Trees, and 
Indiana Birds. He called attention to the on-line demonstration of 
computerized information about the state's plants, animals, and their 
environment, which would be accessible throughout the meeting. 

Emeritus Member Selection Committee. Robert H. Cooper, Chair- 
man, presented the following persons for emeritus membership (initial 
membership year shown in parentheses) : 

Ernest E. Campaigne (1946) 
Sears Crowell (1950) 
Wilfrid C. Gettelfinger (1928) 
Felix Haurowitz (1949) 
William D. Inlow (1950) 
Vivian A. Johnson (1949) 
Ralph L. Seifert (1949) 
Harold B. Thompson (1934) 

Motion: That the persons presented be elected to Emeritus Mem- 
bership. Seconded and carried. 

Preservation of Natural Areas Committee. Marion Jackson, Chair- 
man, reviewed the background of the committee and briefly outlined 
current attempts to renew its activities and establish its role in the 
future of the Academy. 

Speaker-of-the-Year Committee. John B. Patton reported that Dr. 
Damian V. Schmelz, Academic Dean at St. Meinrad College, had been 
selected Speaker-of-the-Year. He will speak on the topic, "Stewardship 
of Indiana's Natural Resources," at DePauw, Evansville, and Vincennes 
Universities and at Franklin and Hanover Colleges, as well as at the 
1980 Spring Meeting of the Academy. 

Academy Representative on Indiana Natural Resources Commission. 
J. Dan Webster, reporting for Damian Schmelz, reported that State 
Senator John Bruggenschmidt has been appointed by Governor Bowen 
to replace John Hillenbrand, recent Commission chairman, who resigned 



26 Indiana Academy of Science 

from the Commission to become a candidate for governor. The Governor 
has appointed Mr. Leahy to the chairmanship. 

The reports of the Special Committees were approved. 

NEW BUSINESS 

President-Elect Robert E. Henderson set the 1979 Budget Com- 
mittee meeting for Saturday, December 8, 1979 in Indianapolis. 
The meeting was adjourned at 9:00 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta 
Secretary 



FALL MEETING 

MINUTES OF THE GENERAL SESSION 

October 19, 1979 

The Business Session of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Academy 
was called to order by President J. Dan Webster at 11:25 a.m. in 
Cordier Auditorium at Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana. 

Dr. A. Blair Helman, President of Manchester College, welcomed 
the Academy on behalf of the college. 

President Webster briefly commented on the organization of the 
Academy and explained the mechanism of the Executive Committee 
operations in dealing with Academy business. He then introduced the 
Secretary of the Academy, who presented a summary of committee 
reports and informed the membership of official actions taken by the 
Executive Committee on October 18, 1979. 

The Secretary informed the Academy that the usual announcement 
of divisional election results could not be made at the meeting due to 
a necessary change in program format and that the list of chairmen 
and chairmen-elect of the divisions for 1980 would be published in 
the next Newsletter and published in the minutes of the meeting. That 
list follows : 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman : 
Chairman-Elect 



Francis X. Grollig 
Charles P. Warren 



BOTANY 



Chairman : 
Chairman-Elect : 



Gary Dolph 
Charles T. Hammond 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman : 
Chairman-Elect 



Stanley N. Grove 
Kara W. Eberly 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman : 
Chairman-Elect 



Edward Miller 
Donald G. Clemens 



ECOLOGY 



Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect 



Herbert W. Senft 
Richard W. Greene 



ENGINEERING 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect 



Donald D. Gray 
Mark H. Houck 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect : 



Michael Sinsko 
David K. Reed 



27 



28 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 

Chairman: Howard Dunn 

Chairman-Elect: David Peterson 

GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY 

Chairman: Kenneth R. Brehob 

Chairman-Elect: Henry H. Gray 

HISTORY OF SCIENCE 
Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect : 



Everett F. Morris 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman : Donald A. Hendrickson 

Chairman-Elect: Dorothy Adalis 

PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 

Chairman: Gerald P. Thomas 

Chairman-Elect: L. Dwight Farringer 



PLANT TAXONOMY 

Chairman : 
Chairman-Elect 

SCIENCE EDUCATION 
Chairman : 
Chairman-Elect 



John A. Bacone 
Robert J. Jensen 

William G. Wert 
Charles Gehring 



SOIL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 

Chairman: Donald P. Franzmeier 

Chairman-Elect: Robert F. Dale 



ZOOLOGY 



Chairman: 
Chairman-Elect 



Robert R. Pinger 
Larry Ganion 



The Secretary presented the following motions: 

Motion: That the individuals recommended by the Emeritus Mem- 
ber Selection Committee and approved by the Executive 
Committee be elected to Emeritus Membership. 

Seconded and carried. 

Motion: That the individuals recommended by the Fellows Com- 
mittee and approved by the Executive Committee be elected 
as Fellows of the Academy. 

Seconded and carried. 

Richard L. Conklin, Chairman of the Fellows Committee, presented 
certificates to the newly-elected Fellows who were present. 

Faye Kenoyer Daily presented the Necrologist's report, which in- 
cluded the names of eight members: 



Earle Brown 
Walter Gingery 
Arthur E. Hallerberg 
Blanche McAvoy 



Jack Sovern McCormick 
John E. Organ 
Nicholas A. Purichia 
Darl F. Wood 



Minutes of the General Session 29 

Frank A. Guthrie, Chairman of the Nominations Committee, placed 
the following slate in nomination : 

President-Elect Ralph A. Llewellyn, 1980 

Secretary John H. Meiser, 1980-82 

Academy Foundation Clyde R. Metz, 1980-81 

Research Grants Committee .... Alice S. Bennett, 1980-84 

No nominations were made from the floor. 

Motion: That the slate presented by the Nominations Committee 
and approved by the Executive Committee be declared 
elected. 
Seconded and carried. 

Howard Youse, Chairman of the Resolutions Committee, presented 
the following: 

RESOLUTION: 

Whereas: It is rare that a member of the Indiana Academy 
of Science is recognized for his outstanding research 
by being awarded the Nobel Prize; and 

Whereas: This recognition has brought honor to the Academy; 
be it 

Resolved: That the Academy members here assembled wish to 
recognize and congratulate Dr. Herbert C. Brown, 
Emeritus member of this Academy, for his Nobel 
Prize in Chemistry; and be it further 

Resolved: That the secretary of the Academy be instructed 
to transmit this resolution to Dr. Brown, Professor 
Emeritus, Purdue University. 

RESOLUTION: 

Whereas: The Indiana Academy of Science is deeply grateful 
to Manchester College for their invitation to hold 
its 95th annual meeting on their campus; and 

Whereas: Administration, faculty, and students alike have 
cooperated in providing us their facilities for this 
meeting; be it 

Resolved: That the Academy members here assembled express 
their sincere appreciation to President Dr. A. Blair 
Helman for all the courtesies that Manchester Col- 
lege has extended to the Academy during the meet- 
ing. We are especially grateful to Dr. William R. 
Eberly and his committee for the arrangements of 
the entire program and the comfort and conveniences 
provided the membership. We also express our sin- 
cere thanks to Dr. William Beranek, Jr., and mem- 
bers of the Symposium panel for the informative 
symposium on "Science and Public Policy in 
Indiana." 



30 Indiana Academy of Science 

Motion: That the resolutions presented by the Resolutions Commit- 
tee be approved. 
Seconded and carried. 

President Webster and Program Chairman Eberly made several 
announcements in connection with the remainder of the activities of 
the meeting. 

The meeting was recessed at 12:05 p.m. and reconvened at 1:30 
p.m. with Mr. William Beranek, Jr., Chairman of the Science and So- 
ciety Committee, presiding for the Symposium entitled "Science and 
Public Policy in Indiana." Members of the Symposium Panel were Dr. 
John B. Patton, State Geologist, Chairman; William J. Andrews, Dep- 
uty Director of the State Department of Natural Resources, on "Land 
Use"; William Watt, Executive Assistant to the Governor, on "Energy"; 
and Dr. Joseph R. Hartley, Department of Transportation, Indiana 
University School of Business, on "Transportation." The symposium 
presentations were completed, with limited audience discussion, at 3:00 
p.m. Further discussions were continued until 4:00 p.m. concurrently 
with Divisional meetings. 

The General Session Meeting was concluded with the Annual 
Banquet, held in the upper level of the Manchester College Union Build- 
ing, with President-Elect Robert E. Henderson presiding. 

Following introduction of Academy officers, spouses, and other dis- 
tinguished guests, Dr. Henderson introduced President J. Dan Webster, 
who presented the Annual Presidential Address, entitled "The Distribu- 
tion of Indiana Birds and Birdwatchers." 

The meeting was adjourned at 7:45 p.m. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Robert E. Van Atta, Secretary 



FINANCIAL REPORT 
JANUARY 1-DECEMBER 31, 1979 

I. ACADEMY ACCOUNTS 



Income 



Budgeted Expenditures Budgeted 



Dues $ 7,834.00 

Reprints: Vols. 85, 86, 87 3,899.74 

Interest 1,071.72 

Miscellaneous 107.00 

Secretary , 

Treasurer 

General Office 

Officer Travel 

Membership Committee 

Transfer Administered Accounts 

President's Fund 

Newsletter 

Speaker of the Year 

Program Committee 

Editor's Expenses 

Youth Activities 

Biological Survey Committee 

AAAS Representative 

Public Relations 

Section Chairman Expenses 

CPA Fees 

Lawyer's Fee 



7,110.00 
3,400.00 
1,000.00 



$12,912.46 $11,510.00 



$ 3,586.20 

30.00 

726.59 

603.37 

0.00 

175.00 

466.16 

3,450.00 

387.74 

500.00 

500.00 

2,254.21 

700.00 

0.00 

2,300.00 

300.00 

238.40 

0.00 

1,200.00 

0.00 

$17,417.67 



$ 3,000.00 

100.00 
500.00 
400.00 
250.00 
225.00 
250.00 

3,450.00 
150.00 
500.00 
500.00 

1,300.00 

700.00 

50.00 

2,300.00 
300.00 
250.00 
50.00 
400.00 
100.00 

$14,775.00 



II. ADMINISTERED ACCOUNTS 



January 1 


1979 


1979 


December 31 


Balance 


Income 


Expenditures 


Balance 


$ 810.20 


$ 1,000.00 


$ 356.19 


$ 1,454.01 


165.75 


2,903.00 


2,765.16 


303.59 


2,732.09 


500.00 


497.18 


2,734.91 


—7,060.40* 


12,102.72 


11,490.00 


—6,447.68 


0.00 


0.00 


O.OO 


0.00 


134.28 


0.00 


0.00 


134.28 


2,632.76 


0.00 


0.00 


2,632.76 


4,513.20 


0.00 


0.00 


4,513.20 


2,396.85 


1,200.00 


1.349.55 


2,247.30 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


1,588.89 


6,293.98 


5,481.98 


2,400.89 


707.04 


0.00 


0.00 


707.04 


1,859.02 


440.00 


0.00 


2,299.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


500.00 


0.00 


0.00 
$21,940.06 


500.00 


$10,979.68 


$24,439.70 


$13,479.32 



Junior Academy 

Science Talent Search 

Science and Society 

Research Grants 

Natural Areas 

J.S. Wright Library Fund 
Lilly Library Fund III _. 

Lilly Library Fund V ,_. 

Library Binding 

Science Fairs 

Publications — Printing 

Publications — Mailing 

Publications — Sale 

Natural Areas 

Publications — Clerical 



* In 1977 and 1978 some payments of research grants were made using Academy 
operating funds. 



31 



32 



Indiana Academy of Science 



III. SUMMARY 



Academy 
Accounts 



Administered 
Accounts 



$16,703.41 



Total 



Balance 1/1/79 $ 9,367.07 $10,979.68 $20,376.75 

Income 12,912.46 24,439.70 37,352.16 

Expenditures 17,417.67 21,940.06 39,357.73 

Balance 12/31/79 4,861.86 13,479.32 18,341.18 



IV. BANK BALANCE 12/31/79 

First Citizens Bank and Trust Co., Greencastle, IN $ 1,637.77 

Savings Accounts 16,703.41 

Great Western Savings (matures 4/1/80) $ 6,774.60 $18,341.18 

First Western Savings (matures 6/16/80) 4,706.16 

First Western Savings (matures 4/22/80) 2,089.02 

First Western Savings (matures 4/29/80) 3,133.63 



V. SUMMARY OF TRUST FUNDS 

A. Foundation Account (00430-00-0) 

Income Balance (1/1/79) $ 158.02 

Total dividends and interest for 1979 1,709.79 

Disbursements for 1979 : 

Research Grants $ 300.00 

Transfer to Principal 1,000.00 -1,300.00 

$ 1,300.00 
Income Cash Balance (12/31/79) 

Principal Cash 

Investments : 

Stocks ' 

Bonds 

Total Market Value 

B. John S. Wright Fund (00430-01-9) 

Income Balance (1/1/79) $ 1,856.67 

Total dividends and interest for 1979 24,953.28 

Disbursements for 1979 : 

Fiduciary Fees $ 2,279.00 

Transfer to (00430-02-8) 20,000.00 

Transfer to Principal 3,000.00 -25,279.00 

$25,279.00 $ 1,530.95 

Income Cash Balance (12/31/79) 

Principal Cash Balance (1/1/79 214.38 

Income for 1979 23,000.00 

Disbursements for 1979: 

Purchase of Investments $23,000.00 -23,000.00 

$ 214.38 
Principal Cash Balance (12/31/79) 

Total Value of the Account (12/31/79) 

C. John S. Wright Invested Income Account (00430-02-08) 

Income Cash Balance (1/1/79) $ 430.52 

Interest Income for 1979 4,653.79 



$ 567.81 






$ 567.81 




53.40 




10,340.00 




13,125.00 




$24,086.21 



$ 1,530.95 



$ 214.38 
$620,784.88 



Financial Report 33 

Disbursements for 1979 : 

Transfer to Principal $ 4,279.98 -4,273.98 

$ 4,273.98 $ 810.33 

Income Cash Balance (12/31/79) $ 810.33 

Principal Cash Balance (1/1/79) 0.00 

Investments Balance (1/1/79) 41,000.00 

Receipts for 1979 : 

Transfer from Income Cash 4,273.98 

Transfer from (00430-01-9) 20,000.00 



$24,273.98 24,273.98 



$65,273.98 



Disbursements for 1979: 

Research Grants 10,710.00 

Printing Proceedings 5,543.98 

$16,273.98 -16,273.98 

Balance (12/31/79) $49,000.00 49,000.00 



Total Value of the Account (12/31/79) $49,810.33 



VI. NOTES 
Membership for 1979: 

951 active members (18 sustaining, 501 senior, 270 regular, 67 students, 13 clubs, 
77 emeritus, and 5 other) 
91 members on file as paid for 1978 but not as yet paid for 1978. 
110 new members 
115 members dropped from roles for non-payment of 1978 dues. 

Dues Structure for 1979: 

$ 2.00 for student memberships 

5.00 for regular memberships and club memberships 
10.00 for senior memberships 
25.00 for sustaining memberships 
2.00 for additional family memberships 
1.00 additional for initiation or reinstatement fee 

Special memberships include: Life membership ($300.00), Corporate memberships 
($150-$500), Institutional memberships ($50-$150). 

Reprints: 

Reprint charges for Volume 87 were $3,586.20 ; reprint charges collected from authors 
amounted to $3,899.74. 

Research Grants: 

$11,490.00 was distributed to support research activities to the following persons: 
Barry Knisley (Franklin), Celestine Okagbue and Terry West (Purdue), Harmon 
Weeks (Purdue), Kenneth Traub (Notre Dame), Elise Porter and Robert Wintsch 
(Indiana), Robert Pinger (Ball State), Gary Dolph (Indiana at Kokomo), Joseph 
Siefker (Indiana State), Timothy Storbeck and Charles Heiser (Indiana), William 
Chaney and Phillip Pope (Purdue), Eugene Wagner (Ball State), Stuart Kelly 
(Indiana), Jay Jones (Indiana), Roland Usher (Butler), Steven Manchester (Indi- 
ana), P. J. Madison (Indiana State), Joseph Chowattukunnel (Indiana at South 
Bend), Ted Godish (Ball State), Uwe Hansen (Indiana State), Robert Jacobson 
(Butler), Robert Hale (Ball State), Zaphar Iqbal (Indiana U. School of Medicine), 
Gene Kritsky (Tri-State), Robert McDaniel (Purdue), Stephen Madigosky (Ball 
State), John Meiser (Ball State), Richard Pfianzer (IUPUI), Jacqueline Sherris 
(Purdue), James Streator (Manchester), Dana Kincaid (a high school student), Scott 
Stuckey (high school student), and Jamie Sibbitt (high school student), 



34 Indiana Academy of Science 



Publications: 



Sales during 1979 amounted to $497.00. The cost of publishing Vol. 87 of the 
Proceedings was $13,481.98 of which $8,000.00 was paid by the State of Indiana. 



VII. BUDGET FOR 1980 
The following budget was approved by the Budget Committee on December 8, 1979. 

Academy Accounts 

Anticipated Income 

Dues $ 7,350.00 

Reprint Charges to Authors 3,500.00 

Interest on Savings 1,000.00 



$11,850.00 
Budgeted Expenditures 

Publishing Charges for Reprints $ 3,250.00 

Secretary 500.00 

Treasurer 400.00 

General Office (includes $500 transfer from Administered 

Account, Publications-Clerical) 750.00 

Officer Travel, AAAS Dues 225.00 

Membership Committee 250.00 

President's Contingency Fund 150.00 

Newsletter 500.00 

Speaker of the Year 700.00 

Program Committee 1,500.00 

Publication Editor's expenses 700.00 

Youth Activities 50.00 

Biological Surveys Committee 2,250.00 

Representative to AAAS 300.00 

Public Relations 150.00 

Section Chairman expenses 50.00 

C.P.A. Fees 750.00 

Lawyer's Fees 100.00 

Miscellaneous 100.00 

$12,675.00 
Administered Accounts 

Junior Academy $ 300.00 

Science Talent Search 200.00 

Science and Society 500.00 

Library Binding 1,500.00 

Proceedings: Postage 100.00 

Proceedings: Publication 750.00 

$ 3,350.00 

Transfer from Proceedings: Clerical to General Office — 500.00 

Total Expenditures $15,525.00 

Endowment Funds 

Anticipated Income : 

IAS Foundation $ 1,600.00 

J. S. Wright Invested Income 27,000.00 

Invested Income Carry-over 47,000.00 

$75,000.00 
Expenditures : 

Bank Fee $ 2,500.00 

Research Grants (including $300 from IAS Foundation) 12,500.00 



Financial Report 



35 



Publications : Proceedings Vol. 88 ($15,000, $8,000 from 

State of Indiana, $750 Administrative transfer) 6,250.00 

Publications: Special for Centennial 5,000.00 



$26,250.00 
Restricted Accounts 

Anticipated Income : 

Science Talent Search Funds from Tri Kappa $ 4,400.00 

Department of Interior Grant 14-16-0003-79-133 13,925.00 

$18,325.00 
Expenditures : 

Science Talent Search $ 4,400.00 

Grant 14-16-0003-79-133 13,925.00 



$18,325.00 



Respectfully submitted, 
John A. Ricketts, Treasurer 

We, the undersigned, have audited the Treasurer's records for the Indiana Academy 
of Science for the year 1979 and have found them to be accurate and in order. 
, , 1980 



THE INDIANA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 

47th Annual Meeting, Friday, October 19, 1972 
Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana 

The forty-seventh annual Indiana Academy of Science meeting 
was held on Friday, October 19, 1979 at Manchester College, North 
Manchester, Indiana. Nine clubs and 127 members were in attendance. 

Cheryl Barbati, president of the Junior Academy of Science, opened 
the morning meeting by greeting everyone and explaining the activities 
for the rest of the day. Cheryl then introduced the candidates for next 
year's officers. They were as follows: 

President: Jamie Sibbitt — Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

Richard Bush — Marquette High School 
Vice-President: Ernie Tseng — Highland High School 
Secretary: Jody Sibbitt — Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

President Barbati introduced Jamie Sibbitt, secretary of the Junior 
Academy of Science and Jamie read the minutes of the last year's 
meeting. After the minutes were read and approved, the morning session 
was adjourned. 

Paper presentations, paper plane sailing contest, junior scientist 
interviews, and the science club polemic were the activities that took 
place during the morning. At noon a special luncheon was held with 
the Senior Academy of Science members which was a new addition 
added to the meeting. 

After the luncheon, a Junior Academy business meeting and awards 
session was held in the Winger Auditorium. The first order of business 
taken up was the election of officers for next year's meeting. Each 
candidate gave a brief speech on why he or she should be elected and then 
the voting took place. Elected as president was Jamie Sibbitt of Paoli 
Jr.-Sr. High School, vice-president was Ernie Tseng of Highland High 
School and secretary was Jody Sibbitt of Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School. 
The awards session began right after the election of officers. The fol- 
lowing people received awards: 

Junior Division 

Paper Planes, Distance 

1st place — Tom Tottem, Marquette High School 
2nd place — Greg Ticsay, Marquette High School 
3rd place — David Madura, Highland High School 

Junior Division 

Paper Planes, Target 

1st place — Steve Shiparski, Marquette High School 

2nd place — Pat Bobillo, Marquette High School 

Senior Division 

Paper Planes, Distance 

1st place — Mark Long, Brown County High School 

36 



Junior Academy Report 

2nd place — Steve Wallace, Brown County High School 
3rd place — Paul Worthington, Marquette High School 

Senior Division 

Paper Planes, Target 

1st place — Pat Sim, Marquette High School 

2nd place — Brett Pipper, Marquette High School 

3rd place — James Praire, Brown County High School 

Junior Division 

Paper Presentations 

Life Sciences 

1st place — Ernie Tseng, Highland High School 

2nd place — Jody Sibbitt, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

3rd place — Colleen Quinlan, St. John the Baptist School 

Junior Division 

Paper Presentations 

Physical Sciences 

1st place — Norman Ramion, Marquette High School 

2nd place — Matt Hoevel, St. John the Baptist School 

Senior Division 

Biological Sciences 

Paper Presentations 

1st place — Cheryl Barbati, Highland High School 

2nd place — Daniel Gorski, Gavit High School 

3rd place — David Lazarek, Marquette High School 

Senior Division 

Paper Presentations 

Physical Sciences 

1st place — Thomas Beutner, Marquette High School 

2nd place — -Steve West, Paoli Jr.-Sr. High School 

Junior Division 

Science Fiction Stories 

1st place — Pat Bobillo, Marquette High School 

2nd place — Jennifer Darman, Marquette High School 

3rd place — Chris Donaldson, Marquette High School 

Senior Division 

Science Fiction Stories 

1st place — Susan Brach, Gavit High School 

2nd place — David Clancy, Marquette High School 

3rd place — Kelly Hansen, Highland High School 

Junior Division 

Science Club Polemic 
1st place — Highland High School 
2nd place — Marquette High School 
3rd place — St. John the Baptist School 



38 Indiana Academy of Science 

Senior Division 

Science Club Polemic 

1st place — Highland High School 

2nd place — Franklin Central High School 

3rd place — New Haven High School 

Outstanding scientist for the Junior Division was Norman Ramion 
from Marquette High School. In the Senior Division two outstanding 
scientists were named. They were Scott Rathgabar from New Haven 
High School and Cheryl Barbati from Highland High School. The 
traveling trophy for top club was presented to Marquette High School 
for Junior Division and to Highland High School for Senior Division. 

The forty-eighth annual Indiana Junior Academy of Science meet- 
ing will be held at St. Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana. 

The Junior Academy would like to thank Dr. Eberly and crew from 
Manchester College for granting permission to our members to use the 
College facilities Thursday night before our meeting. 



BIOLOGICAL SURVEY COMMITTEE REPORT 

NEW LITERATURE AND WORKS IN PROGRESS ABOUT 
THE BIOTA OF INDIANA: 1979 

BSC Members 
Theodore J. Crovello, Chairman, University of Notre Dame 
John A. Bacone, Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
William Crankshaw, Ball State University 
James R. Gammon, DePauw University 
Jack R. Munsee, Indiana State University 
George R. Parker, Purdue University 
Victor Riemenschneider, Indiana University 
John Whitaker, Indiana State University 
Harmon P. Weeks, Purdue University 
Frank N. Young, Jr., Indiana University 

The goal of the Literature Subcommittee of the Academy's Biological 
Survey Committee is to accumulate and maintain published and unpub- 
lished references on the biota of the State. While in the past the BSC 
Literature Project has presented its findings in conventional printed 
form, in addition we now simultaneously add these contributions to the 
Indiana Academy's computerized literature and works in progress reg- 
ister. It provides updated, integrated bibliographies on particular topics 
in response to specific requests. Contact Professor Crovello for further 
details or to submit literature or project information to the data bank. 
The data bank contains more information about each reference than is 
presented in this printed summary. Items omitted include: Higher taxa 
(common names) to which organisms belong; Classes or orders of 
organisms; Families; Genera or species; Subjects describing each 
work; and Name, address and telephone number of person to contact 
for further information on each entry. 

The following literature references and works in progress were 
obtained by circulating requests and questionnaires to chairpersons of 
69 Life Science departments throughout the State, and to participants 
at the Academy's Fall Meeting. Next year's report also will include the 
results of a search of the computerized files of Bioabstracts from 1969 
to the present. The Committee welcomes suggestions on ways to increase 
the number of contributions to this annual survey, and to increase aware- 
ness of its customized computer search capabilities. 

Each literature reference or work in progress may contain the 
following, separated by semicolons: author (s); date; title; citation; and 
Indiana counties in which the work was performed. If any of these are 
absent, the contributor did not provide it. Counties are abbreviated by 
using their first five letters. The exception is Saint Joseph, which is 
abbreviated StJoe. An "ALL" in the county field indicates that the 
work applies to all 92 Indiana counties. A "MANY" indicates the work 
applies to many counties. In both cases up to five of the most important 
counties also may be included. 

39 



40 Indiana Academy of Science 

Each citation begins with a letter which has one of the following- 
meanings : 

P: Formal Publication (PI AS refers to Proceedings, Indiana Acad- 
emy of Science) 

I : In Press in a formal publication 

T: Thesis 

O: Other (semi) published work, e.g. park checklists, maps 

E : Environmental Impact Statement 

W : Work in Progress 

Abney, T. S., F. A. Laviolette, and J. R. Wilcox; 1979; Indiana soybean disease and 
crop condition survey 1979; P: Purdue Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 
246:1-8; ALL. 

Akre, R. D., A. Greene, J. F. MacDonald, P. Landolt, and H. G. Davis; 1980; Yellow- 
jackets of America north of Mexico ; P : USDA Agricultural Handbook #552 ; ALL. 

Alby III, T.; 1979; Spatial and temporal distribution of nematodes in a soybean field; 
W: Purdue University, J. M. Ferris; MANY. 

Baloch, H; 1979; Behavioral studies on food preference and hostplant selection of black 
cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon; W : Entomology Dept. Purdue Univ., F. T. Turpin ; Tippe. 

Bauss, S.; 1977; A waterfowl survey along the Ohio River from Madison to Vevay; T: 
B.A. Hanover College, J. D. Webster ; Jeffe Switz. 

Bledsoe, L. W., C. R. Edwards and R. U. Flanders; 1979; Search behavior of the 
parasitoid Pediobius foveolatus (Eulophidae) ; T: Purdue Univ., C. R. Edwards. 

Brattain, R. M.; 1979; The Histeridae of Indiana; W: Private Individual, 3206 Longlois 
Dr., Lafayette, IN 47905, #317/447-3627; ALL. 

Brown, K. M.; 1979; The adaptive demography of four fresh water pulmonate snails; 
I: Evolution; Allen Whitl Noble. 

Brown, K. M.; 1979; Ecology and population dynamics of aquatic organisms; W: K. M. 
Brown, Purdue; Noble Whitl Allen. 

Busing, R. et. al.; 1979; Breeding bird census #84, Suburban Cemetery; P: American 
Birds 33:78; Wayne. 

Caldwell, D. L. and D. L. Schuder; 1979; The life history and description of Phylloxera 
caryaecaulis on shagbark hickory; P: Annals of the Entomological Soc. of America 
72(3) : 384-390; Tippe. 

Chmiel, S. M. and M. C. Wilson; 1979; Estimating threshold temperature and heat 
unit accumulation required for meadow spittlebug egg hatch; P: Environmental 
Entomology 8(4) : 612-614; Warre. 

Chmiel, S. and M. C. Wilson; 1979; Estimation of the lower and upper developmental 
threshold temperatures and duration of the nymphal stages of meadow spittlebug, 
Philaenus spumarius; P: Environmental Entomology 8 (4) : 682-685; Warre. 

Corrigan, R. M.; 1979; Management of nuisance big brown bats (Eptesicus jucus) in 
Indiana ; W : R. M. Corrigan ; MANY, Tippe Montg Parke Elkha Hanco. 

Couture, M. R. and D. M. Sever; 1979; Egg mortality in Ambystoma tigrinum 
(Amphibia Urodela) in northern Indiana; I: PIAS. 88; StJoe. 

Crovello, T. J.; 1979; Survey of federally endangered plants in Indiana. W: T. J. 
Crovello, Notre Dame (U.S. Fish and Wildlife contract to Indiana Academy of 
Sciences); ALL. 

Crovello, T. J. and L. Hauser; 1979; Hoosier National Forest rare plant study: final 
report; O: USFS, Bedford Indiana: R. K. Landes; MANY, Brown Crawf Jacks 
Lawre Marti Monro Orang Perry Duboi. 

Cruz, I.; 1979; Effect of fall armyworm on different corn growth stages; W: Entomology 
Dept., Purdue Univ. F. T. Turpin; Tippe. 

Curry, K. D. and A. Spaeve; 1978; Distribution of stream fishes in Tippecanoe county, 
Indiana; P: PIAS 87:182-187; Tippe. 



Biological Survey Committee Report 41 

Davis, J.; 1978; Fall territorial behavior of the mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos; T: 

B.A. Hanover College, J. D. Webster; Jeffe. 
Deyrup, H.; 1979; The Scolytidae of Indiana; W: Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., 

Mark Deyrup; ALL. 

Dill, J. F.; 1979; Biology and management of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocncma 
pidicaria Melsheimer, relative to the incidence of Stewar's disease in corn; T: 
Purdue Univ., F. T. Turpin; ALL, Tippe Posey. 

Dineen, C. F.; 1959; Bottom types and bottom organisms of the Saint Joseph drainage 
in Indiana; : Fisheries Research Report, Statewide Fisheries Investigators, Indiana 
Dept. of Conser. 3(2): 2-27; St Joe Elkha LaGra Noble. 

Dineen, C. F.; 1970; Changes in the molluscan fauna of the Saint Joseph River, Indiana, 
between 1959 and 1970; P: PIAS 80; MANY, StJoe Elkha LaGra Noble. 

Dineen, C. F.; 1977; History of a river; P: PIAS 87:72-80; MANY, St Joe Elkha LaGra 
Noble. 

Dineen, C. F.; 1979; 316 (a & b) Demonstration Logansport City Electric Light Co., 
Logansport, IN; E: TEN-ECH, South Bend, IN; Cass. 

Dineen, C. F. and P. S. Stokely; 1954; Osteology and the central mudminnow, Umbra 
limi; P: Copeia, 1954, : 169-179; StJoe. 

Dolph, G. E.; 1971; A comparison of local and regional leaf characteristics in Indiana; 
P: PIAS 80:99-103; Monro. 

Dolph, G. E. and R. L. Kirkpatrick; 1979; Leaf size variation in Cook's Woods; I: 
PIAS; Miami. 

Feingold, J.; 1978; The Indiana Natural Heritage Program; W: Dept. of National 
Resources, J. Feingold; ALL. 

Gehring, K. L.; 1979; Winter bird population study #'s 102 (abandoned stone quarry) & 
114 (fallow field); P: American Birds 33:48 & 51-52; Jeffe. 

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; 1979; Ovipositional behavior of Meteorus levivcntris (Hy- 
menoptera: Braconidae) ; W: Purdue Univ., H. D. Vail; ALL. 

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. and H. D. Vail; 1979; Factors influencing the number of eggs 
laid during each ovipositional attack by Meteoris leviventris (Hymenoptera: Braconi- 
dae); I: PIAS; ALL. 

Gray, L. M. and D. R. Chamberlain; 1979; Birds of Spring Mill State Park" Information 
Brochure; O; Park Checklist, Department of Natural Resources; Lawre. 

Hellenthal, B. and T. J. Crovello; 1978; Indiana trees (revision of Deam and Shaw's 
"Trees of Indiana"); W: Univ. of Notre Dame, T. J. Crovello; ALL. 

Hill, G. D.; 1979; The seasonal abundance of syventhropic flies and associated manure 
fauna of the egg laying houses in north-central Indiana; W: Purdue Univ., R. 
Williams; Cairo Kosci. 

Hofstetter, A. M., C. F. Dineen and P. S. Stokely; 1958; Skeletal differences between 
the black and white crappies; P: Trans. Am. Micro. Soc. 77; StJoe. 

Hofstetter, A. M., P. S. Stokely and C. F. Dineen; 1957; The auditory organ and its 
relation to the skull bones of a fresh water teleost; P: The Anatomical Record 129; 
StJoe. 

Hughes, W., et al.; 1979; Breeding bird census #82; abandoned field and pasture; P: 
American Birds 33:77-78; Wayne. 

Iverson, J. B.; 1979; Reproductive biology of the common mud-turtle; W: Earlham 
College, Richmond, Indiana; Kosci. 

Iverson, J. B.; 1979; Demography of painted turtles; W: Earlham College, J. B. Iverson; 
Kosci. 

Jansen, M. H. and H. D. Vail; 1979; The swarming behavior of Chironomus riparius 
(Diptera; Chironomidae) : initial data and life history; I: PIAS; MANY, Tippe. 

Judy, F. J., Jr.; 1979; Life History of Chionaspis pinafolae (Fitch) and Chionaspis 
heterophyiiae cooley; T: Purdue, Dr. D. Schuder; MANY. 

Keller, C; 1979; Quantitative techniques for the determination of phytogeographic areas; 
T: Univ. of Notre Dame, Prof. Crovello; ALL. 



42 Indiana Academy of Science 

Kelly, S. T. and C. M. Kirkpatrick; 1979; Evaluation of a ruffed grouse reintroduction 
in northern Indiana; I: Wildlife Society Bulletin; Jaspe Pulas. 

Kephart, S. R.; 1979; The floral ecology and reproductive isolation of three sympatric 
species of Asclepias; T: Indiana Univ., Dr. C. Heiser; Monro. 

Krekeler, C. H.; 1979; Biological resources of west branch of Little Calumet River wet- 
lands; W: Northwest Indiana Regional Planning Commission, D. Gardner; Lake 
Porte. 

Krekeler, C. H.; 1979; Baseline studies — Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore; W: Indiana 
Dunes National Lakeshore, W. Hendrickson; Lake Porte LaPor. 

MacDonald, J. F.; 1979; Biology, recognition, medical importance, and control of Indiana 
social wasps; P: Purdue Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin 219:1-22; ALL, 
Tippe Mario Allen StJoe. 

MacDonald, J. F., R. W. Matthews and R. S. Jacobson; 1980; Nesting biology of 
Vespula fiavopilosa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae); I: J. Kansas, Entomology Society; 
Tippe. 

Marenchin, G. L. and D. M. Sever; 1979; Preliminary survey of the fish of the Saint 
Joseph River drainage; W: Saint Mary's College, D. M. Sever; St Joe Elkha. 

McCain, T.; 1979; The role of blood-sucking arthropods in the transmission of Epcryth.ro- 
zoon suis Splitter in swine; W: Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., R. Williams; Tippe. 

McReynolds, M.; 1978; Parasites of the yellow bass, Morone mississippiensis, from two 
locations in southern Indiana; T: B.A., Hanover College, J. D. Webstar; Gibso Monro. 

Meyer, R. W.; 1979, Insects and other arthropods of economic importance in Indiana dur- 
ing 1979; I: PIAS; ALL. 

Owens, J. M.; 1977-80; Some aspects of German cockroach population dynamics in urban 
dwellings; T: Purdue Univ., G. W. Bennett; Mario. 

Parman, V. R. and M. C. Wilson; 1979; Full season impact of meadow spittlebug, 
Philaenus spumarius, feeding on first cutting alfalfa; W: Entomology Dept., Purdue 
Univ.; Tippe. 

Peckham, R. S. and C. F. Dineen; 1955; Spring migration of salamanders; P: PIAS 64; 
StJoe. 

Peckham, R. S., and C. F. Dineen; 1957; Ecology of the central mudminnow; P: Amer- 
ican Midland Naturalist, 58:222-231; StJoe. 

Peckham, R. S. and C. F. Dineen; 1963; Development of the caudal fin in the central 
mudminnow, Umbra limi (Kirtland); P: Copeia 1963:586-588; StJoe. 

Pitcher, E. B.; 1979; Breeding bird census #35: black oak — sassafras woods; P: Ameri- 
can Birds, 33:65; Porte. 

Richeson, M. L.; 1979; Parasites, biochemistry, and identification related to agricultural 
plants; W: Purdue Univ. at Fort Wayne, M. L. Richeson; Allen. 

Sever, D. M.; 1979; Male secondary sexual characters of the Eurycea bislineata (Amphibia, 
Urodela, Plethodontidae) complex in the southern Appalachian Mountains; P: Jour- 
nal of Herpetology 13:245-253; Montg Owens. 

Sever, D. M. and C. F. Dineen; 1977; Reproductive ecology of the tiger salamander, 
Ambystoma tigrinum, in northern Indiana; P: PIAS 87:189-203; StJoe. 

Shaner, G.; 1979; Projects in agriculture, etc.; W: Purdue Univ., G. Shaner; Tippe. 

Sloderbeck, P. E. and C. R. Edwards, 1979; Effects of soybean cropping practices on 
Mexican bean beetle and redlegged grasshopper populations; I: Journal of Economic 
Entomology; Lawre. 

Spencer, J. S., Jr.; 1969; Indiana's timber; P: USDA Forest Service Resources Bulletin 
NC-7.6; ALL. 

Squiers, E. R.; 1979; Taylor University natural area survey; W: Biology Dept., Taylor 
Univ., Dr. E. R. Squiers and Dr. G. W. Harrison; Grant. 

Squiers, E. R.; 1979; Effect of time of fallowing on community development in an early 
secondary succession system; W: Taylor Univ., Dr. E. R. Squiers; Grant. 

Stokely, P. S. and C. F. Dineen; 1953; Analysis of growth in the central mudminnow, 
Umbra limi; P: Copeia 27:232-234; StJoe. 



Biological Survey Committee Report 43 

Stormer, F. A., C. M. Kirkpatrick and T. W. Hoekstra; 1979; Hunter-inflicted wound- 
ing of white-tailed deer; P: Wildlife Society Bulletin 7:10-16; Marti Lawre Monro. 

Teklehaimanot, A.; 1979; Impact of swine waste lagoon on mosquito production; W: 
Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., R. E. Williams; Tippe Carro Clint. 

Tessler, S.; 1979; A study of the retreat-sites of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) 
nesting on queen anne's lace, Daucus carota carota L.; T: Purdue Univ., H. D. Vail; 
Tippe. 

Torrey, D. S.; 1979; Effects of submersed aquatic plant control with Aquathol at Purdue 
Wildlife area; T: Purdue Univ., C. M. Kirkpatrick; Tippe Warre. 

Vail, H. D.; 1979; Examination of forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hiibner, 
populations in south central Indiana, 1977-78 (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) ; W: 
Purdue Univ., H. D. Vail; Lawre Marti Monro Brown. 

Walker, G. L. and R. E. Williams; 1979; A unique fly problem in an industrial bio- 
filter system; W: Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., G. L. Walker; Tippe. 

Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty; 1979; Freshwater springtails (Hexapoda: Collem- 
bola) of North America; P: Purdue Univ. Agricultural Experimental Station 
Research Bulletin 960:32pp; ALL. 

Webster, J. D.; 1979; Winter bird population study #44, old field with brush patches; 
P: American Birds 33:30; Jeffe. 

Webster, J. D.; 1979; Breeding bird census #83, old field with brush patches; P: American 
Birds 33:78; Jeffe. 

Williams, R. E., F. W. Knapp, and J. L. Clarke, Jr.; 1979; Aerial insecticide applica- 
tions for control of adult mosquitoes in the Ohio River basin; P: Mosquito News 
39:622-6; Vande. 

Williams, R. E. and E. S. Westby; 1979; Horse barns, housefly control, 1978; P: Insect- 
icide and Acaricide Tests 4:216; Hanco. 

Wilson, M. C, J. K. Stewart and H. D. Vail; 1979; Full season impact of the alfalfa 
weevil, meadow spittlebug and potato leaf hopper in an alfalfa field; I: Journal of 
Economic Entomology; Harri. 

Yonker, J. W.; 1978-79; The biology of the zimmerman pire moth, Dioryctria Zimmerman, 
and its associated damage in Indiana landscapes and Christmas tree plantations; W: 
Purdue Univ., Dr. D. L. Schuder; Tippe Miami Fulto Fount Porte. 

Young, F. N.; 1979; A key to the Nearctic species of Celina with descriptions of new 
species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) ; P: J. Kans. Ent. 52:820-830; Monro Brown Green. 

Young, F. N.; 1979; Water beetles of the genus Suphisellus Crotch in the Americas North 
of Colombia; P: Southwestern Naturalist 24:820-830; Monro Brown Green. 



NECROLOGY 



Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 



Earle Brown 



Washington County, Indiana Washington County, Indiana 

December 25, 1902 December 25, 1978 

Mr. Earle Brown was born in Washington County, Indiana, on 
Christmas day, 1902. His early education was acquired in the public 
school at Mount Carmel and the high school at Campbellsburg, Indiana, 
where he graduated in 1921. He then studied at Indiana University and 
Indiana State Teacher's College and received a teacher's certificate in 
1923. His early ambition was to become a doctor, but he could not afford 
any further training. 

For 19 years, Earle Brown taught school in Washington County, 
Indiana. From 1954 to 1971, he was supervisor of the Salem, Indiana, 
Water Purification Plant. He was also interested in furniture refinish- 
ing, and was owner of the Brown and Davis Furniture Refinishing 
Shop at Salem, Indiana. 

Mr. Brown joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1960 and 
was co-author with Dr. C. M. Palmer of a paper on Pectodictyon and 
other unusual algae from Indiana which was presented at the society's 
annual meeting. He was also past Master of the Masonic Lodge 282 
in Campbellsburg, member of the Washington County Scottish Rite, 
and member of the chapter and council of the Washington County Past 
Masters Club. A nice article about Mr. Brown appeared in the Decem- 
ber 27, 1978, Salem Leader and Salem Democrat. 

Mr. Brown was a kind, unassuming man who played host to 
phycologists interested in the algae of the region. In speaking of him, 
Mr. Kenneth Brown (not related), present superintendent, of the Salem 
Water Purification Plant said, "Earle was a friend of mine. I worked 
with him for six years and knew him for more than fourteen years. 
He was one of the finest persons I have ever known." Earle Brown, 
age 76, born on Christmas day in Washington County, Indiana, died 
on Christmas day, 1978, in the same county. 



44 



Necrology 45 

Walter George Gingery 

Copley, Ohio Sun City, Florida 

August 30, 1884 July 30, 1979 

Walter George Gingery was known as "The Father of George 
Washington High School" since he was the first principal of the Indi- 
anapolis school where he taught for 24 years. He was born on a farm 
near Copley, Ohio, August 30, 1884, and was of German-English 
ancestry. His father was a grocer. An oral history tape in the manu- 
scripts division, Indiana Section of the Indiana State Library, records 
an interview with Mr. Gingery by his daughter, Edith Walden, in 
which the quality of life in early rural Ohio and later experiences are 
described in much detail by Mr. Gingery. 

Mr. Gingery attended Bluetown Grade School (Summit County, 
Ohio) and worked his way through high school at Copley, Ohio, by 
driving a milk truck. He graduated in 1902. He was then apprenticed 
to a mechanic for a year or two. However, he decided to go on to 
Mount Union College at Alliance, Ohio. He was encouraged to do this 
by his high school principal who made arrangements with the college 
president to grant Walter Gingery free tuition the first year despite 
difficult financial straits at the college. He also taught school at Darrow- 
ville and New Baltimore, Ohio, to help finance his education. He gradu- 
ated with a B.S. degree in 1911. 

Graduate training was then interspersed with other teaching assign- 
ments. He became acting professor at Wittenberg College from 1911 to 
1913 and taught at Newark, Ohio, public schools from 1913 to 1916. 
While there, he took summer classes at the University of Chicago and 
received an M.A. degree in Mathematics and Astronomy from that 
school in 1916. From 1916 to 1917, he was a special lecturer at McMaster 
University at Hamilton, Ontario. 

Mr. Gingery came to Indiana in 1917 to head the Mathematics 
Department at Shortridge High School and was assistant principal 
from 1925 to 1927. He became the first principal at George Washington 
High School in 1927 where he taught for 24 years retiring in 1951. 
Realizing his innovative teaching ability, educators from several col- 
leges asked him to teach for seven more years. These included : Knox 
College, Galesburg, Illinois; Otterbein College of Westerville, Ohio; 
Hanover College and Indiana University in Indiana. He gained special 
recognition for his air age Centric World Projection Map. It was a 
new development in map making and was designed to tell air mileage 
at a glance from a flattened globe map. He also wrote a pamphlet on 
atomic energy which was used in science courses throughout the coun- 
try. He wrote the lyrics to the George Washington High School Hymn. 

Mr. Gingery joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1918 and 
became a fellow in 1946. He was a member 61 years. He served on 
the Library Committee as chairman and thereby became a member 
of the Executive Committee from 1938 to 1948. He was a member of 



46 Indiana Academy of Science 

the Library Committee several more years. He was a member of the 
new committee, the Budget Committee, formed in 1941 and for several 
years after that. Mr. Gingery was affiliated with several other pro- 
fessional organizations: the Central Association of Science and Mathe- 
matics (President in 1930 and Vice President in 1928) ; Indiana School- 
men's Club (Executive secretary in 1945); committee member on 
research and service, North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools; National Education Association; Mathematics Association of 
America; Indiana Astronomical Society; Indiana Teachers Retirement 
Association; Phi Beta Kappa; and Indiana Historical Society. He is 
listed in Leaders in Education (1948) and has been the subject of 
numerous articles in Indianapolis newspapers. 

Mr. Gingery received the Silver Beaver Award from the Indiana 
Council of Boy Scouts. In 1947, he was honored in ceremonies at Wash- 
ington High School by teachers, parents and school personnel for his 
outstanding service with the city public schools for 30 years. The high- 
light was the unveiling of a portrait of Mr. Gingery painted by Ruth 
Pratt Bobbs. 

Mr. Gingery finally retired from teaching to Sun City, Florida, 

but he kept busy there at his hobby, making violins. He lived to be 

92 years old and died July 30, 1979. He was noted for his modesty, 
integrity and high ideals. 



Necrology 47 

Arthur Edward Hallerberg 

Farmington, Missouri Valparaiso, Indiana 

June 9, 1918 November 23, 1978 

Dr. Arthur E. Hallerberg- died November 23, 1978, of a heart attack 
at his home in Valparaiso, Indiana. He was a professor of mathematics 
at Valparaiso University. 

Born at Farmington, Missouri, on June 9, 1918, his higher educa- 
tion was obtained at Illinois College (A.B., 1940), University of Illinois 
(A.M., 1941) and the University of Michigan (Ed. D. in mathematics, 
1957). He also studied at the University of Chicago. 

His teaching career was launched when he became an instructor in 
the public schools in Illinois from 1941 to 1942. From 1942 to 1944 he 
was an instructor of mathematics at Illinois College. He was acting 
head of the Mathematics Department of Mac Murray College, Jackson- 
ville, Illinois, in 1944. He moved from associate professor to professor 
and head of the mathematics department at Illinois College from 1946 
to 1960. In addition, he served as director and instructor for National 
Science Foundation Institutes during 1959 to 1960 and for summer insti- 
tutes at Illinois College for junior high school teachers of mathematics 
in 1961 to 1966 and 1968 to 1970. He also served as visiting lecturer in 
education at the University of Michigan in the summer of 1960 and 
taught the history of mathematics in the summer of 1967. He returned 
during a sabbatical leave in 1970 and 1971 as visiting professor in 
mathematics for elementary teachers. 

Dr. Hallerberg came to Indiana in 1960 to teach mathematics at 
Valparaiso University. He became chairman of the department from 
1965 to 1970. He was well known in the state, especially for his interest 
in the history of mathematics. He was a specialist in mathematics edu- 
cation and was given a Distinguished Alumni Citation by Illinois 
College in 1977 for this endeavor. He was elected to the honor societies 
of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi and Pi Mu Epsilon. 

Dr. Hallerberg joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1961 and 
was a senior member. He presented and published two papers for the 
society. One was on the liaison between high school and college mathe- 
matics (given before the Mathematics Section in 1960). The other one 
was a lengthy article on the history of the movement to legislate a 
new value for pi, the "circle number" in 1897 which was presented at 
the History of Science Section in 1974. Another research interest con- 
cerned geometrical constricticns. Other professional memberships were 
in the Mathematical Association of America, National Council of Teach- 
ers of Mathematics, School Science and Mathematics Association, His- 
torica Mathematica, and the Lutheran Academy for Scholarship. He is 
listed in American Men and Women of Science and Who's Who in 
America. 

In addition to professional activities, Dr. Hallerberg found time 
to serve as assistant treasurer for the Lutheran Human Relations Asso- 



48 Indiana Academy of Science 

ciation of America since 1975 and was program coordinator for the 
society institutes in 1975 and 1976. A memorial fund has been estab- 
lished in his name at Valparaiso University in favor of that society or 
the Immanuel Lutheran Church. 

Dr. Hallerberg was also a lecturer and author. He was co-author 
with his wife, Katherine nee Rausch, of a book called Think Metric — 
Cook Metric. This was designed for teaching adult education groups. 

Dr. Arthur Edward Hallerberg was just 60 years old when he died 
suddenly that Thanksgiving day after a commendable, full, productive 
life. 



Necrology 49 

Jack Sovern McCormick 

Indianapolis, Indiana Bethesda, Maryland 

January 19, 1929 February 12, 1979 

Dr. McCormick was seated at his desk, busy as usual, when he had 
a sudden heart attack in his home at Bethesda, Maryland, February 12, 
1979. Dr. Jack Sovern McCormick was a well-known ecologist who spe- 
cialized in environmental management. He was born in Indianapolis, 
Indiana, January 19, 1929, the son of an attorney, James Albert McCor- 
mick, and his wife Betty (Sovern-Smith) . He was raised in Indianapolis 
and attended public school and Howe High School there. He received 
a B.S. degree at Butler University in 1951 and then went to Rutgers 
University receiving a Ph.D. degree there in 1955. 

Dr. McCormick's professional experiences started when he served 
as botanical councilor at the children's museum in Indianapolis from 
1948 to 1949. He was then a state park naturalist for the Indiana 
Department of Conservation from 1949 to 1951. He served as Field 
Hydrologist for the United States Department of the Interior, Geo- 
logical Survey at Trenton, New Jersey, from 1951 to 1955. He also 
became a consultant at the American Museum of Natural History from 
1954 to 1955. In 1955 to 1961, he was Director of Vegetation Studies 
there during which time he designed the Hall of American Forests. 
From 1961 to 1963, he was Assistant Professor of Botany and Research 
Associate in the Institute of Polar Studies at Ohio State University. 
From 1963 to 1971, he was curator and chairman of the department of 
ecology at the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. He became 
president of his own company, Jack McCormick and Associates, ecologi- 
cal consultants, in 1970. Wampora, Incorporated, obtained the firm in 
1976, but Dr. McCormick remained president until death. 

Several other concurrent positions were held. He was research asso- 
ate at the American Museum of Natural History from 1961 to 1974; 
member of the research advisory committee of the Northeastern Forest 
Experiment Station, United States Forest Service, from 1962 to 1973; 
lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania from 1963 to 1972; land- 
scape architect 1965 to 1974; Barnes Foundation lecturer in 1964; 
member of the highway research board, National Research Council from 
1970 on. 

Through Dr. McCormick's efforts in conservation, an entire oak 
forest in New Jersey was once moved to preserve it. He was involved 
with preservation of New Jersey's pine barrens, natural features of 
the coastal zone and other wetland studies such as the Alaskan wetlands 
for the Army Corps of Engineers. He was also concerned with Fish 
and Wildlife Legislation on Tinicum Marsh in Pennsylvania. He was 
well-known among Indiana scientists for his continuing interest in pre- 
serving natural areas in this state, especially Pine Hills. Related to this 
interest in preservation of natural areas of North America, his research 
was three-fold : vegetation analyses, nature and cause of vegetation 



50 Indiana Academy of Science 

changes on disturbed sites, and vegetation mapping. For these studies, 
he received a number of fellowships, grants and awards: Pine Region 
Fellowship from Rutgers, the state university of New Jersey; Oak 
Leaf Award from the Nature Conservancy; Oak Leaf Award from 
the Indiana Chapter of the Nature Conservancy; and grants for sci- 
entific research from the National Science Foundation, Whipple- 
Heublein Foundation, Phoebe Waterman Foundation, and Hass Com- 
munity Funds. 

Dr. McCormick wrote the books: Atoyns, Energy and Machines, 
an illustrated textbook of chemistry and physics in 1957, revised in 1962 
and 1967; The Living Forest, 1959; and International Bibliography of 
Vegetation Maps. Volume 1, North America, and was a contributor to 
others. There are about two hundred titles of journal papers and 
reviews written by him. 

Dr. McCormick joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1950. He 
was co-author with W. A. Daily of a paper presented before the Botany 
Section in 1951. It was on the phytoplankton of the lagoon at Shades 
State Park. He was a member of numerous other societies including: 
the Ecological Society of America, Sigma Xi, American Association for 
the Advancement of Science (fellow), Nature Conservancy, Ohio Acad- 
emy of Science (fellow), New Jersey Academy of Science (president in 
1970 to 1972 and fellow), New York Academy of Science (life member), 
Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Torrey Botanical Club, Philadelphia 
Botanical Club, Pacific Science Association, International Society of 
Biometeorology (charter member), International Society for Tropical 
Ecology, International Society of Plant Geography and Ecology. 

Among other biographic references, he is listed in Contemporary 
authors, American Men and Women of Science, and Indiana authors 
and their books. 

Dr. McCormick directed around 100 environmental impact state- 
ments according to federal, state and local guidelines, two of which 
resulted in national honor awards to his company. The American 
Society of Landscape Architects gave the awards for an ecologically 
based design for a development on Amelia Island, Florida, and the 
master plan for the Cuyahoga National Recreation Area between 
Cleveland and Akron, Ohio. During the 1970's he worked for the 
Iranian government in Tehran on a proposed national history museum 
to include a zoo and planetarium. 

It is evident that Jack McCormick's days had to be filled to capacity. 
In the last year of life, he traveled the Caribbean, botanized in Alaska, 
and commuted between Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland on 
various projects. His life of 50 years was crammed with activity. This 
is the remarkable career of a well-liked friend. 



Necrology 51 

John Ewing Organ 

Branchville, Indiana Mesa, Arizona 

June 1, 1905 March 16, 1978 

Mr. John E. Organ was a geologist with offices in Sullivan, Indiana. 
His business dealt with real estate, coal and oil interests. He was born 
in Branchville, Perry County, Indiana, June 1, 1905, and was of Irish- 
Scotch descent. Branchville was formerly called Oil Creek and is located 
in Oil Township. Oil, coal and gas deposits are to be found in the area. 
With this background, it is interesting that John E. Organ and his 
brother, James, both became geologists. Their father, James Franklin 
Organ, was superintendent of schools at Cannelton, Indiana. One can 
find a brief history of this illustrious family and a personal sketch 
of John E. Organ in Indiana from Frontier to Industrial Common- 
wealth (Lewis Historical Publications Company, N.Y., 1954). 

John E. Organ attended grade school at Vincennes, Indiana, and 
Lake Worth, Florida. High school at Vincennes and Fort Lauderdale, 
Florida, were also attended. One year was spent at Vincennes University 
and the rest at Indiana University to receive a B.A. degree in 1928. 
Then he attended George Washington University where he received 
an M.A. degree in 1929. He also completed part of the work for a Ph.D. 
degree there, too. 

In his early professional career, he was engaged in survey work. 
He was with the United States Geological Survey for about a year. 
Then he worked for an oil company at Owensboro, Kentucky; the Johns 
Manville Company in New York; and then the Maumee Collieries. 

In 1933, Mr. Organ moved to Sullivan, Indiana. There he bought 
the Sherman block, a fine office building. He established his own offices 
in 1938 to provide headquarters for his business activities. He was par- 
ticularly interested in the Sun Spot Coal Mine at Clinton, Indiana and 
the Shasta Coal Mine at Bicknell. 

Mr. Organ joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1967 as a 
regular member and expressed interest in the Geological Section of 
the society. In addition to our society, he belonged to the Rotary Club, 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Sigma Chi and Sigma Gamma 
Epsilon. 

Mr. John Ewing Organ, a successful businessman and excellent 
geologist, was 73 years old when he died in Mesa, Arizona, March 16, 
1978. He was buried on Indiana soil with services at Sullivan. 



52 Indiana Academy of Science 

Nicholas Angelo Purichia 

Indianapolis, Indiana Indianapolis, Indiana 

November 22, 1941 August 24, 1979 

Dr. Nicholas A. Purichia was a biologist on the Marian College, 
Indianapoils, faculty. He collapsed August 24, 1979, while visiting the 
locker room of a football team at game halftime. His brother was coach 
of the team. Within two hours, he was dead at the hospital where he 
was taken. 

Dr. Nicholas Purichia was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, November 
22, 1941. He was a member of a famous Hoosier football family which 
produced six quarterbacks including Nicholas. His father, Angelo 
Purichia, was born in Macedonia and had seven sons and two daughters. 
Nicholas attended grade and high schools in Indianapolis graduating 
from Washington High School in 1959. He then obtained a B.S. degree 
from Indiana State University in 1963; an M.S. from Miami University 
(Oxford, Ohio) in 1965 and a Ph.D. degree from the university in 1972. 

Dr. Purichia had held the positions of instructor at Marian College, 
Indianapolis, from 1966 to 1968; teaching assistant, University of 
Cincinnati, from 1968 to 1971 ; research assistant, University of Cin- 
cinnati, from 1971 to 1972; assistant professor, Marian College, from 
1972 to 1977 and associate professor, Marian College, from 1977 to 
1979. 

Dr. Purichia joined the Indiana Academy of Science in 1967 as a 
regular member. He served on the Youth Activities Committee and in 
1974 was co-director with Dr. Lewis Sharp of the Central Indiana 
Regional Science Fair held at Marian College. He was also a member 
of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, Indiana College Bio- 
logical Teachers Association, Holy Family Council, Knights of Columbus, 
Sigma Chi, Lambda Alpha, Indianapolis Zoological Society, Committee 
of Pro-life Organization, and University of Cincinnati Alumni Asso- 
ciation. 

The research interests of Dr. Purichia included the effects of di- 
chlorophenamide, zinc and manganese on otolith development in mice. 
He published a paper as a co-author on this subject in Developmental 
Biology in 1972 and presented papers also on the subject. He was 
co-author of one in 1971 presented at the Teratology Society meeting. 
In 1973, at the Second International Symposium of Trace Element 
Metabolism in Animals at Madison, Wisconsin, he spoke on manga- 
nese, zinc and genes in otolith development. He was co-author of a paper 
presented in 1979 at the Association for Otological Research on radio- 
assay for carbonic anhydrase of the inner ear of mice. 

A memorial tribute was held for Dr. Nicholas Angelo Purichia on 
October 11, 1979, at Marian College. A tribute was also paid to him in an 
Indianapolis News article by Jimmie Angelopolous on August 28, 1979. 
The dignity and devotion as a father, attributes of Dr. Purichia, were 
praised particularly in that article as well as his ability as an athlete. 
He was considered a quiet, deep thinker and successful teacher. 



Necrology 53 

Helen Evelyne Reed 

Clinton, Indiana Terre Haute, Indiana 

March 16, 1908 April 18, 1979 

Miss Helen Evelyne Reed died April 18, 1979, in the Union Hospital 
at Terre Haute. She was a retired high school teacher who had been 
residing in Greenwood, Indiana for 15 years. 

Miss Reed was born at Clinton, Indiana, on March 16, 1908. She 
attended Indiana State Teacher's College where she received an A.B. 
degree in 1928. An A.M. degree was obtained from Indiana University 
in 1956. She was also certified in literature and library science. 

Miss Reed's teaching experience was extensive. She taught at a 
Westervelt, Illinois, high school from 1928 to 1931; Oakland, Illinois, 
High School from 1931 to 1933; Clinton, Indiana, High School from 
1933 to 1938; Brookville, Indiana, High School from 1938 to 1944; 
Noblesville, Indiana, High School from 1944 to 1949; Attica, Indiana, 
High School from 1949 to 1952; Lebanon, Indiana, Junior-Senior 
High School from 1952 to 1957; Lebanon Junior High School 
where she was chairman of the Science Department from 1957 to 1962 ; 
Emmerich Manual Training High School, Indianapolis, Indiana, from 
1962 to 1972 when she retired. 

In 1952 while teaching at Lebanon, Indiana, Miss Reed joined the 
Indiana Academy of Science. Her chief interests were in the Botany, 
Zoology and Secondary Science Teaching Sections. The next year, she 
sponsored a new Indiana Junior Academy of Science Club, the Junior 
Explorers of Science, from Lebanon High School. She was sponsor of 
the club for 10 years and served on the Junior Academy Council from 
1962 to 1970. She was co-sponsor of the Emmerich Manual Training 
High School Junior Academy Club, Saturday Morning Science, in 1963. 
She announced the Best Girl, Best Boy Awards at the 1964 Junior 
Academy meeting at Indiana Central College where the Junior Ex- 
plorers were host. She was a member of the Youth Activities Com- 
mittee of the senior Academy in 1966 and 1967 and was editor of the 
Junior Academy journal, The Retort. 

Miss Reed was active in other organizations and was honored in 
1959 as chairman of the Biology Teachers Section and in 1964 as presi- 
dent of the Secondary Section of the Indiana Teachers Association; 
Indianapolis Education Association membership chairman from 1963 
to 1967; and she was state membership chairman of the National Asso- 
ciation of Biology Teachers 1956 to 1961. She was also a member of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Science 
Teacher's Association, National Education Association, Classroom Teach- 
ers Association, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Indiana 
School Librarians Association, American Association of University 
Women, Parent Teachers Association, Alpha Beta Alpha, Delta Kappa 
Gamma (chapter president). She is listed in Leaders of American 
Science, Who's Who of American Education, Who's Who of American 



54 Indiana Academy of Science 

Women, Who's Who in the Midwest and Dictionary of International 
Biography. She participated in National Science Foundation financed 
Institutes in 1956 and 1966 and National Science Foundation financed 
research in 1959. 

Miss Helen Evelyne Reed was 71 years old when she died. Services 
were held in Clinton, Indiana, her birthplace, and burial was in the 
Roselawn Cemetery at Terre Haute. 



NEW MEMBERS INDIANA ACADEMY 
OF SCIENCE— 1979 

Dr. Hans O. Andersen, 204 Education Bldg., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mrs. Margaret Beaver, Dept. of Microbiology, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 

46556 
Dr. Gary W. Bennett, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Orland Blanchard, Biological Sciences, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Michael Blaz, Dept. of Psychology, Tri-State University, Angola, IN 46703 
Dr. James A. Brenneman, Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Evansville, Evansville, IN 47702 

MRS. Edith Bruckner-Kardoss, Dept. of Microbiology, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre 
Dame, IN 46556 

Dr. Marshall P. Cady, Jr., Dept. of Chemistry, Hanover College, Hanover, IN 47243 

Mr. Stephen M. Chmiel, P.O. Box 385, Mobay Chemical Corporation, Howe, IN 46746 

Dr. Allan H. Clark, Science Administration, Math Bldg., Purdue University, West 
Lafayette, IN 47907 

Mr. Donald R. Cochran, Dept. of Anthropology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 

Dr. Robert A. Colyer, I.U. Medical Center, 1100 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 46223 

James H. Doty, 5537 Jayne Dr., Elkhart, IN 46514 

Dr. Douglas Duff, Dept. of Biology, Ind. Univ. South Bend, South Bend, IN 46615 

Dr. Kara W. Eberly, Biology Dept., St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Mrs. Joyce B. Gloman, 1300 E. Washington Ctr. Rd., Bishop Dwenger High School, 

Ft. Wayne, IN 46825 
Miss Nancy J. Gloman, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv., 406 So. College, Bloomington, IN 

47401 

Dr. Alan Golichowski, 1000 W. 10th St., Indiana Univ. Med. Center, Indianapolis, IN 
46202 

Dr. Elva R. Gough, P.O. Box 763, Peabody College, Nashville, TN 37203 

Ms. Beth Grafton-Cardwell, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 

47907 
Dr. Donald D. Gray, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 
Mr. Harold E. Grossman II, 2719 Stringtown Rd., Evansville, IN 47711 

Dr. Charles T. Hammond, Dept. of Biology, St. Meinrad College, St. Meinrad, IN 47577 
Mr. Francis M. Harty, 110 James Rd., Spring Grove, IL 60081 
Mr. Wolfe A. Hattery, 802 Maxwell Lane, Skokie, IL 60076 

Dr. Mark H. Houck, Civil Engineering Building, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Calvin James, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Mr. Mark H. Jansen, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47906 
Dr. Jo Ann Jansing, I.U. Southeast, New Albany, IN 47150 
Dr. Richard Jensen, Dept. of Biology, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556 

Dr. Andrew D. Jorgensen, Indiana State Univ.-Evansville, 8600 University Blvd., Evans- 
ville, IN 47712 

Mr. Hal Stephen Kibbey, Ind. Univ. News Bureau, 306 N. Union St., Bloomington, IN 
47405 

Dr. William Kramer, St. Joseph College, Dept. of Chemistry, Rensselaer, IN 47978 

Mr. Michael R. Langona, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 

Dr. J. T. Londergan, Dept. of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Dr. R. Douglas Lyng, Dept. Biological Sciences, IU-PU, 2101 Coliseum Blvd. E., Ft. 
Wayne, IN 46805 

Dr. Timothy F. Lyon, Dept. of Natural Resources, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 

Dr. Robert A. McDaniel, Dept. of History, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 

55 



56 Indiana Academy of Science 

Dr. Dana P. McDermott, Indiana University East, 2325 Chester Blvd., Richmond, IN 

47374 

Mr. William D. Macklin, Dept. of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. Steven Manchester, Dept. of Biology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mrs. Jo Ann Meunier, Biology Dept., Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 

Dr. Richard W. Miller, Dept. of Zoology, Butler Univ., Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Mr. Stephen W. Moore, Terre Haute North High School, 3434 Maple Ave., Terre Haute, 
IN 47804 

Mrs. Mary Ann Morse and family, 2325 Chester Blvd., Indiana Univ. East, Richmond, 

IN 47374 
Mr. Alan K. Nelson, Entomology Dept., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. Martin J. O'Connell, Dept. of Chemistry, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46205 
Mr. Marshall Overley, Frontier High School, Chalmers, IN 47929 
Mr. Eric L. Pang, Dept. of Entomology, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 
Dr. George W. Pendygraft, 975 Carmen Court, Greenwood, IN 46142 

Dr. Dennis G. Peters, Dept. of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 
Mr. Walter H. Pierce, Dept. of Geology, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 
Mr. Paul L. Roney, 103 Keenan, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 
Dr. Robert K. Rose, Dept. Biological Sciences, Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA 23508 
Mr. Jeffrey R. Sampson, 6619 Eden Roc Crest, Indianapolis, IN 46220 

Dr. Roger L. Scott, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 
47306 

Ms. Kathy Shackelford, Biology Dept., IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46205 

Dr. James M. Shuler, Ind. State Bd. of Health, 1330 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 
46206 

Mr. Albert W. Shultz, Dept. of Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405 

Dr. Gary A. Sojka, Jordan Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405. 

MR. Danny F. Stropes, 1330 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 46206 

Dr. Patrick J. Sullivan, Dept. of Natural Resources, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 

Ms. Carol A. Summers, 922 Campus View, Bloomington, IN 47401 

Miss Diane M. Symber, Dept. of Geology, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47401 

Ms. Irene Taneff, 3400 Broadway, Biology Dept., I.U. NW, Gary, IN 46408 

MR. Joseph N. Tatarewicz, 130 Goodbody Hall, Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47401 

Mr. Roland W. Usher, Holcomb Research Institute, Butler Univ., Indianapolis, IN 46208 

Ms. Margaret VanGundy, Div. of Curriculum, Rm. 229, State House, Indianapolis, IN 

46204 
Mr. Mark E. Wagner, 7200 N. College, Park-Tudor H.S., Indianapolis, IN 46240 
Mr. Darrell Wake, Clevenger Hall, Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306 
Dr. Richard Whitman, Div. Science & Math, I.S.U.-Evansville, Evansville, IN 47712 
Mr. Lyman H. Wolfla II, 9652 E. 86th St., Indianapolis, IN 46256 
Mrs. Judith E. Wood, Pike Co. School Corp., R.R. 3, Petersburg, IN 47567 
Dr. Ronald F. Wukasch, Civil Eng. 308, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 
Mr. W. Gordon Wylie, 8940 Ellington Dr., Indianapolis, IN 46234 
Dr. Gerald W. Zimmerman, Dept. Physiology MS 304, Ind. Univ. School of Medicine, 

Indianapolis, IN 46223 
Brown Cty. Chap. Ind. Jr. Academy of Science, c/o Mrs. Leota Skirvin, Brown Cty. 

H.S., Nashville, IN 47448 
Park-Tudor Science Club, c/o Mark E. Wagner, 7200 W. College, Indianapolis, IN 46240 
Gavit High School Science Club, c/o Michael Kobe, 1670 175th St., Hammond, IN 46321 



INDIANA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 
CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

Adopted at the Fall Meeting, 1964 
(Reprinted Incorporating Amendments to Date) 

Article I. Name, Purposes, and Official Publication 

Sec. 1. The Indiana Academy of Science (herein referred to as 
The Academy) is organized under the laws of the State of Indiana as 
a non-profit corporation devoted to scientific and educational purposes. 

Sec. 2. The objectives of The Academy shall be to promote scien- 
tific research and the diffusion of scientific information; to encourage 
communication and cooperation among scientists, especially in Indiana; 
to prepare for publication such reports of investigation and discussion 
as may further the aims and objectives of The Academy as set forth 
in these articles; and to improve education in the sciences. 

Sec. 3. Inasmuch as the State makes an annual appropriation to 
assist in publication, The Academy shall, upon request of appropriate 
officials, act through its Executive Committee as an advisory body in 
the direction and execution of any investigation within its province as 
stated. The Academy shall assume no responsibility for expenses in- 
curred in the prosecution of any such investigation except as provided 
for in its annual budget. 

Sec. 4. The official publication of The Academy, known as the 
Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, insofar as it is pub- 
lished by the State, shall become a public document and shall be cir- 
culated by the Indiana State Library as agreed upon by the Library 
and the Committee on Relation of The Academy to the State. 

Article II. Membership 

Sec. 1. The membership of The Academy shall consist of: Mem- 
bers, Student Members, Fellows, Club Members, Emeritus Members, 
Life Members, Senior Members, Honorary Members, Sustaining Mem- 
bers, Corporate Members, and Institutional Members. Nomination for 
membership in any one of these classes shall be submitted to the Execu- 
tive Committee, and those approved by this committee shall be referred 
to the membership present at any annual or spring meeting, where those 
nominees receiving a majority vote shall be declared elected to member- 
ship. The privileges and obligations of members of each class shall be 
determined by the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 2. Members. Any person interested in any aspect of science 
and in accord with the objectives of The Academy may be elected to 
Membership. 

Sec. 3. Student Members. Any graduate or undergraduate college 
or university student may be elected to Student Membership, but the 
tenure of this class of membership shall be limited to five years. 

57 



58 Indiana Academy of Science 

Sec. 4. Senior Members. Any person interested in science may be 
elected to Senior Membership. 

Sec. 5. Sustaining Members. Any person interested in science 
may, on payment of substantially higher dues, be elected to Sustaining 
Membership. 

Sec. 6. Club Members. Any junior or senior high school science 
club in Indiana may, on recommendation of the Director of the Junior 
Academy of Science, be elected to Club Membership. 

Sec. 7. Life Members. Any member of the Academy in good 
standing may, by making a substantial single payment of dues, be 
elected to Life Membership. 

Sec. 8. Fellows. Any member of The Academy may, on recom- 
mendation of the Committee on Fellows, be elected a Fellow of The 
Academy. The title is awarded as an honor and is independent of the 
class of membership. 

Sec. 9. Emeritus Members. Any member who, after 25 consecu- 
tive years of membership, is 65 years of age or retired, petitions the 
Emeritus Membership Selection Committee may, on approval of that 
committee, be elected to Emeritus Membership. 

Sec. 10. Honorary Members. In exceptional cases any person may 
be elected to Honorary Membership. 

Sec. 11. Corporate Members. Any corporation organized and op- 
erated for profit in Indiana may be elected to Corporate Membership. 

Sec. 12. Institutional Members. Any college, university or non- 
profit organization in Indiana may be elected to Institutional Member- 
ship. 

Article III. Officers 

Sec. 1. The officers of The Academy shall be: President, Presi- 
dent-Elect, Secretary, Treasurer, Editor, and Director of Public Re- 
lations. 

Sec. 2. The term of office of the President and President-Elect 
shall be one year. They shall not be eligible for reelection. The terms 
of the other officers shall be three years, and they may be reelected. 
Each officer shall continue to hold office until his successor has been 
duly elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. Election of Officers. Officers shall be elected at the an- 
nual fall meeting, and each shall assume his duties on January 1 of 
the following year. For the election of officers, the Committee on 
Nominations shall submit to The Academy nominations for the offices 
at that time becoming vacant. Additional nominations may be made 
from the floor. Election shall be by majority vote of the members 
present and voting. 

Sec. 4. President. The President shall have been a member of 
The Academy for at least five years. He shall preside over all meetings 
of The Academy, the Executive Committee, the Budget Committee, and 
the Council, and shall be responsible for the administration of the 



Constitution and By-Laws 59 

business of The Academy during his term of office. He shall appoint 
all standing committees not otherwise provided for and such other 
committees as he may deem necessary. He may, with approval of the 
Council, call such special meetings as to him seem necessary. 

Sec. 5. President-Elect. The President-Elect shall have been a 
member for at least four years. He shall have the ordinary status of 
vice-president. He shall familiarize himself with the duties of the presi- 
dency and shall accede to that office the following year. 

Sec. 6. Secretary. The Secretary shall have been a member for 
at least three years. He shall serve as secretary of all meetings of The 
Academy, the Executive Committee, the Budget Committee, and the 
Council. He shall keep permanent records of the activities of these 
bodies and shall issue notices of all meetings. He shall maintain a 
correct and up-to-date list of members in good standing and shall be 
prepared at all times to provide officers and committees with member- 
ship lists necessary to their operation. 

Sec. 7. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have been a member for 
at least three years. He shall have custody of all funds of The Academy 
except as otherwise provided. He shall issue statements and receive 
payment of dues and assessments and shall pay bills chargeable to The 
Academy. He shall promptly submit his records for audit and shall 
report to the Executive Committee annually on the financial standing 
of The Academy. He shall be responsible for filing such financial re- 
ports as may be required by State or Federal offices. 

Sec. 8. Editor. The Editor shall have been a member for at least 
three years and shall be familiar with procedures of publication. With 
the advice of the Publications Committee, he shall have charge of assem- 
bling, editing, and publishing the Proceedings of The Academy and 
shall be responsible for other duties assigned to his office by the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

Sec. 9. Director of Public Relations. The Director of Public Re- 
lations shall provide notices of meetings and any other information 
which will acquaint the public with the work of The Academy. 

Sec. 10. Vacancies. Except as otherwise provided, a vacancy oc- 
curring in any office shall be filled until the next annual meeting by 
appointment by the President, with approval of the Council. 

Article IV. Sectional Organization 

Sec. 1. The organization of Sections, defined by subject matter, 
may be authorized by the Executive Committee when such action is 
requested. A Section may be dissolved by the Executive Committee on 
becoming inactive or with the consent of members of the Section. Any 
member of The Academy may register as a member of any Section or 
Sections by notifying the Secretary of The Academy and meeting the 
requirements and obligations imposed by the Section. 

Sec. 2. At the annual meeting, each Section shall elect, by vote 
of its members present, a chairman to preside at its meetings the fol- 



60 Indiana Academy of Science 

lowing year and to serve as a member of the Executive Committee. The 
chairman of a Section shall appoint a proxy for any temporary emer- 
gency. Subject to approval of the Executive Committee, each Section 
may provide for its own organization and conduct its own meetings. 

Sec. 3. Expenses incurred by a Section shall in no way become 
a financial obligation of The Academy except as provision has been 
made for them in the annual budget of The Academy. 

Sec. 4. The following are hereby recognized as Sections de facto 
and authorized to continue operation, subject to the provisions of this 
Article, without further action by The Academy: Anthropology, Micro- 
biology and Molecular Biology, Botany, Chemistry, Entomology, Geology 
and Geography, History of Science, Mathematics, Physics and As- 
tronomy, Psychology, Soil Science, Plant Taxonomy, Zoology, Ecology, 
Cell Biology, Science Education, Engineering, and Environmental 
Quality. 

Article V. Committees 

Sec. 1. Standing Committees Appointed Annually. The following 
named committees shall be appointed by the President, to serve for one 
year, except as noted otherwise below and except as rotation is provided. 
Except as otherwise provided they shall be announced at the be- 
ginning of his term of office. He shall designate one member of each 
committee as chairman. All appointees to membership on committees 
shall be members of The Academy in good standing. 

(1) The Academy Representative on the Council of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science. This person shall 
serve for a three-year term beginning 1 January 1972 and every 3 
years thereafter. 



(2) Auditing. The Auditing Committee shall audit the books of 
the Treasurer and of any other officers or committee having custody of 
funds of The Academy. It shall report such audits at the annual meet- 
ing or at other times as required by the Executive Committee. 

(3) Youth Activities. The Youth Activities Committee shall con- 
sist of 12 members representing diverse scientific backgrounds and 
about equally divided among colleges, universities, and secondary 
schools, and including the directors of the various youth activities 
related to The Academy. The duties of this Committee shall be to 
coordinate the Academy-sponsored programs in science for secondary 
schools, to formulate general policies for such activities for which The 
Academy has accepted some responsibility, and to advise the President 
on the appointment of persons to lead such activities. 

(4) Library. The Library Committee shall have charge of all 
matters concerning the John Shepard Wright Memorial Library and 
its relation to the State Library. 

(5) Nominations. The Committee on Nominations shall consist 
of at least three members selected from past presidents of The Academy. 
At the annual meeting, it shall submit nominations for the elective 
officers of The Academy. At the discretion of the President, announce- 



Constitution and By-Laws 61 

ment of the membership of this committee may be withheld until the 
time of its report. 

(6) Program. The Program Committee shall prepare the pro- 
grams and make all arrangements for regular or special meetings of 
The Academy and its various Sections. 

(7) Publication. The Committee on Publication shall advise the 
Editor in matters pertaining to the publication of the Proceedings of 
The Academy and to other duties assigned to the Editor's office by the 
Executive Committee. The Editor shall serve as Chairman of this 
Committee. 

(8) Science and Society. The Committee on Science and Society 
shall consist of 9 to 12 members of the Academy, including representa- 
tives of industry, serving staggered three-year terms. This Committee 
may maintain a permanent office with a Director and supporting 
personnel, and it is authorized to solicit financial support for its work 
from foundations or other sources. 

The duties of this Committee shall be: 

To bring to the attention of the Governor and General Assem- 
bly of Indiana the nature and activities of The Academy, indi- 
cating that its State Charter and its continued support from the State 
place upon it the obligation to serve the State in every way possible; 

To develop procedures for disseminating scientific information 
and offering scientific information and scientific advice to citizens of 
the State through the establishment of a Speaker's Bureau and the 
use of the various news media; and 

To mobilize the membership of the Academy in support of these 
efforts. 

(9) Membership. The Membership Committee shall receive appli- 
cations for membership and submit reports and recommendations on 
such applications at regular meetings of The Academy. 

(10) Fellows. The Committee on Fellows shall be composed of 
Fellows, one from each subject-matter Section. The regular term of 
membership shall be three years, except, that on the adoption of this 
constitution, the President shall appoint approximately one-third of 
the members for terms of three years, one-third for two years, and one- 
third for one year. Any interim vacancy shall be filled by appoint- 
ment for the remainder of that term. 

This committee shall review the membership, receive nominations, 
and, at least two weeks before the date of annual meeting, submit 
to the Secretary, for transmittal to the Executive Committee, nom- 
inations for the rank of Fellow. 

(11) Resolutioris. The Committee on Resolutions shall prepare and 
submit resolutions at meetings of The Academy. 

(12) Invitations. The Committee on Invitations shall receive in- 
vitations from institutions which offer their facilities and services as 
hosts for meetings of The Academy and shall make recommendations to 
the Executive Committee as to places for future meetings. 



62 Indiana Academy of Science 

(13) Necrologist. The Necrologist shall report annually on the 
loss of members by death and shall offer memorial resolutions. 

(14) Parliamentarian. In addition to the performance of the 
regular duties of this office, the Parliamentarian shall make his serv- 
ices available, in an advisory capacity, for the formulation of pro- 
posed amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws and shall keep 
these documents up to date by incorporating in them all amendments 
adopted by The Academy. 

(15) Preservation of Natural Areas. The Committee on the Pres- 
ervation of Natural Areas shall consist of nine members appointed 
for three-year rotating terms from the fields of Botany, Geology- 
Geography, and Zoology, and with as wide a geographic distribution in 
the State as practicable. This committee shall serve as a channel 
through which suggestions made by members as to the conservation 
and preservation of natural areas may be referred to the Executive 
Committee in the form of recommendations. 

(16) Emeritus Members. The Committee on Emeritus Members 
shall take steps to implement ARTICLE II, Section 4, by recom- 
mending members eligible for this status. 

Sec. 2. Elected Committees. The following are recognized as 
de factor elected standing committees, and vacancies as they occur in 
the rotating membership shall be filled by election by the Executive 
Committee. Interim vacancies shall be filled by appointment by the 
President for the remainder of the terms. 

(1) Academy Foundation. The Trustees of The Academy Foun- 
dation (two members, with rotating two-year terms) shall have custody 
of the funds and investments of The Academy Foundation and shall 
report, annually or on demand, to the Executive Committee on the 
state of these resources. 

(2) Bonding. The Bonding Committee (two members, elected an- 
nually) shall be responsible for the adequate bonding of all officers 
and committees having charge of funds or investments of The Academy. 

(3) Research Grants. The Research Grants Committee (five mem- 
bers, elected for five-year rotating terms, with the President and 
Secretary as members ex-officio) shall receive applications and make 
research grants from funds designated by The Academy for that 
purpose. This Committee shall report annually to the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

Sec. 3. Special committees may be appointed by the President 
at his discretion or by order of the Executive Committee. 

Sec. 4. Expenses incurred by committees shall in no way become 
a financial obligation of The Academy except as provision has been made 
for them in the annual budget. 

Article VI. Executive Committee, Council, and 
Budget Committee 

Sec. 1. The Executive Committee shall consist of the past presi- 
dents, the current officers, the chairmen of the Sections, the chairmen 



Constitution and By-Laws 63 

of all committees, the directors of the programs of the Youth Activities 
Committee, and representatives of affiliated organizations. (See By- 
Laws, Art. VI.) This Committee shall be responsible for all matters 
of policy and shall supervise all activities of The Academy not expressly 
provided for otherwise. 

Sec. 2. The Executive Committee shall hold regular meetings 
preceding the fall and spring meetings of The Academy. The mem- 
bers of the Committee present at any meeting shall constitute a 
quorum, provided that notice of the meeting has been given at least 
15 days in advance of the meeting. 

Sec. 3. The Council of The Academy shall consist of the current 
officers, with the chairman of the Committee on Relation of the Acad- 
emy to the State as a member ex-officio. The Council shall transact all 
emergency business of The Academy that cannot be postponed until 
the next regular meeting of the Executive Committee. The Council 
may be called in session at any time by the President. He may submit 
specific questions to the Council by correspondence at any time. The 
Council may invite committee chairmen or other members to meet with 
it at any time. 

Sec. 4. The Budget Committee of The Academy shall consist of 
the following who will hold the specified positions for the next calendar 
year: (1) The Council; (2) the retiring President and the retiring 
Secretary and Treasurer (in the year in which these officers change) ; 
(3) the Director of the Junior Academy of Science; (4) the chairman 
of the Program Committee; (5) the chairman of the Library Commit- 
tee; (6) the chairman of the Youth Activities Committee; and (7) 
chairman of the Academy Foundation Committee. Other committee 
chairmen and members, retiring or current, may be present by in- 
vitation. The Budget Committee shall meet between the Fall Meeting 
and December 15th each year. 

Article VII. Meetings 

Sec. 1. The Academy shall hold two regular meetings each 
year, one to be known as the annual (or fall) meeting and one to be 
known as the spring meeting. The place of the annual meeting shall 
be determined by the Executive Committee on recommendation of the 
Committee on Invitations. The exact time of both meetings and the 
place of the spring meeting shall be determined by the Program Com- 
mittee in consultation with the President. 

Article VIII. Amendment 

Sec. 1. This constitution may be amended at any annual meet- 
ing of The Academy by affirmative vote of three-fourths of the mem- 
bers in attendance and voting, provided that the amendment has been 
approved by the Executive Committee and has been submitted to the 
membership at a previous regular meeting, or by mail, at least 30 days 
prior to the date on which the amendment is presented for adoption. 



64 Indiana Academy of Science 

Article IX. Adoption and Continuance of Powers 

Sec. 1. This constitution may be adopted by affirmative vote of 
three-fourths of the members of The Academy present and voting at 
any annual meeting, provided that it has been approved by majority 
vote of the Executive Committee of that body and has been presented 
to the mmebership by mail at least 60 days prior to the date on which 
it is presented for adoption. 

Sec. 2. All actions taken by The Indiana Academy of Science 
previous to adoption of this constitution, and not in conflict with it, 
are hereby specifically confirmed until changed by formal action under 
the provisions of this constitution. 

BY-LAWS 

Article I. Dues 

Sec. 1. Initiation fees, reinstatement fees and dues for the various 
classes or types of memberships shall be determined annually by the 
Executive Committee. 

Sec. 2. Initiation fees are payable only once ; reinstatement fees 
are payable each time a lapsed membership is reactivated. Annual dues 
are based upon the calendar year. 

Sec. 3. A student discount in the amount of 50% of the normal 
annual dues will be awarded to undergraduate and /or graduate 
students certified to be eligible for this discount by an Academy member 
on the faculty of the student's college or university. The student dis- 
count is limited to a maximum of five years. 

Sec. 4. Advance payment of annual dues, beyond the current year, 
may be made at the existent rate for a period not to exceed three years, 
or in the case of students only through the calendar year in which 
studies should normally be completed, whichever occurs first. 

Sec. 5. Annual dues billings shall be made by the Treasurer prior 
to the spring meeting. Delinquent members shall be rebilled prior to the 
fall meeting. Members delinquent on December 20th shall be sent a 
third dues billing before December 31st, and if still delinquent on 
January 31st shall be dropped from the membership rolls. A former 
member, dropped for lack of dues payment, may be reinstated by pay- 
ment of both the reinstatement fee and dues for the year in which he 
wishes to resume membership. 

Sec. 6. Each senior and sustaining, life, emeritus, honorary, cor- 
porate, institutional member is entitled to one copy of the Proceedings of 
the Academy, and any other publications of the Academy distributed to 
the membership of the Academy, that are published in the year for which 
dues have been paid. 

Sec. 7. Former senior and sustaining members who were dropped 
for non-payment of dues may obtain one copy of the Proceedings, or 
other publications, published in a year in which they were inactive 
by either of two methods, provided copies are still available: 



Constitution and By-Laws 65 

a. They may pay the reinstatement fee and dues for the year of 
years of interest. 

b. They may purchase one or more copies at the established non- 
member price. 

Article II. Bonding 

Sec. 1. On recommendation of the Bonding Committee, the Execu- 
tive Committee shall determine the amounts for which officers or 
committees having responsibility for the custody of funds or invest- 
ments of The Academy shall be bonded. 

Article III. Expenditures 

Sec. 1. The Treasurer is authorized to issue checks in payment 
of bills submitted by officers or committees for which provision has 
been made in the budget for that year. 

Article IV. Operation of Committees 

Sec. 1. The operation of committees shall be conducted by cor- 
respondence as far as practicable, but meetings may be called by the 
chairmen. Except as otherwise provided, each committee shall deter- 
mine its own policies and operational procedures. 

Sec. 2. The President and President-Elect shall be members ex- 
officio of all committees. 

Article V. Youth Activities 

Sec. 1. The Youth Activities Committee shall advise the Presi- 
dent of The Academy on policies agreed upon by its authorized repre- 
sentatives concerning any program for secondary school students for 
which The Academy has assumed any degree of sponsorship. At present, 
these programs include: (1) The Indiana Science Talent Search, (2) 
The Indiana Science Fairs, and (3) The Indiana Junior Academy of 
Science. 

Sec. 2. Each of these programs shall have a Director and an 
Advisory Committee, appointed by the President of The Academy on 
advice of the Youth Activities Committee. The Director of each pro- 
gram shall report to the Executive Committee of The Academy and 
to the Youth Activities Committee at the annual meeting of The 
Academy. 

Sec. 3. The Advisory Committee of the Junior Academy shall 
be called the Junior Academy Council. At least four members of this 
Council shall have been acting science club sponsors for at least three 
years. Each member of the Council shall serve for five years, and 
the terms shall be staggered. The Council shall include representatives 
from as many geographical regions of the State as possible. It shall 
administer the program of the Junior Academy and shall work coop- 
eratively with the Youth Activities Committee in determining policies 
and in appointment of new Council members. The Council shall desig- 
nate one of its members as Director of the Junior Academv of Science. 



66 Indiana Academy of Science 

Sec. 4. The Visiting Scientists' Program, a temporary enter- 
prise, dependent upon grants from the National Science Foundation, 
shall have a Director, appointed by the President to The Academy, on 
consultation with the Youth Activities Committee. He shall be free to 
select his own steering committee. 

Sec. 5. The financial support and working policies of the various 
youth activities shall be the responsibility of their respective directors 
and advisory committees, with the assistance of the Youth Activities 
Committee. No financial obligation shall be incurred in the name of 
The Academy. 

Article VI. Affiliated Organizations 

Sec. 1. The Academy may, by act of the Executive Committee, 
offer its services to any other organization whose objectives are essen- 
tially the same as those of The Academy and which may petition to be 
affiliated with it. 

Sec. 2. The Academy shall not be held responsible for any ex- 
penses incurred by any affiliated organization beyond those specifically 
provided for in the annual budget of The Academy. 

Article VII. Quorum 

Sec. 1. Twenty-five members in good standing shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business in any regular meeting of The 
Academy or in any special meeting, notice of the time, place, and 
purposes of which has been given to the membership by mail at least 
30 days in advance. 

Article VIII. Rules of Procedure 

Sec. 1. The procedure of meetings of The Academy and of the 
Executive Committee shall be governed by Robert's Rules of Order. 

Article IX. Amendment 

Sec. 1. These By-Laws may be amended at any annual meeting 
of The Academy, provided that notice of the proposed amendment has 
been given to the membership at a previous meeting of The Academy, 
or by mail, at least 30 days in advance of the meeting. 

Article X. General Provisions 

Notwithstanding any provision of this Constitution or these By- 
Laws which might be susceptible to a contrary construction : 

(1) The Academy shall be organized and operated exclusively on 
a non-profit basis for scientific and educational purposes; 

(2) No part of the net earnings or other resources of The Academy 
shall or may under any circumstances inure to the benefit of 
any private shareholder or individual; 

(3) No substantial part of the activities of The Academy shall 
consist of carrying on propaganda or otherwise attempting 
to influence legislation; 



Constitution and By-Laws 67 

(4) The Academy shall not participate, by publication or circula- 
tion of statements or other intervention, in any political 
campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office; and 

(5) The Academy shall not: 

(a) lend any part of its income or corpus without the receipt 
of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest to: 

(b) pay any compensation, in excess of a reasonable allowance 

for salaries or other compensation for personal services 
actually rendered to: 

(c) make any part of its services available on a preferential 
basis to: 

(d) make any substantial purchase of securities or other 
property, for more than adequate consideration in money 
or money's worth to : 

(e) sell any substantial part of its securities or other prop- 
erty, for less than an adequate consideration in money 
or money's worth to: or 

(f) engage in any other transaction which results in a sub- 

stantial diversion of its income or corpus to: 

a person who has made a substantial contribution to The 
Academy. 

Article XL Distribution on Dissolution 

Upon dissolution of The Academy, its assets shall be distributed 
by the Executive Committee to one or more organizations qualifying 
under Section 501 (c) (3) or Section 501 (c) (6) of the Internal Rev- 
enue Code of 1954. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF INDIANA'S BIRDS AND 
BIRDWATCHERS 

J. Dan Webster, Hanover College 

Ladies and gentlemen, I will assume that all of you here are 
professional scientists. If there are a few among you who are not 
professionals, but interested amateurs in science, wait a minute before 
you become annoyed. The subject of the role of the amateur in science 
is not currently popular, and indeed the conditions of modern life 
and the style of most present-day science militate against the dilettante 
or hobbyist. 

In the nineteenth century it was not so; at least three of the 
greatest thinkers in the science of biology of that time were a clergy- 
man, Thomas Malthus, a country gentleman of leisure, Charles Darwin, 
and a priest, Gregor Mendel! Specifically in the field of ornithology, 
most of the famous names of the nineteenth century were those of 
amateurs — Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Elliott Coues, Osbert Salvin, 
Percy L. Sclater, and so on. I'm not sure whether to call John James 
Audubon an artist, an author, a storekeeper, or a hunter, but he 
certainly was not a professional scientist. In Indiana there has been 
published only one complete book treating scientifically the birds of 
the state. It came out in 1899, and its author, Amos Butler, was one 
of the founders of the Indiana Academy of Science (2). But so far as 
making a living was concerned (except for one year), Butler was a 
farmer and later an administrator of state social services. 

Even today, the incidence of amateurs in ornithology contrasts 
sharply with that in most other branches of science. Amateurs just 
don't seem to be drawn into organic chemistry or systems ecology, 
for instance. I have trouble naming any full-time professional ornithol- 
ogists in Indiana today. However, three or four game managers hired 
by the state and federal governments are working full-time on birds, 
and Russell Mumford and Harmon Weeks at Purdue must spend more 
time on birds than they do on mammals. Several others, including 
myself, might be called "semi-pros"; we are professional biologists 
who spend part of our time on birds. But there are many very compe- 
tent and dedicated students of birds in Indiana who spend all their 
spare time watching and studying birds for absolutely no rewards of 
money or status. They are representative of thousands of bird watch- 
ers in the other 49 states and throughout the world. 

This powerful force of amateurs prdouces a great volume of bird 
data. For instance, 31,000 bird watchers, over 600 of them in Indiana, 
contributed a full day's rugged work last December to this volume (6) 
detailing the geographic distribution of North American birds at a 
certain time and place. With a little professional help in planning and 

68 



Presidential Address 69 

analysis, vast, and yet intricate, scientific projects can be carried out 
by this enthusiastic army. (See the fine essay by Mayfield(3), for 
further explication.) 

Two years ago the Indiana Audubon Society appointed a commit- 
tee to gather data on the nesting birds of the state and analyze it. 
Charles Wise, the other member of the committee, helped me with the 
planning but I, alone, am responsible for any errors in compilation 
and analysis. While I am thanking people, let me acknowledge the 
help of Russell Mumford, James Cope, and Theodore Crovello at 
various points in this work. I will use this project as a small example 
of the role of the amateur in ornithology. 

The geographic distribution of birdwatchers, or at least of the 
800 members of the Indiana Audubon Society, is shown in figure 1, 
with the largest dots showing counties with the largest membership 
and smaller dots showing fewer members. Notice that there are 24 
counties with no members and that membership is concentrated in a 
few counties — mostly near the center of the state. 

Our appeal for nesting bird records has resulted in a pile of 
data, which I will summarize briefly. I have received lists from 39 
people, covering 43 counties. In addition, I have a list of nesting birds 
from 10 counties that I have seen myself, and Russell Mumford let me 
use his file of 131 nesting bird species that he has seen nesting in a 
total of 59 counties of Indiana. Also, I have studied the literature on 
the birds of Indiana over the last 51 years, most of it published in 
the Indiana Audubon Quarterly. Unfortunately, there are 92 counties 
in Indiana, and we still lack a single nesting record in the last 51 
years of any species, for six counties — White, Vermillion, Rush, Dear- 
born, Ohio, and Floyd. Another 22 counties (mostly those where the 
Indiana Audubon Society has no members) are represented on our 
list by only one to five species each. At the other extreme, one ob- 
server, Alan Bruner, has seen the nests or small young of 95 species 
in Montgomery County. 

We have, then, records of 173 species of birds nesting in Indiana in 
the last 51 years. A convenient comparison over time is with the list 
published by Butler in 1899. The present list lacks 23 species stated by 
Butler to nest in the state, which I divide this way: 

3 species are extinct — The Passenger Pigeon, the Carolina Para- 
keet, and the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. 

14 species have been extirpated as nesting birds in the state — 

Common Loonf Peregrine Falcon 

Horned Grebe Common Snipef 

Trumpeter Swan Lesser Yellow-legs 

American Wigeon Solitary Sandpiper 

Swallow-tailed Kite Least Ternf 

Mississippi Kite Raven 

Bald Eagle Brown Creeperf 



70 



Indiana Academy of Science 






Figure 1. Geographical distribution of the members of the Indiana Audubon Society. 
Dot size is proportional to number of members. 



(Of these, the four marked by daggers [f] still occur in small 
numbers in summer; perhaps more intensive work will show that 
they still do nest in the state.) 

5 species were apparently recorded as nesting by Butler in error — 

Snowy Egret Nashville Warbler 

Bonaparte Gull Northern Waterthrush 

Swainson's Warbler 



Presidential Address 71 

One species nesting in the nineteenth century probably still does 
so, but there don't seem to be any definite records in the last 51 years. 
This is the Black Rail. 

On the other hand, 14 species in this modern list were not in- 
cluded by Butler as nesting. Of these, 6 species he failed to list at all — 
Mute Swan Starling 

Ring-necked Pheasant Western Meadowlark 

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Brewer's Blackbird 

Eight more species were stated by Butler not to nest, but each has 
done so at least once in recent years — 

Gadwall Canada Warbler 

Pintail Blue Grosbeak 

Green-winged Teal Red Crossbill 

Ruddy Duck Pine Siskin 

As to geographic distribution in the state, I recognize seven 
patterns; (1) Uniform. (2) Only north. (3) Only south, or south central. 
(4) Only west. (5) Only northwest; a variation is all of the state 
except the southeast. (6) Only in extensive marshes; widely scattered. 
(7) Irregular, scattered pattern I can't explain. The species in pat- 
terns 2, 3, 4, and 5 are those whose geographic boundaries intersect 
those of Indiana; that is, the edge of the breeding range of each 
species, when drawn on a map of North America, passes across Indiana. 
Let me give details: 

(1) Rather uniform distribution is found in half, or 87 species. I 
divided the state into 12 equal-sized areas, and 67 of these species 
(such as the Cardinal, figure 2) nest in all 12 areas. The other 20 
species (marked with a dagger on the list below) have been found 
nesting in 10 or 11 of the areas; and the 1 or 2 omitted ones are 
erratic and non-contiguous; I assume that our data are inadequate 
and that these species, also, are uniform. 

Group 1 Group 2 

Great Blue Heronf Nighthawkf 

Green Heron Whip-poor-wilij 

Mallardf Ruby-throated Hummingbird 

Wood Duck Chimney Swift 

Turkey Vulture Belted Kingfisher 

Red-shouldered Hawkf Common Flicker 

Red-tailed Hawk Red-bellied Woodpecker 

Bob-white Red-headed Woodpecker 

American Kestrel Hairy Woodpecker 

Kildeer Downy Woodpecker 

Woodcock Eastern Kingbird 

Rock Dovef Great Crested Flycatcher 

Mourning Dove Acadian Flycatcher 

Black-billed Cuckoo Willow Flycatcher 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo Eastern Phoebe 

Screech Owl Eastern Wood Pewee 

Great Horned Owl Horned Larkf 

Barred Owlf Bank Swallowf 



72 



Indiana Academy of Science 







Figure 2. Nesting distribution of the Cardinal in Indiana as shown by nest records, 

1929-1979. 



Group 3 

Barn Swallow 
Rough-winged Swallow 
Purple Martin 
Blue Jayf 
Common Crowf 
Tufted Titmouse 



White-breasted Nuthatch 
House Wren 
Bewick's Wrenf 
Carolina Wrenf 
Mockingbird 
Gray Catbird 



Presidential Address 



73 



Group 3 (continued) 
Brown Thrasher 
Robin 

Wood Thrush 
Eastern Bluebird 
Gnatcatcher 
Cedar Waxwing 
White-eyed Vireo 
Yellow-throated Vireo 
Red-eyed Vireo 
Warbling Vireo 
Prothonotary Warblerf 
Blue-winged Warblerf 
Yellow Warbler 

Group 4 
Cerulean Warbler 
Ovenbird 
Hooded Warblerf 
Louisiana Waterthrushf 
Common Yellowthroat 
Yellow-breasted Chat 



American Redstart 
House Sparrowf 
Eastern Meadowlark 
Red-wingd Blackbird 
Orchard Oriolef 
Northern Oriolef 
Common Grackle 
Brown-headed Cowbird 
Scarlet Tanager 
Cardinal 
Indigo Bunting 
Dickcissel 

American Goldfinch 
Rufous-sided Towhee 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Henslow's Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Field Sparrow 
Song Sparrow 



(2) A northern distribution occurs in 22 species. Some are con- 
fined to the northern row of counties; others extend south to Marion, 
or even to Jackson County. The Chestnut-sided Warbler is an example; 
its distribution is shown in figure 3. 



Gadwall 

Green-winged Teal 
Pintail 
Marsh Hawk 
Ring-necked Pheasant 
Sandhill Crane 
Black Tern 
Short-eared Owl 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 
Alder Flycatcher 
Cliff Swallow* 



Black-capped Chickadee 

Long-billed Marsh Wren 

Short-billed Marsh Wren 

Veery 

Chestnut-sided Warbler 

Canada Warbler 

Bobolink 

Western Meadowlark 

Pine Siskin 

Red Crossbill 

Swamp Sparrow 



An additional four species are more or less evenly distributed in 
the northeast three-fourths of the state, but don't nest in the south- 
west quadrant. 

Spotted Sandpiper* Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Least Flycatcher Savannah Sparrow 

(3) Fourteen species nest only in the southern part of the state, 
although their northern boundaries vary. A good example is the 
Black Vulture; its distribution is shown in figure 4. Three of these 
species are more or less confined to the south-central uplands. The 
distribution of the Pine Warbler, shown in figure 5, illustrates this 
pattern. 



74 



Indiana Academy of Science 




H 









Mm 





Figure 3. Nesting distribution of the Chestnut-sided Warbler in Indiana. Nest records, 
1929-1979, are indicated by large dots, and records of territorial adults in the month of 

June by small dots. 



Presidential Address 



75 



- . ■ 



I I 










Figure 4. Nesting distribution of the Black Vulture in Indiana; symbols as in Fig. 3. 



7G 



Indiana Academy of Science 






Figure 5. Nesting distribution of the Pine Warbler in Indiana; symbols as in Fig. 3. 



Yellow-crowned Night Heron Worm-eating Warbler (S central) 



Black Vulture 

Wild Turkey (S central) 

Chuck-will's-widow 

Pileated Woodpecker ::: 

Carolina Chickadee 

Black and White Warbler* 



Yellow-throated Warbler 
Pine Warbler (S central) 
Kentucky Warbler 
Summer Tanager 
Blue Grosbeak 
Bachman's Sparrow 



Presidential Address 



77 



(4) Five species nest only in the western part of the state. The 
distribution of the Bell's Vireo is shown in figure 6; notice that there 
is a June record from as far east as Madison County and a nest as 
far east as Marion County. 



w„. 



*w 



/ I 



I ■ 



■r 



si 






r™^r"r*| 



1 ■ " v\ 



Figure 6. Nesting distribution of the Bell's Vireo in Indiana; symbols as in Fig. 3. 



78 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Double-crested Cormorant 
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 
Red-breasted Nuthatch* 



Bell's Vireo 
Golden-winged Warbler : 



(5) Fourteen species have a northwestern distribution. Twelve 
of these are distinctly confined to the northwest. The Indiana nesting- 
distribution of the Ring-necked Duck is shown in figure 7. 



ri 






W*& #^ 



Figure 7. Nesting distribution of the Ring-necked Duck in Indiana; symbols as in Fig. 2. 



Presidential Address 



79 



Piping Plover 
Wilson's Phalarope 
Forster's Tern 
Common Tern 
Brewer's Blackbird 
Yellow-headed Blackbird 



Common Egret 
Prairie Chicken 
Shoveller 

Ring-necked Duck 
Lesser Scaup 
Ruddy Duck 

Two species, the Upland Sandpiper, shown in figure 8, and the Tree 
Swallow extend southeast so far that their ranges omit the southeast 
fifth of the state only. 







Figure 8. Nesting distribution of the Upland Sandpiper in Indiana: symbols as in Fig. 3. 



80 



Indiana Academy of Science 



(6) Eleven species nest only in marshes, and their distribution 
is as widely scattered as these ecological features. An example is the 
Coot, whose nesting distribution is shown in figure 9. 

Pied-billed Grebe King Rail 

Least Bittern Virginia Rail 

American Bittern Sora Rail 



/■ 



.?> i,/ 



FIGURE 9. Nesting distribution of the American Coot in Indiana; symbols as in Fig. 3. 



Presidential Address 81 

Canada Goose American Coot 

Black Duck Common Gallinule 

Blue-winged Teal 

(7) Sixteen species have a scattered distribution pattern (not in 
marshes) which is probably meaningless geographically and simply 
reflects our lack of nest finding. 

Black-crowned Night Heron Barn Owl 

Mute Swan Long-eared Owl 

Hooded Merganser Saw-whet Owl 

Sharp-shinned Hawk Loggerhead Shrike 

Cooper's Hawk Starling 

Broad-winged Hawk Parula Warbler 

Osprey Prairie Warbler 

Ruffed Grouse Lark Sparrow 

In conclusion, I can only emphasize that the data are better than 
we have had before, but still sadly inadequate. The records have been 
entered on the Academy's Biological Survey Committee computer cards, 
and can easily be augmented. Let's find a lot more nests! 

Addendum: The geographical distribution of Indiana's avifauna 
was briefly discussed by Butler (2) and Webster (7). A thorough and 
modern discussion of bird distribution in the adjacent state of Ken- 
tucky (4) was useful to me, as was the standard reference work on 
North American bird distribution (1) and the recent check-list of Indi- 
ana birds by Mumford and Keller (5). In the geographic lists of species 
above, an asterisk (* ) indicates that the distribution as presently 
known in Indiana does not jibe with the general nesting distribution 
of the species as found in adjacent states. Whether the discrepancies 
are caused by my lack of knowledge for Indiana or by local ecological 
factors, I do not know. Scientific names of birds may be found in (1). 



Literature Cited 

1. American Ornithologist's Union. 1957. Check-list of North American birds. 5th edi- 
tion. Pp. 1-691. A.O.U., Lancaster, Pa. 

2. Butler, A. 1899. The Birds of Indiana. In 22nd report of the Department of Geology 
and Natural Resources, State of Indiana. Pp. 515-1187. 

3. Mayfield, H. F. 1979. The amateur in ornithology. Auk, 96(1): 168-171. 

4. Mengel, R. M. 1965. The Birds of Kentucky. Ornithological Monographs 3:1-581. 

5. Mumford, R. E. and Keller, C. E. 1975. An annotated check list of Indiana birds. 
Indiana Audubon Quarterly, 53(2) :28-63. 

6. National Audubon Society. 1979. The seventy-ninth Audubon Christmas bird count. 
American Birds, 33(4) :327-710. 

7. Webster, Jj D. 1966. The birds. Pp. 452-473. In Lindsey, A. A., editor. Natural fea- 
tures of Indiana. Ind. Acad. Sci., Indianapolis. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chairman: Charles P. Warren 
University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60680 

Chairman-Elect: Ernst von Rahl 
IUPUI South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46615 

ABSTRACTS 

Mounds State Park: Recent Archaeological Investigations. Donald R. 

Cochran, Ball State University. Ball State University's thirteenth 

field school was held at Mounds State Park through an agreement 
with the State of Indiana Department of Natural Resources to assess 
the impact of various improvements planned for the park. Archaic 
and Late Woodland occupation sites were found as well as evidence of 
outbuildings associated with the Bronnenberg house. Two previously re- 
ported enclosures at the north end of the park were located and, al- 
though severely damaged by cultivation and early park improvements, 
both were found to retain some subsurface integrity. 

Mexican Art and Archaeology. Francis S. Grollig, S.J., Loyola Uni- 
versity of Chicago. The three week session in 1980 of Loyola Univer- 
sity's summer program, Mexican Art and Archaeology will be the third 
annual Mexican offering. This presentation is an account of some of 
the seventeen archaeological zones visited this year. Many of these sites 
have their own museums. Of course the best known sites were visited, 
Tula and Teotihuacan, Mitla and Monte Alban, but many of the lesser 
known or more recently interpreted sites of Sta. Cecelia, Copilco, 
Dainzu, Teotenango and Yagul were also included. Guides were provided 
by the Consejo National de Tourismo of Mexico. In addition to the five 
museums visited on the tour, two days were spent in the first floor 
(archaeology) and second floor (ethnology) of the National Museum 
of Anthropology in Mexico City. 

Identification of Military Remains: Field and Laboratory Problems. 

Charles P. Warren, University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. Skele- 
tal remains of military personnel recovered from a crash site north of 
Da Nang, Republic of Viet Nam, were processed by a physical anthro- 
pologist in Da Nang for possible identification. The initial processing 
revealed that the remains were commingled and the identification media 
had been dissociated from the remains and forwarded to another loca- 
tion, thus precluding positive identification. Further problems arose 
when the South Vietnamese military authorities requested the immediate 
return of the remains of two Vietnamese officers who had been aboard 
the plane, thus jeopardizing the precise segregation of the commingled 
remains. Discussions of the resolutions of these problems and other 
associated contingencies provide new data relevant to the processes and 
techniques of personal identification of human remains. 

82 



Anthropology 83 

Examination of Stature for Inbreeding Depression among Mennonite and 
Amish Children in Daviess County, Indiana. Julanne McCarthy, Wich- 
ita State University, Wichita, Kansas. Anthropometric studies have 

shown that inbreeding in isolated human populations may result in 
depression of stature. Recent reports by the World Health Organization 
state that even in populations with a high frequency of inbreeding, 
depression of stature may not be observed if children receive good 
nutrition and adequate medical care during their growing years. An- 
thropometric data on stature were collected in 1973-74 for 320 Mennonite, 
Amish and Control children in Daviess County. A previous study had 
shown that the Mennonite and Amish population has an inbreeding co- 
efficient of .0302 which is one of the highest values ever recorded for 
a human population. The stature data were analyzed using programs 
for regression and analysis of covariance. The data revealed no sig- 
nificant differences in stature between the Mennonite-Amish and Control 
males and females. The Mennonite and Amish data were compared to 
the cross-sectional Iowa Growth Standards, the Stuart and Meredith 
charts, and the Ross Laboratory charts. In all cases the group data 
compared favorably to the mean values of these standards. The results 
show that the Mennonite and Amish children as a group do not exhibit 
any evidence of depression of stature. These results suggest that the 
medical and nutritional practices of the group may be offsetting any 
measurable effects of inbreeding on stature. 



Alton: A Paleo-Indian Site in Southern Indiana 

Curtis H. Tomak 
Martinsville, Indiana 

Acknowledgments 

I was made aware of and taken to the Alton site by Robert Edler of 
Bedford, Indiana. Mr. Edler had collected material from the site and 
told me of other people who had collections from it. One of those indi- 
viduals is Donald Champion of Tell City, Indiana. I am indebted to 
both Mr. Edler and Mr. Champion for sharing their knowledge of the 
site with me. 

Location and Description of the Alton Site 

The Alton site is situated upon a terrace in a large bend of the 
Ohio River in Perry County. It is about 800 feet southwest of the river 
and is separated from it by floodplain. A small tributary of the 
Ohio River flows about 800 feet west of the site as presently defined. 
Beyond this to the west rises the rugged upland topography of the 
Crawford Upland. 

Upon examining the site with Robert Edler under good survey con- 
ditions, we found a sizeable quantity of chert debris, a few campstones, 
some oxidized rock, and some chert artifacts scattered over an area of 
a few acres. Mr. Edler estimated that the Paleo-Indian material had 
been found in an area approximating two acres. 

The Alton site may well be the same as site 12Pel71 which is 
briefly mentioned in an archaeological survey of Perry County (8). 
No Paleo-Indian component is mentioned for 12Pel71 in that report. 

Artifacts from the Alton Site 

During our visit to the site, we recovered 1 flint core, 22 complete 
and fragmentary bifacial objects of varying degrees of workmanship, 
1 drill fragment, 1 Early Archaic bifurcated base point, 1 side notched 
Archaic point, 1 Late Archaic stemmed scraper, 1 Turkey Tail-like 
point, 1 small trianguloid point, 11 point fragments, 1 blade section 
of what appears to be a Paleo-Indian point, and the base of a Piano- 
like point which has ground lateral edges. 

In the collection we made from the site, there are also at least 31 
variously shaped unifacial flake tools which exhibit retouch or use modi- 
fication on one or more edges. They were apparently utilized for 
various scraping and cutting functions and include a graver with a 
prominent beak formed by retouch, 16 elongated flakes with lateral edge 
modification, 5 end scrapers, and 9 other flake tools. The end scrapers 
also possess lateral edge modification. 

A noticeable feature of the unifacial tool collection is that fre- 
quently moderate to large sized flakes were utilized. Seven of the 
elongated flakes with lateral edge modification, 4 of the end scrapers, the 
graver, and 3 of the other unifacial artifacts are large. 

84 



Anthropology 



85 



Mr. Edler had previously collected 10 large unifacial flake tools 
(Fig. 1) from the site. They include 1 end scraper, 8 elongated flakes 
with lateral edge retouch, and 1 elongated flake tool which has retouch 
on both lateral edges and possesses a pointed tip. The latter type of 
tool is herein termed the Alton knife. 




Figure 1. Flake tools collected from the Alton site by Robert Edler. Top row left: Alton 
knife. Top row second from left: end scraper. 



Mr. Champion's collection from the site includes 2 Alton knives, 
1 fluted Clovis-like point, 29 unfluted Paleo-Indian points (some of 
which are basally thinned), and 13 tips and blade sections from Paleo- 
Indian points (Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5). 

Ten of the 12 concave based lanceolate points occurring in the top 
row and on the left in the bottom row of Figure 3 exhibit varying 
degrees of basal thinning. Eight of them are ground on their basal and 
lateral edges. 

The point on the right in the bottom row of Figure 3 resembles 
Meserve and Dalton points (13, 17). It has basal grinding, is alternately 
bevelled, and is serrated along one side. 

The point on the left in the top row of Figure 4 resembles a 
variant of Quad points as described by Rolingson (13). It is basally 
and laterally ground and is serrated along one edge. 

The 5 lanceolate points on the right in the upper row of Figure 4 
have concave bases and small basal "ears". The fourth point from the 
right is basally thinned on one side. As a group these artifacts are 
well made and exhibit basal and lateral grinding and a rather thin 
flattened cross section. 



86 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 2. A Clovis-like point and two Alton knives collected from the Alton site by 

Donald Champion. 







%mM 







Figure 3. Paleo-Indian points collected from the Alton site by Donald Champion. 



Anthropology 



87 




Figure 4. Paleo-Indian points collected from the Alton site by Donald Champion. 




w 





~ .1 



tHP- J WE • IRK 



***%. 



Figure 5. Paleo-Indian points collected from the Alton site by Donald Champion. 



88 Indiana Academy of Science 

The 8 lanceolate points in the bottom row of Figure 4 have a 
straight to slightly convex basal edge. As a group they are well made 
and exhibit basal and lateral grinding and a fairly thin flattened cross 
section. 

The group of 13 lanceolate points mentioned in the preceding two 
paragraphs resembles specimens from Kentucky classified as Paleo- 
Indian (13) and examples from Ohio ascribed to the late Paleo- 
Indian Piano Complex (11). They also resemble late Paleo-Indian 
Angostura and Agate Basin points described frcm sites west of the 
Mississippi River (17). 

The flake tools from the Alton site are comparable to those described 
for Paleo-Indian assemblages in the eastern United States as can be 
seen by referring to the literature pertaining to a number of eastern 
Paleo-Indian sites (2, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16). 

Paleo-Indian Sites in Indiana 

Hundreds of Paleo-Indian points have been found in Indiana, but 
these are by and large scattered finds. To my knowledge the Alton site 
is one of the few locations recorded for the State which has produced 
any quantity of Paleo-Indian material and at this time appears to be 
unique in Indiana in terms of the amount of Paleo-Indian material 
recovered. To illustrate the situation, the following is a tabulation of 
locations known to me in the State which have or reportedly have pro- 
duced more than a single Paleo-Indian item. 

Two fluted points were reported from site 120wll7 which is sit- 
uated on a terrace along the West Fork of White River in Owen 
County (Rector Parks, personal communication). One fluted point and 
and unfluted Piano-like specimen have been recovered from site 12Gr378 
in the upland of eastern Greene County (15). 

A number of Paleo-Indian points have been reported from sites lo- 
cated near the mouth of Guthrie Creek along the East Fork of White 
River in Lawrence County. One fluted point is said to have come from 
site 12Lr8 situated on an elevation at the base of upland adjacent to 
river bottom (Willis Coombs, personal communication). A nearby site, 
12Lr42, which is located on a terrace has reportedly produced 3 fluted 
points and a Quad-like point (Robert Edler, personal communication), 
and another fluted point is reported from 12Lr43 which is about 900 
feet from 12Lr42 (Robert Edler, personal communication). In addi- 
tion, E. Y. Guernsey (6) reports several fluted points from what he 
terms the Guthrie Creek site. I have reason to believe that the Guthrie 
Creek site is the same as 12Lr42. 

John Richardson has informed me that there are 2 Paleo-Indian 
points from Vigo County site 12Vi68 in the collections at Indiana State 
University. This site is situated on an elevation in bottomland along 
the Wabash River. 

Two fluted points are reported from the well known Bone Bank site 
in Posey County (3). Bone Bank was a large heavily occupied Mississip- 
pian site located on the bank of the Wabash River. It has now been 



Anthropology 89 

destroyed by the cutting action of the river. There is some evidence that 
one of the Paleo-Indian joints was buried beneath the Mississippian 
zone. A discussion of Bone Bank occurs in Adams' Posey County report 
(1). 

Dorwin (3) states that the Mann site in Posey County is a likely 
candidate for classification as Paleo-Indian, but he does not elaborate. 
The Mann site is a very large and important site situated on a terrace 
along the Ohio River. It is best known for its Middle Woodland com- 
ponent (1). 

Eight Paleo-Indian points consisting of both fluted and unfluted 
examples have recently been reported from site 87-38 in Warrick 
County (Randy Rasure, personal communication). This site is situated 
on upland adjacent to what was probably a marshy area. 

Another site at which Paleo-Indian material may be or may have 
been buried below later components is the renowned Crib Mound site 
in Spencer County. Crib Mound is a shell midden situated on the bank 
of the Ohio River, and unfortunately much of it has been eroded away 
by the river in the past 30 years. This site is primarily known for its 
Late Archaic occupation (7). Dorwin (3) reports 3 Paleo-Indian points 
from Crib Mound which possibly originated below the shell deposit. 

E. Y. Guernsey (5, 6) indicates that many Paleo-Indian points have 
been found at sites near the Falls of the Ohio River in Clark County and 
"upon an extensive low terrace upon a branch of Silver Creek in Monroe 
and Union Townships". Some of the sites are said to be on islands 
near the falls. In addition, Dorwin (3) mentions the Schafer site in 
central Clark County. He states that there are 10 fluted points in the 
collections of the Indiana Historical Society (now at the Glenn A. 
Black Laboratory of Archaeology at Indiana University) which re- 
portedly were found at the Schafer site by Guernsey. Unfortunately the 
exact location of the Schafer site has not been determined. It is pos- 
sible that the material attributed to the Schafer site actually came 
from a general area rather than from one specific site. 

Summary 

The Alton site is a multicomponent site situated on a terrace of the 
Ohio River in Perry County. A major component(s) of the site is Paleo- 
Indian, and the Alton site has produced considerably more Paleo-Indian 
material than any other site known to me in Indiana. In fact there are 
few sites recorded for the State from which more than a little Paleo- 
Indian material has been recovered. 

Based upon comparisons with materials from other Paleo-Indian sites 
in the eastern United States, there are many items from the Alton site 
which are or may well be Paleo-Indian. At a minimum these include 
end scrapers, a graver, Alton knives, a variety of other unifacial flake 
tools, and several kinds of Paleo-Indian points consisting of both fluted 
and unfluted examples. Some of the points resemble previously described 
styles (e.g. Clovis, Meserve, Dalton, Quad, and Piano) and suggest 
utilization of the site in both early and late Paleo-Indian times. 



90 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Alton site appears to be a significant early site, and further 
research is intended. 



Literature Cited 

1. Adams, W. R. 1949. Archaeological Notes on Posey County, Indiana. Ind. Hist. Bur. 
Indianapolis. 81p. 

2. Byers, D. S. 1954. Bull Brook — A Fluted Point Site in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Amer. 
Antiquity, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 343-351. 

3. Dorwin, J. T. 1966. Fluted Points and Late-Pleistocene Geochronology in Indiana. 
Ind. Hist. Soc, Prehistory Res. Ser., Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 141-188. Indianapolis. 

4. Dragoo, D. W. 1973. Wells Creek — An Early Man Site in Stewart County, Tennessee. 
Archaeology of Eastern North America, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-56. 

5. Guernsey, E. Y. 1939. Relationships Among Various Clark County Sites. Proc. of 
Ind. Acad. Sci., Vol. 48, pp. 27-32. 

6. Guernsey, E. Y. 1942. The Culture Sequence of the Ohio Falls Sites. Proc. of Ind. 
Acad, of Sci., Vol. 51, pp. 60-67. 

7. Kellar, J. H. 1956. An Archaeological Survey of Spencer County. Ind. Hist. Bur. 
Indianapolis. 68p. 

8. Kellar, J. H. 1958. An Archaeological Survey of Perry County. Ind. Hist. Bur. 
Indianapolis. 40p. 

9. Kraft, H. C. 1973. The Plenge Site: A Paleo-Indian Occupation Site in New Jersey. 
Archaeology of Eastern North America, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 56-118. 

10. McCary, B. C. 1951. A Workshop Site of Early Man in Dinwiddie County, Virginia. 
Amer. Antiquity, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 9-17. 

11. Prufer, O. H., and R. S. Baby. 1963. Paleo-Indians of Ohio. Ohio Hist. Soc. Colum- 
bus. 68p. 

12. Ritchie, W. A. 1969. The Archaeology of New York State. Natural History Press. 
Garden City, New York. 357p. 

13. Rolingson, M. A. 1964. Paleo-Indian Culture in Kentucky. Studies in Anth., No. 2. 
Univ. of Ky. Press. 85p. 

14. Soday, F. J. 1954. The Quad Site, A Paleo-Indian Village in Northern A'abama. 
Tenn. Archaeologist, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-20. 

15. Tomak, C. H. 1970. Aboriginal Occupations in the Vicinity of Greene County, Indi- 
ana. M.A. thesis. Ind. Univ. 313p. 

16. Witthoft, J. 1952. A Paleo-Indian Site in Eastern Pennsylvania. Proc. of Amer. 
Phil. Soc, Vol. 96, No. 4, pp. 464-495. Philadelphia. 

17. Wormington, H. M. 1957. Ancient Man in North America. Popular Ser., No. 4. 
Denver Mus. of Nat. Hist. 322p. 



BOTANY 

Chairman: Anne A. Susalla 
St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Chairman-Elect: Gary Dolph 
Indiana University — Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

ABSTRACTS 

Angelica atro purpurea L. in Indiana. Philip A. ORPURT, Manchester Col- 
lege, North Manchester, Indiana 46962. Purplestem angelica is the 

largest and most striking native umbelliferous species in the state. It 
occurs in at least 25 counties north of the Wisconsin Glaciation boundary. 
A field reconnaisance this past spring and summer, which included visits 
to most of the locations where Angelica was collected by Deam, revealed 
that while at some sites the species has been exterminated, it is still 
widely distributed and well represented numerically. Several colonies 
consisting of hundreds to a thousand or more plants have been located. 
Two of these large colonies of more than a thousand plants are sit- 
uated in Wabash County. Other large colonies exist in Fulton, Whitley 
and Huntington Counties. While Angelica atropurpurea cannot at this 
time be considered an endangered species in Indiana, it is nevertheless, 
because of its habitat requirements, a species which deserves our con- 
tinued surveillance as potentially threatened. 

Color of Plants in Relation to Natural Selection. William J. Tinkle, 
Anderson College. Every botanist knows the claim that natural selec- 
tion was responsible for the added complex morphology of some plants 
over the very simple morphology of species at the beginning of the 
earth. Chance variation gave more complexity to some species than to 
others and this added complexity gave more vigor to the lucky indi- 
viduals, increasing their life style and resulting in more numerous off- 
spring. This paper deals with increase in degree and variety of color. 

Botanists of the nineteenth century claimed that added size and 
greater vigor gave an advantage in the struggle for existence which 
is passed on to the next generation. Can the same be said of greater 
color? There is danger that color will attract grazing animals which 
will reduce the size of the plant, making it bear fewer or no seeds. 

We think of the advantage of colored flowers in attracting polleniz- 
ers. However, peas, beans and other plants with colored flowers have 
structures such that they pollinate themselves. Another example is the 
cleistogamous flowers of violets which bear viable seeds without opening. 

Many plants have color in their stems and leaves. Does this figure 
in natural selection. Raspberry canes often have a purple color which 
mankind considers beautiful; does this increase the life or produce 
more seeds? Maple trees in autumn replace the chlorophyll in their 
leaves with anthocyanin and mankind calls the resulting color beautiful. 

91 



92 Indiana Academy of Science 

Does this habit help the tree ? Have the color and shape of the leaves 
given the world forests instead of mosses ? 

Charles Darwin observed the effective selection conducted by his 
neighbors and concluded that nature works with the same methods 
and caused the same results. This is only partly true. A person selects 
the plant that most nearly represents a certain ideal and from the 
offspring makes like selection for a number of years; the result is a 
plant that more nearly embodies the type desired, unless the limit of 
improvement has been passed. On the other hand, nature selects by 
eliminating diseased or crippled individuals, thus maintaining a 
standard. 

Differences in the Anatomical Structure of Good and Unusable Clarinet 
Reed Material (Arundo donax L.). Marilyn S. Veselack and Jerry J. 

Nisbet, Ball State University. The clarinet reed is the most replaced 

component of the tone generating system of the clarinet. Clarinetists, 
along with performers of other woodwind instruments, have experienced 
increased inconvenience in maintaining a supply of usable reeds for 
performance. 

Earlier studies concerning woodwind reeds have investigated acousti- 
cal phenomena, measurements of the reed, and aspects of the reed- 
mouthpiece combination. These studies indicated the need for analytic 
studies of the reed material {Arundo donax L.). 

The method of investigation was structured to compare the anatomy 
of good and unusable reeds as well as to ascertain developmental stages 
of cells and tissues of the Arundo culm. Sections of good and unusable 
reeds obtained from professional musicians were prepared with soak 
treatments and embedded in Paraplast. Transverse sections of the em- 
bedded tissue was microtomed, stained, and examined for 33 cell and 
tissue characteristics. Statistical comparisons of data collected from 
good and unusable reeds were made using the T-test for paired observa- 
tions. 

Nine cell and tissue characteristics were found to have statistical 
significance. Good reeds contained: more twisted vascular bundles in 
their fiber bands; vascular bundles with larger radial and tangential 
diameters, thicker fiber caps, and thicker fiber bases; vascular bundles 
with fewer incomplete fiber rings, especially located lateral to the 
xylem; cells in the ground parenchyma with smaller radial and tan- 
gential diameters; and cells in the cortex region with higher percentage 
of lignification. 

All of the characteristics were growth-related except for the twisted 
vascular bundles in the fiber band. This study found that good reeds 
were made from older culm material than were the unusable reeds. 

The Imperfect State of the Genus Penicilliopsis. Everett F. Morris, 

Purdue University Calumet. The genus Penicilliopsis was erected by 

Solms-Laubach for a fungus collected in the botanical garden in 
Buitenzorg, Java. The fungus was growing on the fruits and seeds of 
Diospyros macrophylla. Both perfect and imperfect stages were present 



Botany 93 

and were described with the name Penicilliopsis clavariaeformis as- 
signed to it. The perfect stage produced asci and ascospores similar to 
those of the perfect stages of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Therefore, 
the fungus was placed in the family Eurotiaceae. While the imperfect 
stage of P. clavariaeformis exhibited phialides as would be found in 
Aspergillus and Penicillium, the most striking structures were the hard 
and antler-like synnemata. Since the original species, six others have 
been described. Specimens received from the late Dr. Ralph Emerson 
of the University of California, Berkeley fit the descriptions of Peni- 
cilliopsis. However, only the imperfect stages are present. It is believed 
that these specimens constitute the only collections of the fungus re- 
ported from the western hemisphere other than from Brazil. 

A Reevaluation of Three Similar Leaf Types, Dryophyllum puryearensis 
Berry, Banksia saffordi Berry, and Banksia tenuifolia Berry, from the 
Middle Eocene of Kentucky and Tennessee. Jay H. Jones and Leonard 
I. Ganz, Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin and Indiana University, Bloom- 
ington. As part of a study of the Dryophyllum complex we have re- 
investigated a leaf type assigned to D. puryearensis Berry. We have 
also reexamined leaves assigned to Banksia saffordi Berry and Banksia 
tenuifolia Berry which intergrade with those of D. puryearensis. The 
goal of this research was to determine the taxonomic affinities of these 
leaf types and test the validity of these species as described by E. W. 
Berry. 

Over three hundred specimens were collected from the Middle 
Eocene Claiborne Formation of Tennessee and Kentucky. Representa- 
tive specimens were analyzed using modern methods of leaf archi- 
tectural and cuticular analysis. The leaf shape, venation and cuticle 
were found to be quite variable in these species. All three species were 
found to intergrade and no character has been found which can be 
used to delimit these taxa. It is clear that these leaf types are closely 
related and that Berry's taxonomic treatment is at least partially in 
error. 

A Reexamination of Dryophyllum moorii (Lesq.) Berry from the Middle 
Eocene Claiborne Formation of Western Kentucky and Tennessee. Susan 

Leigh Lane and Jay H. Jones, Indiana University, Bloomington and 

Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin. The species Quercus moori was 

established by Lesquereux in 1869 for wide serrate oak-like leaves. 
Berry (1916) transferred this species to the extinct genus Dryophyllum 
Debey. In the same paper Berry established the species D. tennesseensis 
for smaller leaves of similar morphology. These leaf forms were found 
to intergrade and no gross morphological character or combination of 
characters could be used to clearly separate them. The objective of 
this investigation was to reevaluate the classification of D. moorii 
with specific emphasis on the boundary between these two taxa. 

About 25 specimens of D. moorii and many specimens of D. ten- 
nesseensis were collected from the Middle Eocene Claiborne Fm. of 
western Kentucky and Tennessee. The leaf architecture and cuticular 
morphology were analyzed using methods described by Dilcher (1974). 



94 Indiana Academy of Science 

Leaf architectural analysis revealed no differences between leaves of 
these two species which could not be attributed to variations in size 
and length to width ratio. The cuticle of D. moorii however, differed 
from that of D. temiesseensis. Unlike D. tennesseensis, D. moorii pos- 
sesses distinctly anomocytic stomatal complexes with darkly staining 
"subsidiary" cells, well defined cuticular ridges, and unicellular uniseriate 
trichomes. This provides some support for retaining both species. Com- 
parative analysis indicated that this leaf form is similar to that of sev- 
eral modern species of Fagaceae. This leaf type conforms most closely 
to those found in the Castaneoideae but is also similar to several species 
of oak. 

Period in Stratification Hastens Germination of Black Walnut Seed. 

Robert D. Williams, U. S. Forest Service, Bedford, Indiana. Black 

walnut (Juglans nigra L.) seed collected from 8 local mother trees was 
placed in cold stratification for 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days before being 
sown in germination trays. Germination varied by period of stratification 
and by seed source. Seed from some sources may require stratification 
periods longer than 120 days, but 90 days appears adequate for most 
seed sources. 

Establishment of Prairie Vegetation from Local Ecotypes in Marion 
County, Ohio. Larry R. Yoder, The Ohio State University, Marion 
Campus, Marion, Ohio 43302. One of the major areas of disjunct tall- 
grass prairie in Ohio is in Marion County. Virgin tallgrass prairie, 
previously extensive in the county, is now restricted to a few railroad 
and roadside right-of-ways which continue to be endangered by spray- 
ing and further development. A prairie is presently being reconstructed 
on the Marion Campus using seeds from the Claridon Prairie, a railroad 
prairie rich in forbs and grasses. Sorghum-Sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum 
bicolor sudanensis) has been used as a holding cover and preseeding 
mulch. Sudangrass is planted July 1 and the resulting vegetation is 
finely chopped and shallowly disked into the soil after frost. This serves 
as mulch for prairie seeds which are collected and Fall seeded on the 
prepared seedbed. This procedure has successfully provided natural 
stratification and eliminated requirements for seed storage and strati- 
fication facilities. High mowing (30 cm) is used during the first growing 
season followed by annual spring firing and hand weeding during subse- 
quent years. This procedure is successful in north central Ohio for 
establishment of prairie with a minimum of hand labor and storage 
capacity. 

Cuticular Variation in Five Genera of the Apocynaceae. Gary E. Dolph 
and Julie Young, Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 

46901. The cuticular structure of 23 North American species in 5 

genera of the Apocynaceae (Couma, Echites, Forsteronia, LacmeUea, 
and Mesechites) was studied. Although the cuticular structure of all 
the species was similar, a number of significant differences were found. 
The cells of the upper epidermis were isodiametric in shape and pen- 
tagonal in arrangement. The basic anticlinal cell wall pattern was 
rounded, but an undulate wall pattern was found in C. guyanensis. The 



Botany 95 

anticlinal cell walls were thickened in E. echites, E. tuxtlensis, F. 
corymbosa, F. peninsular is, and F. viridescens. Minute striations oc- 
curred on the upper cuticle of C. macrocarpa and E. tuxtlensis, and 
papillae were found on the upper cuticle of F. corymbosa. The cells of 
the lower epidermis were also isodiametric in shape and pentagonal 
in arrangement. The anticlinal cell wall pattern was undulate in F. 
peninsularis and C. utilis. The lower cuticle of F. corymbosa was 
striate. Seven species bore trichomes on the lower leaf surface. Single, 
unicellular, pointed trichomes occurred on the lower leaf surface of 
M. rosea, M. repens, and C. macrocarpa. Single, unicellular, falcate 
trichomes occurred on the lower leaf surface of F. spicata. Trichomes 
identical to those on the lower cuticle were also found on the upper 
cuticle of M. rosea, M. repens, and F. spicata. Echites yucatanensis, E. 
turrigera, and E. tuxtlensis bore single, multicellular, pointed trichomes 
on the lower leaf surface. Stomates were confined to the lower epi- 
dermis. The subsidiary cell arrangement was either paracytic or brachy- 
paracytic. The guard cells occurred level with or slightly sunken below 
the surface of the lower epidermis. Thickened T-pieces of cutin occurred 
at the poles of the guard cells in L. arborescens, L. floribunda, L. 
panamensis, C. rigida, and C. guyanensis. The outer stomatal ledge 
was thickened in F. corymbosa, F. peninsularis, and F. viridescens. In 
F. floribunda, the stomatal complex was surrounded by cuticular flanges. 

Leaf Morphology of Nyssa I. A Description of the Modern Species. 

William D. Macklin and David L. Dilcher, Department of Biology, 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. Characterization of 

nyssaceous leaves was undertaken utilizing scanning electron microscopy, 
light microscopy, and studies of living and prepared leaf materials. 
The purpose of this investigation was to establish the leaf features of 
modern species of Nyssa in order to assess these characters in fossil 
leaves taken from several localities which have been previously assigned 
to the Nyssaceae. Because the only information preserved in fossil mate- 
rials is cuticular anatomy and leaf architecture, the delineation of the 
modern leaves was restricted to these characters. The leaves of Camp- 
totheca and Davidia (two monotypic genera that are assigned to the 
Nyssaceae) are easily distinguished from those of Nyssa. Camptotheca 
is best differentiated by the course of its secondary veins. These sec- 
ondaries curve gradually upwards until they run parallel with the 
margin and with other secondaries, similar to the secondary vein pat- 
tern found in the genus Coryius of the Cornaceae. Davidia is distin- 
guished by its strongly serrated leaf margins. The leaves of Nyssa 
(which contains 5 or 6 species) are simple, entire margined (with the 
exceptions of the irregularly dentate leaves of N. aquatica and an occa- 
sional dentate leaf of N. sylvatica) and generally oblanceolate. The 
venation is pinnate and brochidodromous. The primary veins are stout 
and straight. The secondary veins have a moderately acute divergence, 
are abruptly curved, and the loops join the superadjacent secondaries 
at moderately acute to right angles and are enclosed by 3° and 4° 
arches. The tertiary veins are percurrent and forked, and are oblique 
to the midvein, the angle decreasing upward and outward. The highest 



96 Indiana Academy of Science 

order of venation is generally 6, the highest with excurrent branching 
is 5. Areoles are well developed, are oriented (versus random), and 
generally 4 or 5 sided. Veinlets are present and usually simple and 
curved, but quite variable. Tracheids and bundle sheath cells were found 
on the veins. Sclerids were found in older leaves, ranging from few 
and scattered to 3 or 4 per areole. From cuticular studies we have found 
that the epidermal cells on both the upper and lower surfaces are 
isodiametric, randomly arranged and sometimes have striated surfaces. 
The stomata are confined to the lower epidermis and are anomocytic 
with from 7 to 10 striated subsidiary cells. Stomatal development is 
perigenous, with the guard cells developing directly from a single 
mother cell. The guard cells are large and raised relative to the 
epidermal cells. Trichomes are present on both surfaces and are of two 
types. Both are single with peg-like bases, and the basal epidermal 
cells are modified radially. Both types are single celled, unbranched 
and with no conspicuous heads. The two types are different in that 
one is very short (0.05-0.1 mm) and club-like with a blunt tip and the 
other type is quite long (0.75-1.0+ mm) and hair-like with a pointed tip. 
Whether these characters will adequately delimit the genus from all 
other extant leaf types is a key question and this is presently under 
investigation. 



CELL BIOLOGY 

Chairman : Mary F. Asterita 
Indiana University School of Medicine, Gary, Indiana 46408 

Chairman-Elect: Stanley N. Grove 
Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana 46526 

ABSTRACTS 

Effects of Antibiotic A-23187 on Spore Germination and Apical Growth 
in Fungi. Philip A. Beachy, Jerry D. Smucker, James A. Sweigard, 

and Stanley N. Grove, Goshen College, Goshen, IN 46526. Ion 

gradients and/or ionic currents have been implicated in many biological 
processes including apical growth. We have examined the influence of a 
divalent cationophore, antibiotic A-23187, on apical growth in fungal 
spores and hyphae. A-23187 when present between 0.01 and 10 /xg/ml 
reversibly inhibits sporangiospore germination in the zygomycete, Gil- 
bertella persicaria, with the degree of inhibition corresponding to the 
level of antibiotic in the medium. Apical growth of hyphae is also 
affected, as evidenced by the tendency of the germlings to branch more 
frequently and to form irregular hyphae in the presence of A-23187 
at 1 fig /ml. The inhibitory effects of A-23187 on spore germination and 
apical growth are enhanced by the addition of external Ca++, but not 
by external Mg+ + . This is consistent with a role in growth for a Ca+ + 
gradient. Additional evidence for a Ca+ + gradient is provided by the 
reversal of La+ + + inhibition of spore germination by external Ca++. 
Our observations support the concept of a role for a Ca + + gradient 
in apical growth, although we are unable to demonstrate a Ca++ require- 
ment for growth by serial transfer of cultures through presumed 
Ca++-free environments. 

Effects of Cytochalasin A on Spore Germination and Apical Growth in 
Fungi. James A. Sweigard, Alan R. Kurtz, and Stanley N. Grove, 
Goshen College, Goshen, IN 46526. Spore germination can be sepa- 
rated into two stages with respect to the mode of growth. Stage I is 
characterized by spherical or general growth, while during stage II 
growth becomes polar resulting in a germ tube. Cytochalasin A (CA) 
at 0.01 /uLg/ml or higher inhibits stage II germination in GilberteUa 
persicaria. Upon continued incubation for about 5 hours, the germlings 
overcome the effect of CA and resume polar growth. With increasing 
levels of CA longer time periods are required for overcoming the 
inhibitory effects. This phenomenon can be used as a convenient bioassay 
for CA. If CA at 10 /ng/ml is used for inhibition and the incubation 
medium is renewed prior to the expected time of overcoming the effect, 
the germlings will continue spherical growth, producing giant cells 
50-90 /mi diam. If CA at 10 fig/ml ca is introduced to germlings which 
have already entered stage II germination or to growing hyphal tips, 
polar growth stops immediately and spherical growth resumes. Results 
similar to these are obtained with conidia of Choanephora curbitans 

97 



98 Indiana Academy of Science 

in the presence of 1 /mg CA/ml. Changes in physiological activities 
which have been correlated with our morphological observations of 
G. persicaria include dry weight, 2 uptake, glucose uptake and meta- 
bolic rates. Fine structural correlates of CA inhibition include irregular 
deposition of cell wall material. These accumulations are at the cell 
periphery but often extend deep into the cytoplasm. Clearly the effect 
of this drug is to remove or uncouple polarity from the growth mech- 
anism so that the typical apical growth which produces fungal hyphae 
is not possible. 

Pattern Formation in Sexine Development of Silene Alba (Caryo- 
phyllaceae) Pollen. Jane R. Shoup, Department of Biology, Purdue 

University Calumet, Hammond, Indiana 46323. Sexine maturation in 

Silene alba (Caryophyllaceae) has been studied from meiosis to anthesis 
by light and transmission electron microscopy in a search for clues of 
patterning mechanisms and cellular sources of pollen wall materials. 
Exine formation is initiated while microspores are still enclosed within 
the callose wall of the tetrad, by the appearance of fine fibrous primexine 
material closely associated with the spore plasma membrane. Lamellae 
of unit membrane dimensions (ca. 7.5 m/x) are located primarily at 
the sites of future apertural pores. Electron-dense sporopollenin be- 
comes associated with these unit membrane lamellae. The protectum, 
a vermiculate sheet elaborated by the primexine, occupies the position 
of the future sexine and seems to serve as a scaffold upon which sporo- 
pollenin will be deposited after dissolution of the tetrad. When the 
microspores are released, electron-dense particles in the intralocular 
cavity appear to contribute to sporopollenin accumulation in the pro- 
tectum. To accommodate a threefold increase in pollen grain volume 
in the course of final maturation, further sporopollenin is added to the 
sexine. This process occurs by accumulation along white-line lamellae or 
"tapes" and is probably contributed at least in part by the tapetum. 
These processes are consistently correlated with another length. 

(This work was supported by an NSF Science Faculty Professional 
Development Grant No. SPI 78-19156A01 to the author while she was 
on sabbatical leave at the University of Chicago 1978-79.) 

It is concluded that PLCB does not inhibit muscle cell fusion 
and, in contrast with PLCC, does not hydrolyze choline containing 
phospholipids on cultured chick embryo muscle cells. Supported by the 
NIH grant PHS S07 RR 5371. 

Elevated Uridinediphosphate Kinase and Cytidinetriphosphate Synthetase 
Activities in Transplantable Rat Hepatomas. William L. Elliott, D. 
James Morre and P. F. Heinstein, Department of Medicinal Chemistry 

and Pharmacognosy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

Numerous biochemical and morphological differences contrast normal 
and cancerous cells. The resulting biochemical imbalances may con- 
tribute to the proliferative advantage commonly expressed by cancer 
cells. Weber (New England J. Med. 296, 486, 1977) has summarized 
evidence that the enzyme uridinediphosphate kinase (EC 2.7.4.6) is 
transformation linked, i.e. activity is elevated regardless of tumor 



Cell Biology 99 

growth rate while cytidinetriphosphate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.2) is 
progression linked with activity proportional to growth rate. Our 
analyses of several lines of transplanted rat hepatomas induced initially 
by the chemical carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene show elevations of 
uridinediphosphate kinase (UDP kinase) and cytidinetriphosphate 
synthetase (CTP synthetase). In agreement with Weber, UDP kinase 
is uniformly elevated while CTP synthetase activity correlates with 
growth rate. A transplantable tumor arising from the jaw area also 
shows elevated UDP kinase but extremely low levels of CTP synthetase. 
Increased cellular amounts of UTP and CTP would provide increased 
nucleotide pools for DNA synthesis and as co-substrates for the pro- 
duction of UDP-sugars and CMP-sialic acid, important in the formation 
of glycoconjugates of the cell surface. They may represent an important 
potential determinant of cell growth and behavior. Work supported in 
part by a grant from the National Cancer Institute CA 18801. 

Cinnamic Acid Derivatives Inhibit the Golgi Apparatus in Two Model 
Test Systems. Sue L. Deutscher, Kim E. Creek and D. James Morre, 
Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Medicinal 
Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

IN 47907. The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in the packaging 

of secretory products destined for the cell's exterior. Availability of 
inhibitors of Golgi apparatus function will aid studies involving the 
role of this organelle in the growth and differentiation of plant and 
animal cells. However, few such inhibitors are known. We have de- 
veloped two test systems for screening potential Golgi apparatus in- 
hibitors. One system utilizes polysaccharide droplet formation by the 
outer root cap cells of maize. The droplet, a direct product of the Golgi 
apparatus, forms on the root tip and can be quantitated using a rating 
index. The second system employs secretory granule formation in the 
parotid gland of the rat, an activity also mediated by the Golgi ap- 
paratus. Parotid gland slices are stimulated with epinephrine to achieve 
90% degranulation. The ability of the Golgi apparatus to package new 
secretory granules is then tested by incubating degranulated gland 
slices in the presence of putative inhibitors followed by restimulation 
with epinephrine. The amount of alpha-amylase secreted into the 
medium is used as a measure of secretory granule formation. Cinnamic 
acid, coumarin, 4-hydroxycoumarin, scopoletin and colchicine have 
shown substantial inhibition of Golgi apparatus activities in at least 
one of the two test systems. Current studies are directed toward 
determining the molecular requirements for maximal inhibition with 
a view toward developing an effective Golgi apparatus inhibitor. 

Work supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes 
of Health HD 11508. 

Subcellular Localization of the Early Enzymes of Glycosphingolipid 
Biosynthesis of Rat Liver. Vivian P. Walter, L. Seretto, K. E. Creek, 
M. Forman and D. James Morrk, Department of Biological Sciences 
and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Purdue 
University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Alterations in the amounts and 



100 Indiana Academy of Science 

composition of neutral glycolipids in transformed cells and tissues have 
led to investigation of the early enzymes functioning in the path- 
way of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. The first enzymes, uridinediphos- 
phateglucose:ceramide glucosyltransf erase (UDP-Glu:Cer transferase), 
and cytidine-monophosphate-sialic acid:lactosylceramide sialyltransf erase 
(CMP-NAN :LacCer transferase) promote the sequential addition of 
sugar residues to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) . The subcellular lo- 
cation of these enzymes has been studied to better understand the 
flow of new membrane material to the cell surface. 

The activity of the first enzyme in the glycosphingolipid pathway, 
UDP-Glu: Cer transferase, was found to be enriched 2.4-fold in endo- 
plasmic reticulum (ER) and 1.6-fold in Golgi apparatus (GA) over that 
of total homogenate (TH) in rat liver. When both rough and smooth 
ER were isolated, the activity was most enriched in the rough ER. 
In the synthesis of lactosylceramide, 80% of the activity of the TH was 
in the rough and smooth ER. However, GA showed a 2-fold enrich- 
ment over TH suggesting that the activity may be present in this 
organelle. Lastly, the activity of CMP-NAN :LacCer transferase was 
shown to be concentrated in GA. Thus, the subcellular location of these 
three early enzymes of glycosphingolipid synthesis suggest a mechanism 
of sequential synthesis, first in ER and then in GA, as they progress 
to the cell surface. 

Work supported in part from a grant from the National Institutes 
of Health CA 18801. 

Degradation of Adenylate Nucleotides by Golgi Apparatus Membranes. 

Sandra Schiller Smith and D. James Morre, Department of Me- 
dicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Purdue University, West Laf- 
ayette, IN 47907. In studies of the distribution of phosphatase ac- 
tivities among rat liver endomembranes, some interesting observations 
were made concerning adenylate nucleotide catabolism. When Golgi 
apparatus isolated from rat liver were suspended in a buffered solution 
containing 14 C-AMP and incubated, there was nearly complete con- 
version of the AMP to adenosine followed by other products including 
adenine, inosine, inosine monophosphate and possibly adenyl succinate. 
The analyses involved precipitation of proteins with acid and removal by 
centrifugation, PEI-cellulose chromatography of the supernatants to 
separate different nucleotides, and autoradiography. The results suggest 
the existence of an enzyme system in Golgi apparatus capable of rapid 
and complete degradation of adenylate nucleotides. 

Work supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes 
of Health HD 11508. 

Altered Glycogen Accumulation During 2-Acetylaminofluorene-Induced 
Liver Tumorigenesis in the Rat. Emily Yeo, Dorothy M. Morre and 
William L. Elliott, Department of Foods and Nutrition and Depart- 
ment of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, IN 47907. In contrast to normal livers, hepatocellular 

carcinomas induced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene contain 
little or no glycogen. Glycogen in aqueous extracts was converted to 



Cell Biology 101 

glucose using- glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen content determined 
spectrophotometrically using a coupled reaction involving hexokinase 
and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. To determine the time course 
of stored glycogen during tumorigenesis, livers were analyzed at weekly 
intervals during an 8 week continuum of carcinogen administration. 
Comparisons were with animals fed basal diet lacking carcinogen. Loss 
of glycogen paralleled tumorigenesis with the half maximal decrease in 
stored glycogen corresponding to development of hyperplastic nodules. 
The findings suggest that loss of stored glycogen is among the earliest 
and most dramatic manifestation of 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced 
tumorigenesis in the rat. 

Work supported in part by an institutional grant from the American 
Cancer Society. 

Adriamycin Effects on Plasma Membrane NADH Dehydrogenase. 
Warren C. MacKellar,* F. L. Crane, D. J. Morre, T. Ramasarma 
and H. Low, Department of Biology and Medicinal Chemistry and 
Pharmacognosy, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN., Dept. of Biochem- 
istry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India and Endocrinology 
Clinic, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. — It is now clear that 
plasma membranes (P.M.) contain an NADH dehydrogenase, through 
which the response to hormones may be regulated and which may 
provide energy for transport (H. Low and F. L. Crane, BBA 515, 
141, 1978). In liver P.M. adriamycin stimulates the NADH oxidase 180% 
above basal level. Erythrocyte P.M., which show very little NADH 
oxidase, do not show any evidence of stimulation by adriamycin. NADH 
cytochrome c reductase activity in these P.M. is not affected by adria- 
mycin. NADH ferricyanide reductase is inhibited 27% of basal level in 
erythrocyte membrane and even more in liver P.M. Vanadate stimulated 
NADH oxidase is inhibited 34% of basal level. All these effects on 
NADH oxidation have a y% maximum at about 3 x 10 -5 M adriamycin. 
Adriamycin has been shown to stimulate superoxide production and 
induce lipid peroxidation in mouse heart tissue (C. E. Myers et «/., 
Science 197, 165, 1977). If the stimulation of NADH oxidase involved 
the formation of superoxide by autooxidation of the adriamycin, then 
an increased rate of NADH cytochrome c reductase activity should be 
observed, since superoxide reduces cytochrome c. Also, vanadate stimula- 
tion of the NADH oxidase appears to proceed through superoxide, since 
the stimulation is abolished under anaerobic conditions or in the 
presence of superoxide dismutase. Since there is no stimulation of 
cytochrome c reductase, and there is an inhibition of vanadate stimulated 
oxidase, it would appear that the increased NADH oxidation rate in 
P.M. is not causing increased superoxide formation. It is possible that 
the increased NADH oxidation is accompanied by hydrogen peroxide 
formation. A balance of cAMP and cGMP has been suggested as a con- 
trolling factor in cell development, so an alteration of this balance 
by changing redox control of a cyclase may be a part of the growth 
control by adriamycin. If redox control functions are modified by adria- 
mycin, then the effects on NADH oxidase may be involved in the 



102 Indiana Academy of Science 

antitumor effect of this drug. Support by grants from NIH AM 25235, 
GMK6-21, 839 and CA 18801. 

Ferritin Uptake from the Tubular Fluid in the Initial Segment of the 
Malpighian Tubules in Cenocorixa bifida. Mohinder S. Jarial, Depart- 
ment of Physiology and Health Science and Muncie Center for Medical 

Education, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Ferritin 

uptake was studied by electron microscopy in the initial segment after 
the whole Malpighian tubules were exposed to ferritin solution in insect 
Ringer for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. 

Ultrastructure of the initial segment of the Malpighian tubules of 
Cenocorixa bifida show short basal plasma membrane in foldings as- 
sociated with mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules in the 
cytoplasm and small well separated microvilli at the luminal border 
which along with the latter are covered with fibrillar coat. The re- 
maining segments of the tubule present elaborate basal plasma mem- 
brane infoldings, which penetrate deep into the cell, large mitochondria, 
excretory granules and well developed, closely packed microvilli. 

After 5 minutes ferritin particles reach the tubular fluid in the 
lumen and by 10 minutes they become closely associated with the 
fibrillar coat of the luminal border and microvilli of the initial segment. 
Ferritin particles then appear in the pinocytotic vesicles which are 
pinched off from the luminal cell surface of the initial segment. Deeper 
in the cytoplasm, ferritin is found in small and large vesicles, the latter 
formed by the fusion of smaller ones. After 15 minutes ferritin particles 
appear in a very large membrane bound vacuoles, within intercellular 
channels and dilated plasma membrane infoldings and under the base- 
ment membrane ready to be released in the hemolymph. By 20 minutes 
very little ferritin is attached to the luminal cell surface and most of 
the ferritin-containing vesicles are located deeper in the cytoplasm. 
Free ferritin particles also occur in the cytoplasm of cells of the 
initial segment. 

These observations suggest that the initial segment of the Mal- 
pighian tubules in Cenocorixa may be involved in the uptake of macro- 
molecules like proteins and electrolytes from the tubular fluid. 

Fast Transported Calcium-Binding Protein is Similar to Calmodulin 
Zajar Iqbal, Departments of Physiology and Biochemistry and Medical 
Biophysics Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianap- 
olis, Indiana 46223 U.S.A. Calcium, an essential element for the 

axoplasmic transport of materials in nerve fibers has been found to be 
transported at a fast rate in cat sciatic nerve on injection of 4r 'Ca 2 + 
into the L7 dorsal root ganglia. On analysis of the nerve segments 
corresponding to regions of transported activity, the fast transported 
45 Ca 2 + was found bound to a protein of 15,000 dalton. Using 8 (H)- 
leucine as a precursor, a labeled calcium binding protein (CaBP) was 
found located at the same position in elution volumes from the columns 
(Sephadex G-100 and Bio Gel A5m) as was the protein-bound 45 Ca 2 +, 
indicating that Ca 2 + is fast transported in association with the CaBP. 
A comparison of CaBP with calmodulin showed them to be similar in 



Cell Biology 103 

regard to elution profiles from gel filtration columns, activation of 
cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, isoelectric points determined on 
analytical isoelectrofocusing gels and electrophoretic mobility on SDS- 
polyacrylamide gels. The presence of a fast transported CaBP in nerve 
and its similarities with calmodulin raises some interesting possibilities 
for its involvement in the axoplasmic transport of materials in nerve 
fibers. CaBP can be conceived as contributing to the regulation of Ca 2 + 
levels in nerve fibers. Another more direct interaction is that CaBP 
could modulate the Ca- + -Mg 2 + -ATPase of nerve which, in our transport 
filament model, is required for the hydrolysis of ATP to supply energy 
for transport. Thus, the protein itself may be acting as an integral 
part of the transport filament mechanism. 

Supported by NIH R01 8706-10 and Research and Sponsored Pro- 
grams, Indiana University. 

Influence of Omega Amino Acids in Production of Tanning Pigments in 

Integuments. M. E. Jacobs, Goshen College, Goshen, Indiana 46526. 

During cuticular sclerotization in Drosophila melanog aster, beta-alanine 
is transported into the cuticle where it produces primary setting by 
uniting with the chitinous microfibrils. Meanwhile, N-acetyl-dopamine, 
derived from dopamine, passes into the cuticle to meet the phenol 
oxidase, which oxidizes it to the tanning quinone. This oxidation pro- 
ceeds rapidly, if the highly reactive quinone finds a complexing site. 
Beta-alanine provides such a site, and, reacting quickly, produces tan- 
ning pigments. In the absence of beta-alanine, the precursor dopamine 
accumulates by feed-back inhibition to produce melanization. The inverse 
relationship between beta-alanine tanning and melanization in insects 
is thereby explained. Similar reactions occur between dopamine and 
beta-aminoisobutyric acid with ultraviolet light substituted for phenol 
oxidase. This may account for racial differences in pigmentation of 
human skin. 

Syngeneic Spleen Cell Therapy of a Transplantable Rat Myeloma. *LiSA 
Anselmino and Kara Eberly, Department of Biology, Saint Mary's 

College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. Louvain rats develop readily 

transplantable spontaneous illeocecal immunocytomas (myelomas), 
which secrete immunoglobulin. In the course of radiation therapy of 
the transplantable IgE-secreting myeloma IR162, it was observed that 
syngeneic spleen cells alone prolonged the life of tumor bearing animals. 
Therefore rats were injected subcutaneously with 3 x 10 u IR162 
myeloma cells, which is 30 times the dose required to initiate sub- 
cutaneous tumors. Eight days later the rats were injected intra- 
venously with Eagle's minimum essential medium (controls) or 5 x 10" 
Louvain spleen cells in Eagle's MEM. In two experiments the spleen 
cell treatment delayed the appearance of tumors and prolonged survival. 
Five of 14 spleen cell treated rats remained tumor free for more than 
three months. If transplanted myelomas do not appear within three 
months, the rats remain tumor-free. Tumor burden and injection proto- 
col were critical to the success of this treatment. No rats remained 
tumor free when the tumor cell inoculum was doubled. Weekly injections 



104 Indiana Academy of Science 

of spleen cells delayed tumor appearance longer than a single injection. 
A single spleen cell injection was as effective in producing cures as 
900 R whole body irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. 
Therefore, spleen cell injections appear to provide a valuable approach 
to the therapy of rat myelomas, and efforts are currently underway to 
determine the cell type(s) responsible for this effect. 



Lipase Activity of Phospholipase C from Clostridium welchii and 
Bacillus cereus on Cultured Chick Embryo Muscle Cells 

Anton W. Neff 
Anatomy Section, Medical Sciences Program 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Introduction 

Embryonic chick muscle cells fuse in culture and thus provide an 
excellent system for the study of the molecular basis of cell-cell fusion 
(1), although the molecular mechanisms by which it is mediated are 
not yet known. The process of cell fusion in chick myoblasts involves 
plasma membrane fusion. This process may involve proteins, lipids, or 
carbohydrates of plasma membranes. Interest has recently focused on 
proteins and lipids. However, the literature on this subject (proteins - 
2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, lipids - 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15) is contradictory. Re- 
cently, inhibitors of cultured muscle cell fusion, phospholipase C from 
Clostridiwn perfringens and Clostridimn welchii (PLCC), have been 
used by several investigators (10, 11, 12, 16). 

Because of the potential for imparting specificity with respect to 
the lipid composition changes associated with PLCC inhibition of muscle 
cell fusion, a comparison of the lipase activity of PLCC and phospho- 
lipase C from Bacillus ceveus (PLCB) on cultured chick embryo muscle 
cells was undertaken. 

Methods 
Cell Culture 

Eleven-day Leghorn chick embryo breast muscle cells were isolated 
as described (16). The cells were grown in 1621 medium (a complete 
growth medium consisting of 82.5% Earl's MEM, 10.3% horse serum, 
5.2% 11 day chick embryo extract, 1% fungizone, and 1% penicillin- 
streptomycin solution). Dissociated (trypsin) single cells were plated 
on gelatin coated 35mm tissue culture dishes (Corning) at 0.3 x 10 6 
cells in one ml of 1621 per dish. The culture medium was changed at 24 
hours and every other day thereafter. The cultures were incubated in 
a water saturated atmosphere in 5% Co., at 37.5 °C. At appropriate 
times the cultures were fixed in ethanol-formalin-acetic acid (20:2:1) 
and stained with Myers Hematoxylin. The cultures were mounted di- 
rectly after staining by adding 1 drop of polyethylene glycol (6,000 MW) 
to the culture dish and covering the cells with a coverslip. The fusion 
percentage — defined as the % of cell nuclei within clearly observable 
multinucleated cells (greater than 2 nuclei) — was determined as fol- 
lows: 300 to 500 cell nuclei were counted per dish by randomly moving 
the stage and counting all the nuclei within each field. 

Biochemicals and Assays 

Phospholipase C from Clostridium welchii (PLCC) (type IX, par- 
tially purified, specific activity 140 units per nig protein) and phos- 
pholipase C from Bacillus cereus (PLCB) (type III, specific activity 

105 



106 Indiana Academy of Science 

120 units per mg protein), purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., were 
used without further purification. Both PLCC and PLCB were suspended 
in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and 50% glycerol, sterilized by 
Millipore filtration (0.22^), and stored at -10 °C. The stock enzymes in 
this form retained their specific activity for the duration of the ex- 
periment. The phospholipase C activity of PLCC and PLCB was as- 
sayed by determining the ability of the enzymes to hydrolyse phosphoryl- 
choline-(methyl- 14 C) from phosphatidylcholine- (choline-methyl- 14 C) 
after Nameroff et al. (11) with the following modifications: 1) The 
assay buffer was Earls' MEM at pH 7.2. 2) The carrier lecithin added 
to the reaction was L-a-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl purchased from 
Sigma. Phospholipase C activity is defined as follows: one unit of 
activity releases 1.0 /miole phosphorylcholine from L-a-phosphatidyl- 
choline per minute, at pH 7.2, at 37 °C. Choline chloride- (methyl- 14 C) 
with a specific activity of 53.5 mCi/mmole and phosphatidylcholine- 
(choline-methyl- 14 C) with a specific activity of 53.0 mCi/mmole were 
purchased from New England Nuclear, Boston, Mass. Whatman LHP- 
K TLC plates were purchased from Whatman Inc., New Jersey. 

Lipase Activity of PLCC and PLCB on Cells 

In the beginning of the second day 14 C-choline chloride was added 
to the cultures at a concentration of 1.0 yuCi per ml of medium. At 48 
to 50 hours (24 hours in the presence of label) the cultures were chased 
with fresh medium containing 0.2 mM cold choline chloride for 30 
minutes. The cultures were then washed 2X with MEM, and incubated 
with PLCC or PLCB, in MEM, at 37 °C for 30 minutes. Samples of 
the supernatant (MEM) were then collected, centrifuged at 1500 g for 
10 minutes, and 100 /xl aliquots were counted directly in Dioxin based 
scintillation fluid or streaked on Whatman LHP-K TLC plates. The 
TLC plates were developed in glacial acetic acid-n-propanol-water-phenol 
(1:2:1:1) (19). The standards for choline, phosphorylcholine, and 
lecithin were run on separate slots on the same plate. The standards 
were visualized by Dragendorff reagent (20). 14 -C-choline and 14 C- 
phosphatidylcholine were also run as controls. After removal of the 
supernatant from the cells, the cells were scraped from the culture dish 
and centrifuged into a pellet at 1500 g for 5 minutes. The cell pellet was 
then immediately extracted with chloroform /methanol (2:1; v/v). 
100 /a1 of the crude lipid extract was chromatographed as described 
above. After development the TLC plates were air dried, and 0.5 cm 
strips of the gel were scraped from the plate, added to toluene based 
scintillation fluid, and counted in a Beckman Scintillation Counter. 

Results 
Fusion Inhibition Activity of PLCC and PLCB 

After the phospholipase C activity of PLCC and PLCB was de- 
termined, appropriate dilutions of the enzymes were added to 24 hour 
old chick embryo muscle cultures to achieve enzyme activities ranging 
from 1.25 to 750 mU/ml of 1621 medium. At 72 hours the cultures 
were fixed and stained. Control cultures achieved a fusion percentage 



Cell Biology 



107 



of between 58 and 76 (Fig. la). PLCC inhibited fusion from 12.5 to 
450 mU/ml (range of 38X) with a fusion percentage of 5 to 15 (Fig. 
lb). At 500 mU/ml the number of cells per culture was greatly reduced 
(Fig. Id). The fusion percentage at 500 mU/ml was not determined, 
because it was not known, if there was selective detachment of myo- 
blasts or multinucleated muscle cells, or inhibition of proliferation. At 
750 mU/ml no viable cells were detected on the culture dish. In contrast, 
PLCB did not inhibit fusion over the whole range of activities tested 
with a fusion percentage of 53 to 78 (Fig. lc). Although PLCB did 
show evidence of cell detachment at above 450 mU/ml of activity, 
cell fusion was still evident (Fig. le). Cultures exposed to 100 mU/ml 




**:* 




a 




< 



•* 



d 




Figure 1. Effects of PLCC or PLCB on chick embryo muscle cell fusion. Cultures were 
initiated as indicated. At 2U hours varying amounts of enzymes of known phospliolipase 
activity were added to the cultures. The cultures were fixed and stained at 72 hours. 
(a) Control culture incubated in 1621 only; (b) Culture with 250 mU/ml of PLCC; 
(c) Culture with 250 mU/ml of PLCB; (d) Culture with 500 mU /ml of PLCC; (e) Culture 
with 500 mU/ml of PLCB. Figures a, b, and c, are 2X the magnification of figures 

d and e. 



108 Indiana Academy of Science 

or more of PLCB showed distinctive rounding- up of single cells (Fig. 
lc). We concluded that PLCB in contrast with PLCC did not inhibit 
muscle cell fusion. 

Lipolytic Activity of PLCC and PLCB on Cultured Muscle Cells 

To determine the effects of PLCC and PLCB on cell lipids the 
following experiments were performed. After 24 hours in culture, the 
cultures were labeled for 24 hours with 1 ^Ci of 14 C-choline. After 24 
hours of labeling, 85 to 95 r /r of the 14 C counts were associated with 
the lecithin spot as determined by standard TLC chromatography. At 
48 hours the cultures were washed and exposed to PLCC and PLCB 
over a wide range of activities, 1.25 to 500 mU/ml, for 30 minutes, in 
MEM, pH 7.2, at 37.5 °C. Aliquots of the supernatant were counted 
directly (Fig. 2) and chromatographed (Fig. 3). The cell layer was 
scraped from the dish, lipids extracted, and aliquots of the lipid extract 
chromatographed (Fig. 4). 

Figure 2 shows that PLCC releases substantial 14 C counts into the 
MEM over a wide range of enzyme activities. The curve generated 
shows saturation kinetics that is flat over a wide range of PLCC 
activities. To determine the effect of incubation time on the counts 
released, several cultures with 25 and 50 mU/ml of PLCC were allowed 
to incubate for another 30 minutes (1 hour total). Doubling the incu- 
bation time only increased the counts released from 10 to 25%. Phase 
microscopic observations of the cultures after the experiment showed 
that at all enzyme concentrations, the cells remained attached to the 
dishes. By 72 hours enzyme treated cultures that were allowed to 
recover had the same fusion percentage as controls. 

To determine the nature of the 14 C counts released into the super- 
natant, 100 fxl of the MEM was chromatographed to separate phos- 
phorylcholine, choline, and phosphatidylcholine. Figure 3 shows that 
nearly all of the counts released by 250 mU/ml of PLCC co-migrates 
with phosphorylcholine. In agreement with the inability for PLCB to 
inhibit muscle cell fusion, PLCB does not release 14 C counts significantly 
different from control counts. This experiment was performed with 
several activities of enzymes with similar results. 

To determine the origin of the phosphorylcholine ( 14 C) counts, the 
cell layer, after enzyme treatment, was lipid extracted and the extract 
chromatographed to separate phosphorylcholine, choline, and phospha- 
tidylcholine. Figure 4 shows that with the appearance of phosphoryl- 
choline in the supernatant there is a substantial decrease in the phospha- 
tidylcholine associated with the cell layer. This result indicates that 
the major portion of counts released into MEM by PLCC was the result 
of the hydrolysis of labeled phosphatidylcholine. PLCB and control 
curves were not significantly different. PLCB and controls appear to 
have twice the phosphorylcholine counts associated with the cell layer 
as the PLCC treated cultures. Since it is not known what proportion 
of the cell choline and phosphorylcholine were extracted by the lipid 
extraction procedure, it is not known if this difference is real. We 



Cell Biology 



109 



8000- 



6000- 



o 



4000- 



2000- 




FUSION INHIBITION 



00 200 300 46o 

PLC ACTIVITY 



I 



500 mU 



Figure 2. Release of "'C counts from i8 hour old cultured chick embryo muscle cells. 
Cells were labeled with ^'C-choline (1 uCi/ml) for 24 hours. Labeled cultures iverc treated 
tvith the dilutions of PLCC equivalent to the phospholipase C activity indicated (1.25 
mU /ml to 500 mU /ml) in MEM. Radioactivity was determined by counting 100 nl of the 
supernatant. The curve generated represents 2 experiments of 2 samples each. The 
range of fusion inhibition, was determined in a separate experiment. 



110 



Indiana Academy of Science 



ioooo - 

9000 - 
8000 

7 000 - 
6 00 - 



cl5 00 H 



4000 - 



3000 - 



2000 



I 000 - 



PLCC 



PC 



c 





PLCB 
CONTROL 



~i i i r r 

2 3 4 

CM 



1 ] 7 

6 7 



Figure 3. Analysis of the supernatant for the lypolytic effects of PLCC or PLCB. 
Cells were labeled with ll 'C-choline (1 nCi/ml) for 24 hours. Labeled cultures were 
treated with the concentrations of PLCC or PLCB equivalent to 250 mU/ml of 
phospholipase C activity in MEM. Control cultures were treated with MEM only. 
Standards (phosphorylcholine-PC, choline-C, and phosphatidylcholine-L) were chroma- 
tographed on the same Whatman LHP-K TLC plate but on a separate channel. Radio- 
activity was determined by counting scraped 0.5 cm strips of silica gel. 

Chromatogram of PLCC; Chromatogram of PLCB; . . . 

Chromatogram of Control. 



Cell Biology 



111 



350 1 







Figure 4. Analysis of muscle cells for the lypolytic effects of PLCC or PLCB. The 
experimental methods were the same as stated in fig. 3 except the follotving: After 
decanting the supernatant, the cell layer was washed in MEM and scraped from the 
dish. The lipids were immediately extracted with chlorof orm-methanol and 100 nl of 

the lipid extracts were chromatographed. Chromatogram of PLCC; 

. . Chromatogram of PLCB; . . . Chromatogram of 

Control. 

concluded that PLCB in contrast with PLCC did not hydrolyze choline 
containing phospholipids in the muscle cells. 



Discussion 

In the present study we have compared the ability of PLCC and 
PLCB, of equal phospholipase activity, to inhibit chick embryo muscle 
cell fusion. We have also compared the ability of PLCC and PLCB to 
hydrolyze chick embryo cell surface choline containing- phospholipids. 
PLCC inhibited fusion over a wide range of enzyme activities, and PLCC 
treated cultures were able to recover in a short period of time. Pub- 
lished evidence indicates that PLCC does not enter cells (8). The 
above evidence suggests that the 14 C-phosphorylcholine counts liberated 
are the result of the hydrolysis of cell surface phosphatidylcholine 
and /or sphingomyelin. It is not known if the reduction in numbers of 
cells at PLCC and PLCB activities above 450 mU/ml is due to reduced 



112 Indiana Academy of Science 

cell proliferation, cells selectively coming off the substrate, or lysis 
of the cells. In this regard it is interesting that hemolysis activity in 
crude preparations of PLCC and PLCB has been reported by other 
investigators (e.g., 21). The saturation curve in Figure 2 may indicate 
the following: Phospholipase C activity is not the direct cause of the 
reduction in cell numbers at the higher enzyme activities. There are 
only a specific number of sites on the cell surface susceptible to phos- 
pholipase C hydrolysis. All of the cell surface choline containing phos- 
pholipids have been hydrolyzed. 

PLCC hydrolyzes the glycerophosphate bond in several classes of 
lipids, including sphingomyelin (17). Since we only assayed for the 
release of phosphorylcholine by PLCC, we are only able to conclude 
that PLCC hydrolyzes cell surface choline containing phospholipids. 
The hydrolysis of other phospholipid classes is presently being investi- 
gated. Although PLCB does not hydrolyze choline containing phospholi- 
pids, it is not known if other phospholipid classes are hydrolyzed. 

It has been reported that PLCC (21), but not PLCB (18, 22), 
hydrolyzes up to 70% of the phospholipids in intact human erythrocytes. 
On the other hand, pure PLCB together with sphingomyelinase will 
hydrolyze intact erythrocyte phospholipids (18). This evidence is con- 
sistent with the observation that PLCC may have a sphingomyelinase 
component (17). Similarly, the observation, in our system, that PLCC, 
but not PLCB, hydrolyzes cell surface choline containing phospholipids, 
suggests the exciting hypothesis that sphingomyelinase activity may be 
important in the inhibition of chick embryo muscle cell fusion. 
This hypothesis is presently being investigated. From this study, we 
have reached the following conclusions: (a) PLCB, in contrast with 
PLCC, does not inhibit cultured chick embryo muscle cell fusion; (b) 
PLCB, in contrast to PLCC, does not hydrolyze cell surface choline 
containing phospholipids; (c) without further analysis of the effects 
of PLCB on cell surface lipids, PLCB cannot be used on a comparative 
basis with PLCC to determine those lipid composition changes that are 
specific for fusion inhibition by PLCC. (Supported by PHS S07 RR5371 
from the United States Public Health Service.) 



Literature Cited 

Bischoff, R. 1978. Myoblast fusion. In "Membiane Fusion". Poste, G. and G. L. 
Nicolson, Eds., Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, pp. 127-179. 

Bischoff, R. and M. Lowe. 1974. Cell surface components and the interactions of 
myogenic cells. In "Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy II", A. T. Milhorat, 
Ed., Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp. 17-29. 

Den, H., Malinzak, D. A., Keating, H. J. and A. Rosenberg. 1975. Influence of 
conconavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin on the fusion of 
myoblast in vitro. J. Cell Biol. 67:826-834. 

Herman, B. A., and S. M. Fernandez. 1978. Changes in membiane dynamics asso- 
ciated with myogenic cell fusion. J. Cell. Phys. 94:253-264. 

Horowitz, A. F., Liidwig, W. P., and R. Cornell. 1978. Interrelated lipid alterations 
and their influence on the proliferation of cultured myogenic cells. J. Cell Biol. 

77 :334-357. 



Cell Biology 113 

6. Kent, C, Schimmel, S. D., and R. P. Vagelos. 1974. Lipid composition of plasma 
membranes from developing chick muscle cells in culture. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 
360:312-321. 

7. Knudsen, D. A. and A. F. Horowitz. 1978. Differential inhibition of myoblast fusion. 
Develop. Biol. 66:294-307. 

8. Leung, J. P., Trotter, J. A., Munar, E., and M. Nameroff. 1975. Differentiation 
of the myogenic cell surface. In ICN-UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular 
Biology, McMahon, D. and F. C. Fox, Eds., Vol. 2, W. A. Benjamin, Publ., Menlo 
Park, Calif., pp. 157-185. 

9. Mir-Lechaire, F. J. and Barondes, S. H. 1978. Two distinct developmental^ regu- 
lated lectins in chick embryo muscle. Nature (Lond. ) 272:256-258. 

10. Nameroff, M. A. and E. Munar. 1976. Inhibition of cellular differentiation by phos- 
pholipase C. II. Separation of fusion and recognition among myogenic cells. Develop. 
Biol. 49:288-293. 

11. Nameroff, M., Trotter, J. A., Keller, J. M., and E. Munar. 1973. Inhibition of 
cellular differentiation by phospholipase C. J. Cell Biol. 58:107-118. 

12. Neff, A. W., Trotter, J. A. and M. A. Nameroff. 1978. Characterization and com- 
parison of the proteins from plasma membrane vesicles from fused and fusion inhib- 
ited cultured chick embryo muscle cells. In preparation. 

13. Pauw, P. G. and J. D. David. 1979. Alterations in surface proteins during myo- 
genesis of a rat myoblast cell line. Develop. Biol. 70 :27-38. 

14. Prives, I. and M. Schinitzky. 1977. Increased membrane fluidity precedes fusion of 
muscle cells. Nature (Lond.) 268:761-763. 

15. Reporter, M. and G. Norris. 1973. Reversible effects of lysolecithin on fusion of 
cultured rat muscle cells. Differentiation 1:83-95. 

16. Trotter, J. A. and M. A. Nameroff. 1976. Myoblast differentiation in vitro: morpho- 
logical differentiation of mononucleated myoblasts. Develop. Biol. 49 :548-555. 

17. Van Den Bosch, H., Van Golde, L. M. G., and L. L. M. Van Deenen. 1972. 
Dynamics of phosphoglycerides. Ergebnisse der Physiology 66:13-145. 

18. Verkleij, A. J., Zwaal, R. F. A., Roelofsen, B., Comfurius, P., Kasteliju, D. and 
L. L. M. Van Deenen. 1973. The asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in the 
human red cell membiane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 323:178-193. 

19. Waber, W. and D. W. Thiele. 1966. Trennung phosphorhaltiger abbauprodukte von 
phosphatiden auf celluloseplatten. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 116:163-166. 

20. Wagner, H., Horhammer, C. and P. Wolf. 1961. Diinnschichtchromatographie von 
phosphatiden und glycerolipiden. Biochem. Z. 334:174-184. 

21. Zwaal, A. F. A., Roelofson, B., and C. Colley. 1973. Localization of red cell mem- 
brane constituents. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 300:159-182. 

22. Zwaal, F. R. A., Roelofsen, B. Comfurius, P., and L. L. M. Van Deenen. 1971. 
Complete purification and some properties of phospholipase C from Bacillus cereiis. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 233:474-479. 



In Vitro Response of Hamster Melanoma KF Line to Combined 
Co-60 and Hyperthermic Treatments 

T. M. Sullivan, R. J. Vetter, and W. V. Kessler 
Bionucleonics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

Indiana 47907 

Abstract 

In the interest of developing useful adjuncts to radiation therapy, the effect of 
Co-60 radiation combined with 42.0-42.5°C hyperthermia upon in vitro hamster 
melanoma cells was studied. The assay of cell survival following treatment was based 
upon the colony-forming ability of treated suspensions. The experiment was divided 
into two blocks. Treatments consisted of various doses of Co-60 radiation (0, 250, 500, 
750, and 1000 rad), followed immediately by various durations of hyperthermic exposure 
(0, 15, and 30 minutes). Some literature reports indicate a possible synergistic effect 
between hyperthermia and ionizing radiation. The results of this study showed a mild 
hyperthermic effect upon in vitro cell survival, compared to the more dramatic effect 
of the Co-60 doses used. In one block only, significant reduction in cell survival was 
observed with 15 minutes of hyperthermia, but further reduction was not observed with 
a 30-minute duration. All levels of radiation dose significantly decreased cell survival. 
No significant interaction effect between the hyperthermia and ionizing radiation was 
observed, indicating the absence of any synergism with this treatment procedure. 

Introduction 

The administered dose in cancer radiotherapy is limited in part by 
the burden imposed upon healthy tissues adjacent to the tumor (3, 5, 
9, 15). An adjunctive treatment which would increase the effectiveness 
of radiation while imposing a minimum of additional risk to healthy 
tissue would be beneficial and might even reduce the radiation dose 
required to control tumor growth. Elevated temperature, or hyper- 
thermia, has been suggested as one mechanism for increasing the effec- 
tiveness of radiation therapy (9, 14). Hyperthermia alone has been 
found to have many effects. Nucleolus structural breakdown (10, 14) 
and varied effects on RNA synthesis (1, 14) have been reported at 
45-46 °C applied for 15-60 minutes. Hyperthermic killing of cells cultured 
in vitro over several generations exhibits a large temperature de- 
pendence (12, 13). Significant reduction in surviving cell numbers is 
not often seen at temperatures below 41 °C. The effects of various 
radiation and hyperthermia combination treatments have been studied 
using many different mammalian lines, both normal and neoplastic, 
cultured in vitro (4, 6). There has been some indication that the inclu- 
sion of the hyperthermia may produce a synergistic effect with the 
ionizing radiation. 

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of r,0 Co 
radiation combined with 42.0-42.5 °C hyperthermia upon cell viability of 
KF hamster melanoma (7) in vitro. Cell viability was measured by the 
ability of treated and control cultures to form colonies in a modified 
Puck-Marcus titration (13). Statistical analysis of these surviving 
fractions was used to differentiate significant differences in treatment 
effects. 

114 



Cell Biology 115 

Materials and Methods 

Design 

The experiment was conducted in two blocks or runs. In each run, 
45 vials of cells were treated. Five levels of (; "Co dose (0, 250, 500, 750, 
and 1000 rad) and three durations of 42.0-42.5 °C hyperthermia (0, 15, 
and 30 minutes) were used in a completely randomized block design 
with three vials in each treatment combination per run. Radiation 
treatment preceded hyperthermia. After the conclusion of treatments, the 
sample suspensions of cells were diluted and plated in culture dishes. 
After 10 days of incubation, the cells in these platings capable of repli- 
cation had produced colonies which, upon staining, were readily dis- 
tinguishable under a 1-2 X magnification. An estimate of the viable 
cell concentration of the post-treatment suspensions was obtained by 
dividing the counts of colonies per plate by the dilution plated. 

Cell Cultures 

Cell cultures were maintained in Eagles Minimum Essential Medium 
supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Cultures were 
incubated at 37-38 °C with a CO., enriched atmosphere. About 60 ml 
of a suspension containing 1.1 million cells per milliliter was prepared 
for each run. To each of 45 glass 1-dram vials per run was added 0.75 ml 
of the suspension. These vials were randomly assigned to treatments. 
Treated and control suspensions were plated in conditioned medium in 
60-mm diameter plastic tissue culture dishes. Conditioned medium 
(medium drawn off healthy cultures, sterilized by filtration, and mixed 
with an equal part of fresh, sterile medium) enhanced the colony 
formation ability of healthy isolated cells in preliminary trials. The 
60-mm culture dishes enabled up to 300 colonies to be distinguished. 
The minimum number of colonies per plate was maintained at 100 by 
careful dilution to minimize statistical error in counting. All vials were 
returned to the incubator following hyperthermic treatment until they 
were diluted and plated in the groups of three vials per treatment 
combination. 

Treatments 

The r,,, Co radiation dose rate was 32 rad per minute. Since it was 
possible that the length of time between the radiation and hyperthermic 
treatments was crucial, the irradiation was concluded simultaneously 
for all vials in each run, and heat treatment was begun simultaneously. 
Thus, all vials which were to receive a 1000-rad total dose were spaced 
around the 50-cm radius circle and given a 250-rad dose. The vials to 
receive 750 rad were added to the circle and another 250-rad dose 
was delivered. All total doses were similarly composed of 250-rad 
increments. This short fractionation of the dose did not result in a 
detectable change in the viable cell concentrations. All vials, including 
the <U) Co controls, were kept at room temperature throughout the radia- 
tion exposure period. 

Hyperthermia was administered at 42.0-42.5 °C in a well-circulated 
water bath. Five mercury thermometers with an accuracy of about 
±0.2 °C were used in different locations in the bath. Vials were simul- 



116 Indiana Academy of Science 

taneously submerged approximately halfway in plastic holders. A ther- 
mometer in a similar but uncapped vial was used to monitor cell culture 
temperature inside the vials. Mechanical timers were started when the 
temperature of the cell cultures reached 41.5 °C. 

After 9-10 days of undisturbed incubation, the plates were dehy- 
drated for 10 minutes in methanol and stained for 10 minutes in 
Giemsa stain. The definition of a colony to be counted was based upon 
the number of healthy cells associated as a group. All groups of 15 
or more cells were counted. Although the number in association was 
often much more than 15, these groups were counted as one colony 
unless two or more cores indicative of separate progenies were evident. 

Results and Discussion 

Two dilutions of each vial were plated. As a screening procedure, 
each plate was counted, and the dilution with between 100 and 300 
colonies was chosen to represent each treatment group of three vials. 
A total of 90 plates was thus selected representing the 45 vials from 
each of the two runs. These were recounted in a random and blind 
manner. The observed counts of colonies per plate were divided by the 
dilution factor to determine the viable cells per milliliter for each 
vial. Means and standard deviations are shown in Table 1. 

Table 1. Means and standard deviations of survival data. 



Duration of 




Radiation 


dose (rads) 






























(minutes) 





250 


500 


750 


1000 






Block 1 











115,GO0a 


47,900 


19,200 


7,730 


3,250 




±5,570 


±15,100 


±6,000 


±1,040 


±190 


15 


136,000 


90,400 


18,600 


12,300 


2,990 




±27,500 


±11,600 


±1,310 


±4,700 


±1,020 


30 


125,000 


96,700 


11,100 


3,290 


1,050 




±6,080 


±9,880 
Block 2 


±1,750 


±980 


±390 





178,000 


46,000 


20,300 


7,750 


4,790 




±28,400 


±9,320 


±1,920 


±2,330 


±1,210 


15 


48,800 


41,600 


8,500 


3,980 


2,710 




±10,300 


±13,900 


±2,C90 


±610 


±150 


30 


62,800 


41,400 


12,900 


4,390 


1,630 




±4,660 


±6,130 


±1,210 


±1,400 


±370 



aData are expressed as viable cells per milliliter. 

The sample variance depended upon the dilution factors which 
ranged over three orders of magnitude. This dependency resulted in a 
lack of homogeneity of variance. Use of the log transformation allevi- 
ated this problem, as indicated by the Burr-Foster Q test (2). The 
analysis of variance (2) for these data was performed with the Purdue 
University Computer Center Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. 
The results of this analysis are presented in Table 2. Two F values 



Cell Biology 



117 



are shown, F, generated by dividing all other mean squares by the 
error mean square and F., generated by dividing the mean squares for 
the main effects and two-way interactions by the mean square from the 
three-way interaction. 

Table 2. F-Tcsts for significance of main effects and interactions'*. 



Source 



d.f. 



MS 



B 



H 

R 

BR 

BH 

HR 

BRH 

E 



2 


0.349 


33.3* 


8.73* 


4 


8.149 


777 * 


204 * 


4 


0.083 


7.87* 


2.08 


■1 


0.312 


29.7* 


7.80 


8 


0.103 


9.85* 


2.58 


8 


0.040 


3.84* 





60 


0.010 









B := main effect due to the block design. 

H = main effect due to the heat treatment duration. 

R = main effect due to the radiation dose. 

BR = interaction effect due to block-radiation dose. 

BH = interaction effect due to block-heat treatment duration. 

HR = interaction effect due to radiation dose-heat treatment duration. 

BRH = three-way interaction effect due to block-radiation dose-heat treatment duration. 

E = estimate of random error. 
aFi values are based on use of MS(E) in denominator. Fu values are based on use of 
MS (BRH) in denominator. Significance of the F statistics is based on a 0.99 confidence 
level ( a = .01) and is indicated by an asterisk. 



The comparatively small value of the error mean square suggests 
the possible underestimation of the random component. The three-way 
interaction term should be less susceptible to any bias influencing the 
random error estimation, and is at least as large as the random error. 
Therefore, the analysis utilizing the three-way interaction mean square 
as the error estimate, rather than the observed error mean square, is 
the more confident choice. Use of F statistic calculations at a 0.99 
level of confidence showed both main effects of radiation dose and 
heat duration to be significant, but none of the interactions were sig- 
nificant. However, the interaction between heat duration and the block 
effect was significant at a 0.95 level of confidence. This interaction pre- 
vented pooling of data across the two runs, and Newman-Keuls range 
tests to determine which levels of the factors were significantly differ- 
ent were performed separately for the two runs. The results of these 
tests are presented in Table 3. 

In only one run did the range tests show a significant reduction 
in cell viability following the 15-minute hyperthermia duration, and in 
this run the 30-minute duration had no further effect. The temperature 
used is believed to be near the minimum required for an effect with 
these durations (6, 11, 12). The desire to present a minimal insult to 
healthy tissues prompted the choice of a mild temperature. It is quite 
likely that temperatures in excess of 42.5 °C would produce a more 
dramatic effect on cell survival. All levels of (i,, Co radiation dose used 



118 Indiana Academy of Science 

resulted in significantly different cell survival. Since the heat duration- 
radiation dose interaction was not significant, no evidence of a syn- 
ergism between the treatments was demonstrated by these procedures. 

Although many investigators (4, 9) have reported evidence of sig- 
nificant synergism between hyperthermia and radiation exposure, many 
others (6) have, as does this study, reported data to the contrary. 
Experimental procedures and dose levels are likely to affect the sig- 
nificance of synergism. Further work is needed to help elucidate how 
and when heat treatment may be beneficially used in cancer therapy 
programs. Further in vitro studies can aid in ascertaining the tempera- 
ture, radiation dose, treatment protocol, and other factors necessary 
for the efficient use of hyperthermia in cancer therapy. 

Table 3. Newman-Keuls ranking of survival means for MS(BRH) analysis^. 







Levels of radiation 


dose (rads) 


750 









250 




500 


1000 


Run 1 
Run 2 


125,000b 
96,400 

Run 1 
Run 2 


78,300 16,300 
43,000 13,900 

Levels of heat duration (minutes) 


7,760 
5,370 

30 
47,000 


2,430 
3,040 





38,600c 




15 
52,000 






51,300 




21,100 


24,600 













a Underscoring' indicates a nonsignificant difference at the 95% confidence level, 
b Mean viable cells/ml for 9 samples, 
c Mean viable cells/ml for 15 samples. 



Literature Cited 

1. Amalric, F., R. Simard, and J-P. Zalta. 1969. Effect de la temperture supra- 
optimal sur les ribonucleoproteins et le RNA nucleolaire. Exp. Cell Res. 55 :370-377. 

2. Anderson, V. L. and R. A. McLean. 1974. Design of Experiments: A Realistic 
Approach. In Statistics (D. B. Owen, Editor), Vol. V. Dekker, New York. 418 p. 

3. Barranco, S. C, M. M. Romsdahl, and R. M. Humphrey. 1971. The radiation 
response of human malignant melanoma cells grown in vitro. Cancer Res. 31:830- 
833. 

4. Ben-Hur, E., B. U. Bronk, and M. M. Elkind. 1972. Thermally enhanced radio- 
sansitivity of cultured Chinese hamster cells. Nature (London) New Biol. 238:209- 
210. 

5. Cavaliere, R., E. C. Ciocatto, B. C. Giovanella, C. Heidelberoer, R. O. Johnson, 
M. Margottini, B. Mondovi, G. Morrica, and A. Rossifanelli. 1967. Selective 
heat sensitivity of cancer cells: biochemical and clinical studies. Cancer 20:1351- 
1381. 

6. Dewey, W. C, L. E. Hopwood, S. A. Sapareto, and L. E. Gerwick. 1977. Cellular 
responses to combinations of hyperthermia and radiation. Radiology 123:463-474. 

7. Epstein, W. L. and K. Fukayama. 1973. In vitro culture of cloned hamster 
melanoma cells containing R-type virus. Cancer Res. 33:825-831. 

8. Giovanella, B. C, J. S. Stehlin, and A. C. Morgan. 1976. Selective lethal effect 
of supranormal temperatures on human neoplastic cells. Cancer Res. 36:3944-3950. 



Cell Biology 119 

9. Habermalz, H. J. and J. J. Fischer. 1976. Radiation therapy of malignant 
melanoma. Cancer 38:2258-2262. 

10. Love, R., R. Z. Soriano, and R. J. Walsh. 1970. Effect of hyperthermia on normal 
and neoplastic cells in vitro. Cancer Res. 30:1525-1533. 

11. Palzer, R. J. and C. Heidelberger. 1973. Studies on the quantitative biology of 
hyperthermic killing of HeLa cells. Cancer Res. 33:415-421. 

12. Palzer, R. J. and C. Heidelberger. 1973. Influence of drugs and synchrony on 
the hyperthermic killing of HeLa cells. Cancer Res. 33:422-427. 

13. Puck, T. T. and P. I. Marcus. 1955. A rapid method for viable cell titration and 
clone production with HeLa cells in tissue culture: the use of x-irradiated cells 
to supply conditioning factors. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 41:432-437. 

14. Simard, R. and W. Bernhard. 1967. A heat sensitive cellular function located in 
the nucleolus. J. Cell Biol. 34:61-76. 

15. Thompson, L. F., A. R. Smith, and R. M. Humphrey. 1975. The response of a 
human malignant melanoma cell line to high LET radiation. Radiology 117:155-158. 



Production of Incomplete Pseudorabies Viruses in Enucleated 

Pig Kidney Cells 

I. L. Sun and D. P. Gustafson 

Purdue University, School of Veterinary Medicine 

West Lafayette, Indiana 

Abstract 

Pseudorabies viruses (PrV) were grown in the pig kidney cells which were enucleated 
with cytochalasin B after infection. When protein synthesis was blocked by the drug, 
cycloheximide, from the time of infection, viral m-RNA accumulated in the cytoplasm 
and translation of viral proteins occurred after the removal of both drug and nucleus. 
A number of viral specific polypeptides were to be modified after synthesis and some 
of these post-translational modifications of proteins were prevented in the absence of 
the nucleus. — 10,000 fold decrease of viral titer in enucleated cells in comparison to 
that in intact cells was observed due to the formation of protein-nonmodified viral 
particles or incomplete particles (IP). 

Co-infection of cells with IP and normal infectious virions resulted in ~100 fold 
reduction in yield. The lower yield of infectious virus produced by the cells was due 
to interference by IP. A similar phenomenon was observed when cell cultures were 
initially infected with standard virus and superinfected with IP. Exposure of IP to 
standard antiviral swine serum for 1 hr. at 37 C C or UV light (20 watts) for 5 min. 
markedly reduced their interfering ability. It is therefore clear that the interference 
with the synthesis of infectious virus by IP resided in these particles, which had 
antigenic properties similar to those of standard pseudorabies viruses. Quantitative 
assay and qualitative analysis of antigenic proteins of IP were discussed. 

Introduction 

The role of the host nucleus in the viral replication has been ob- 
tained by the application of inhibitors of nuclear functions such as 
actinomycin D and mitomycin C (1). The function of the nucleus in the 
regulation and modification of herpesvirus polypeptide synthesis was 
observed (3). Comparison of the development of a group of animal 
viruses in enucleate cells was also studied (4). 

The development of pseudorabies virus (PrV) in host cells seems 
to involve a complex system of regulatory mechanisms controlling the 
production and posttranslational modification of viral specific proteins. 
In this study, the role of the host nucleus in the replication cycle of 
PrV has been investigated by the techniques of enucleate cells, using a 
fungal metabolite, cytochalasin B (9, 2). With such cells it is possible 
to demonstrate that the development of a normal infectious PrV is 
dependent on the physical presence of a nucleus. The formation of IP 
in the cytoplasmic host after enucleation has been demonstrated. Evi- 
dence of IP retaining PrV antigenicity and interfering with the growth 
of standard PrV is also presented. 

Materials and Methods 

Confluent monolayers of pig kidney (PK) cells were grown in 
plastic Leighton tubes. The medium used for the growth of cells was 
Eagle's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 fi of penicillin 
and 170 mg streptomycin per ml at pH 7.4. Cells were infected with 

120 



Cell Biology 121 

30 PFU per cell of the strain PrV-FH. Virus infectivity was assayed in 
PK cells by determination of the bQ'/o tissue culture infective dose 
(TCID 50 ) at 48-120 hrs. post-infection. 

Cytochalasin B (Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, Wis.) was dis- 
solved in dimethyl sulfoxide as described by Prescott et al. (9). Cell 
enucleation was carried out using- the system described previously (3). 

Purification of globulin fraction was performed as described by 
Kanitz (7). The eluate from the column was finally concentrated 10- 
fold with Aquacide II. Protein concentration was determined by the 
biuret method (8). Highly purified bovine serum albumin was used 
as the standard. 

Identification of viral antigens with immunodiffusion tests and 
quantitative assays with rocket immunoelectrophoresis were conducted 
according to Sun et al (10). 

Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was done as described by Vester- 
gaard (12) with a few modifications. Glass plates (9.4 cm by 8.4 cm) 
were used and were covered with 1.5 mm thick 1% (wt/vol) agarose 
(Nutritional Biochemicals Corporation), dissolved in a buffer as de- 
scribed previously (11, 14). The first dimensional electrophoresis was 
performed for 90 min. at 12.7 v/cm of gel and the second dimensional 
electrophoresis was completed in 15 hr. at 6 v/cm of gel. The plates 
were then dried, stained, and treated as described (11, 14). In the 
first-dimensional electrophoresis, a neutral detergent, Triton X-100 
(0.5%) and an anionic detergent, sodium deoxycholate (0.05%) were 
incorporated in the agarose gel. In the second dimensional electro- 
phoresis, the gel contained purified anti-PrV gamma-globulin prepared 
as described above. 

Results 

It had been observed that the virus titer detected in the enucleated 
cell cultures was lower than that detected in the intact cell cultures. 
As shown in Table 1, the surviving viral fraction was a function of 
treatment time. Various lengths of time of enucleation gave host cells 
with various ability to support viral development. After 120 min. of 
treatment, the virus titer already dropped four log units. These results 
indicate that the synthesis of PrV viral specific proteins and the 

Table 1. Growth of Pseudorabies Virus (PrV) in Enucleated Pig Kidney Cells 



Time of Treatment 


Virus Titer 


(minutes) 


(TCID 50/ml.) 





10' ! 


30 


10 4 


60 


10 :! 


120 


10- 


180 


10 3 



Cells were infected with PrV-FH at multiplicity of infection (m.o.i. ) = 30. The 
infected cell culture was harvested at 24 hr. of postinfection and assayed in PK-W2E 
cells. 



122 Indiana Academy of Science 

formation of a complete and normal infectious virus do need the pres- 
ence of host nucleus. The formation of defective incomplete virus in 
the enucleated host is possible. 

Table 2 showed that the addition of IP grown in enucleated cells 
(treated for 1 hr. or 2 hr.) to a standard virus inoculum reduced 
the yield of infectious virus by approximately 100 fold, whether the 
cells were exposed both simultaneously (co-infection) or in tandem 
(superinfection). Thus, it was demonstrated that IP contained a factor 
which interfered with the production of infectious virus. 

The effects of incubation with PrV antiserum or of UV light on 
the interfering ability of IP were also tested. Exposure of IP to 
standard antiviral serum for 1 hr. at 37 °C or UV light (20 watts) 
for 5 min. completely lost their interfering ability (Table 3). It is 
therefore clear that the interference with the synthesis of infectious 
virus by IP resides in incomplete particles, which had antigenic prop- 
erties similar to that of standard PrV. 

Table 2. Capacity of Incomplete PrV Particles to Interfere with the Replication of 

Standard PrV 

Infection Virus Titer 

(TCID 50/ml.) 

Standard PrV Control (VC) 10 7 

Incomplete Virus Grown in Cells Treated for 1 Hour (EN 1 H) 10 4 

Incomplete Virus Grown in Cells treated for 2 hours (EN 2 H) 10 3 

VC + EN 1 H (co-infection) 10 5 

VC + EN 2 H (co-infection) 10 5 

VC 1 hr. EN 1 H (superinfection) 10 5 

VC 1 hr. EN 2 H ( superinfection) 10 5 



Cells were infected w 'h VC at m.o.i. = 10 and IP (1ml) in both co-infection and 
superinfection. The infect d cell culture was harvested at 24 hr. of post-infection and 
assayed in PK-W2E cells. 

Table 3. Effect of UV Light and PrV Antiserum on the Interfering Ability of the 

Incomplete Viruses 



Infection Virus Titer 

(TCID 50/ml.) 

Standard PrV Control (VC) 10 7 

Incomplete Virus Grown in Cells Treated for 1 hour (E N I H) 10 4 

EN 1 H + Antiserum (E N I H S) no c.p.e. 

VC + E N I H S 10 7 

VC 1 hr. E N I H S 10 7 

E N I H + 5 min. UV irradiation (E N I H U) no c.p.e. 

VC + E N I H U 10 7 

VC 1 hr. E N I H U 10 7 

ENIHS, cell cultures were infected by 1 ml of IP or ENIH which had incubated for 
1 hr. at 37°C water bath with 1:20 dilution of standard PrV antiserum from swine. 
The infected cultures were washed with phosphate buffer saline to remove unabsorbed 
virus, as well as PrV antiserum. 

ENIHU, cell cultures were exposed to 1 ml of IP or ENIH which had been treated 
with 20 watts of UV lig-ht for 5 min. 



Cell Biology 



123 



An immunodiffusion test (IDT) to analyze the PrV antigen in IP is 
presented in Fig. 1. Wells 7 in Fig. 1A and Fig. IB contained positive 
virus control (PrV grown in intact cells) and tested IP sample (PrV 
grown in cells enucleated for 2 hr.), respectively. Various dilutions 
(undiluted to 32x) of anti-PrV antiserum were filled in surrounding 
wells (1 to 6). The antigenicity of the tested IP sample in Fig. IB 
seemed to be stronger than that of the reference positive control 
(Fig. 1A), for a weakly positive sample always resulted in a precipitin 
band near the sample well. If the normal swine serum was filled in 
the surrounding wells, no precipitin bands were observed. It is there- 
fore concluded that these bands are formed by specific antigen-antibody 
reactions. 






fUJ»$&»&" 



w$m 




Figure 1. Analysis of PrV antigens in IP by immunodifftision test. Equal volumes 
(JtO nl) of virus control (Fig. lA) and IP (Fig. IB) were used in wells 7. Various 
dilutions of anti-PrV sivine serum were filled in the surrounding wells. Wells 1, 2, 3, 
k, 5 and 6 contained undiluted, 2x, kx, 8x, 16x and 32x of antiserum, respectively. 



The accurate concentration of antigenic proteins in IP was also 
investigated through the rocket immunoelectrophoretic technique 
(RIET). A plot of immunoprecipitate distances or areas of PrV stand- 
ards from RIET are shown in Fig. 2. The concentration of antigen is 
directly proportional to the height or the covered area by each rocket. 
IP grown in the enucleated cells did not reduce the amount of viral 
antigenic polypeptide synthesis as shown in Fig. 3. By measuring the 
entire covered area of each rocket and comparing it to that of the 
standard curve (Fig. 2), the antigenicity of IP was determined. The 
quantitative estimate of antigenic proteins in IP was 60 mg/ml, which 
was slightly higher than that of the positive virus control (48 mg/ml). 
Thus, the defectiveness of IP is shown in the lack of infectious ability 
(Table 1), but not in the antigenic protein formation. 



124 



Indiana Academy of Science 



*}i 




/■"\ 



B 



D 



Figure 2. Plots of immunoprecipitate linear spans of PrV standards (0.2mg /\) from 
rocket immunoelectrophoresis. It was performed by applying 60V of field strength for 
15 hr. (A) 0\. (B) 6\. (C) 18\. (D) 5U\. 1\ = 0.001 ml. 



A demonstration of antigenicity in IP with IDT and a quantitation 
of its antigenic proteins with RIET were described above. However, 
identification of individual antigenic determinants presented in the 
immunoelectrophoretic precipitate profile was accomplished by cross 
immunoelectrophoresis. Analysis of individual precipitates presented 
in standard PrV virions is illustrated in Fig. 4. The precipitate 
pattern revealed four antigenic determinants designated as Ag 1, Ag 2, 
Ag 3 and Ag 4. The area outlined by each precipitate is proportional 



Cell Biology 



125 



to the amount of the corresponding antigenic determinant, if the con- 
centration of antibodies in the second-dimensional gel is kept constant. 
Therefore, a quantitative ratio among these four antigenic determinants 
was determined, Ag l:Ag 2: Ag 3:Ag 4 = 2:1:2:5. A comparison of 
the precipitin profile between PrV grown in intact cells and IP from 
enucleated cells is in progress. Any alteration of the quantitative ratio 
of these four antigenic determinants in IP is investigated. 



f~\ 



B 






Figure 3. Immunoelectrophoretic quantitation of antigenic protein in IP. (A) Control 
virus grown in intact cells (50\), (B) IP grown in enucleated cells (50\), (C) standard 

PrV (2mg). 



126 Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 4. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns of standard PrV precipitating antigens. 
First dimensional and second dimensional electrophoresis were performed as described in 
materials and methods. 75\ of standard viral antigen was put into the well. 1: first 
antigenic determinant (Ag 1); 2: second antigenic determinant (Ag 2); 3: third antigenic 
determinant (Ag 3) and 4' fourth antigenic determinant (Ag U) • 

Discussion 

The formation of IP in enucleated cells could be due to an altera- 
tion of the regular protein synthesis pattern, such as inhibitor modi- 
fication. The pattern of herpesviral protein synthesis in enucleated host 
differed in several respects from those found in intact cells, was reported 
(3, 6). 

Our results showing that IP when formed in the enucleated cells, 
lost its infectivity (Table 1), but retained antigenicity (Fig. 1 and 3) 
are reminiscent of an observation by Von Magnus (13), who found 
there was formation of non-infectious but hemagglutinating particles of 
the influenza virus. 

The increase in the ability of IP to react with anti-PrV swine serum 
(Fig. 3) could be due either to the formation of more antigenic poly- 
peptides in the pool of IP for reaction with anti-PrV antibodies or to 
the retention of critical molecular sizes or protein charges of incom- 
plete virion in comparison with those of mature intact virions, which 
increase anodal electrophoretic mobility during immunoanalysis. 

We have applied both a neutral detergent, Triton X-100 (0.5%) 
and an anionic detergent, sodium deoxycholate (0.05%) in our two 
dimensional (crossed) immunoelectrophoresis. The electrophoretic mo- 
bility of amphilic proteins in the virus can be altered by the so-called 
"charge-shift electrophoresis" (5) due to anodic migration, and the res- 



Cell Biology 127 

olution of antigens is greatly improved in our two-dimensional Immuno- 
electrophoresis by the incorporation of these detergents. This type of 
combination of "charged-shift" electrophoresis with regular two- 
dimensional Immunoelectrophoresis thus permitted us to have a better 
identification of antigenic determinants. 

Our previous studies of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of mem- 
brane-bound viral antigenic protein gave four subunits with molecular 
weights of 61,500, 68,000, 75,000 and 88,000 (11). In this study the 
crossed Immunoelectrophoresis of standard PrV also indicates four anti- 
genic determinants. It is possible that the four subunits we found in 
the previous study correspond to these four antigenic determinants 
observed in the two dimensional Immunoelectrophoresis. 

In summary, we can say that IP differ from the fully active 
standard virions by the apparent lack of infectivity (Table 1), by their 
capacity to inferfere with the propagation of infectious virus (Table 2), 
and by having a slightly larger quantity of antigenic proteins (Fig. 3). 



Literature Cited 

1. Black, D. N. and F. Brown. 1968. The influence of mitomycin C, actinomycin D 
and ultraviolet light on the replication of the viruses of foot-and-mouth disease 
and vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 3:453-457. 

2. Carter, S. B. 1967. Effects of cytochalasins on mammalian cells. Nature 213:361-364. 

3. Fenwich, M. and B. Reizman. 1977. Regulation of herpesvirus macromolecular 
synthesis. VI. Synthesis and modification of viral polypeptides in enucleated cells. 
J. Virol. 22:720-725. 

4. Follett, E. A. C., C. R. Pringle and T. H. Pennington. 1975. Virus development 
in enucleate cells. J. Gen. Virol. 26:183-196. 

5. Helenius, A. and K. Simmons. 1977. Charge shift electrophoresis: simple method 
for distinguishing between amphilic and hydrophilic proteins in detergent solution. 
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74:529-532. 

6. Honess, R. W. and B. Reizman. 1975. Regulation of herpesvirus macromolecular 
synthesis sequential transition of polypeptide synthesis requires functional viral 
polypeptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:1276-1280. 

7. Kanitz, C. L. 1972. Studies of the resistance to viral infection of tissue culture 
cell lines derived from myoclonic pigs. PhD. Thesis, Purdue University. 

8. Layne, E. 1957. Spectrophotometric and turbidimetric methods for measuring 
proteins. III. Biuret method. Methods Enzymol. 3:450-451. 

9. Prescott, D. M., D. Myerson and J. Wallace. 1972. Enucleation of mammalian 
cells with cytochalasin B. Exp. Cell Res. 71 :480-485. 

10. Sun, I. L., D. P. Gustapson and G. Scherba. 1978. Comparison of pseudorabies 
virus inactivated by bromo-ethylene-imine, lif 'Co irradiation and acridine dye in 
immune assay systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:604-611. 

11. Sun, I. L., J. C. Wang and D. P. Gustafson. 1979. Antigenicity of solubilized 
protein from cells infected with pseudorabies virus. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 88: in 
press. 

12. Vestergaard, B. F. 1973. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic characterization of herpes- 
virus hominis type 1 and 2 antigens. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect B. 
81:808-810. 

13. Von Magnus, P. 1954. Incomplete forms of influenza virus. Advan. Virus Res. 
2:59-79. 

14. Wallis, C. and J. L. Melnick. 1964. Irreversible photosensitization of viruses. 
Virology. 23:520-527. 



CHEMISTRY 

Chairman: John R. Ricketts 
DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135 

Chairman-Elect: Edward Miller 
Manchester College, North Manchester, Indiana 46962 

Copper-zinc Superoxide Dismutase Stability in Water-miscible Organic 
Solvent Systems. Darlene K. Taylor and Eric R. Johnson, Department 
of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. A super- 
oxide dismutase assay system has been adapted for use in aqueous 
solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide. The photochemical re- 
duction of nitroblue tetrazolium to formazan in these solvent systems 
is at least 95% inhibited by copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, indicating 
that the reaction is mediated by superoxide anion. The observation that 
copper-zinc superoxide dismutase exhibits its activity in these solvent 
systems implies an unusual stability against solvent denaturation ef- 
fects. Prolonged exposure of this enzyme to aqueous solutions of 50% 
ethanol of 50% dimethylsulfoxide at 25 °C results in only small losses 
of superoxide dismutase activity. 

Studies on the Specificity of a Denaturant-stable Protease Isolated from 
a Commercial Protease Preparation, Pronase. Brenda R. Lindley and 
Eric R. Johnson, Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana 47306. A serine protease, with an active site sequence 

similar to chymotrypsin (S. Siegel, et al, J. Biol. Chem. 24-7 4155-4159 
(1972)) has been found to rapidly inactivate hen egg lysozyme by 
proteolysis in the presence of 6.0 M guanidine hydrochloride. The 
protease is thus stable and active under conditions that denature the 
protein substrate. No detectable proteolysis of lysozyme is observed in 
the absence of denaturant, indicating that unfolding of the lysozyme 
molecules by the addition of denaturant is required to provide access 
to protease cleavage sites. Thin-layer peptide mapping studies suggest 
that this proteolysis is reproducible on irreversibly denatured proteins 
in the absence of denaturant, implying a specificity of cleavage of the 
protein substrate. This cleavage specificity appears to be retained in 
the presence of the denaturant, 6.0 M guanidine hydrochloride. 

Anion Effects on the Thermal Denaturation of Bovine Copper-zinc 
Superoxide Dismutase. Douglas B. Williams and Eric R. Johnson, 
Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 
47306. Bovine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (BESOD) is unusual- 
ly resistant to irreversible thermal denaturation at temperatures up to 
100 °C. The unusual stability of this enzyme appears to be dependent on 
the ionic strength of the medium, the rate of denaturation increasing 
with increasing ionic strength. The thermal denaturation of BESOD is 
apparently similar in solutions containing chloride and sulfate anions, 
while phosphate anions enhance the thermal denaturation of this enzyme 
markedly. The specific phosphate effect can be explained by the com- 

128 



Chemistry 129 

plexation of phosphate anions with Cu 2+ ions required for BESOD 
activity or by the conformational instability caused by charge repulsion 
between phosphate anions bound to the BESOD molecules. 

Molar Refractions — A New Look at an Old Term. Eugene Schwartz, 
Department of Chemistry, DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

46135. Molar refractions (electronic polarizations) were obtained for a 

number of conjugated and non-conjugated molecules in several solvents 
at 25.0 °C. A differential refractometer was used to measure the re- 
fractive indices of the solutions at the mercury green line. Calculation 
of the molar refractions was done by the method of Halverstadt and 
Kumler. Reproducibility of results was better than 0.05 cc in most 
cases. Molar refractions obtained in this way for non-conjugated mole- 
cules in benzene solution were within about 0.4 r /o (0.1 cc) of the re- 
fractions for these molecules calculated from the densities and refractive 
indices of the pure liquids. Deviations of the solution results from 
the values calculated from the pure liquids were greater for the 
conjugated molecules, the solution result being larger. Molar refractions 
of both conjugated and non-conjugated molecules obtained from measure- 
ments in cyclohexane were larger than the corresponding results for 
benzene solution, the difference again being greater for the conjugated 
systems. Substitution of a chlorine or bromine for hydrogen on benzene 
produces a considerable enhancement of the molar refraction over that 
obtained for the analogous substitution on an aliphatic molecule. This 
enhancement, which is indicative of a loosening of the electronic struc- 
ture in the conjugated system, decreases as additional halogen is 
substituted onto the ring. Similar enhancement is shown by substitution 
on 1,4-benzoquinone. 

Ligand Steric Effects on Tungsten (0) Substitution Reactions. Lois M. 
Ounapu, John H. Risley, J. A. Mosbo, and B. N. Storhoff, Ball State 
University. The cis-trans distributions of W(CO) 4 L 2 complexes ob- 
tained from the reaction of W(CO) 4 (tmpa) + 2L (tmpa = N,N,N',N'- 
tetramethyl-l,3-propanediamine) were studied for two series of elec- 
tronically similar, but sterically different phosphine ligands. The two 
series of ligands included methyl-, ethyl-, isopropyl- and tert-butyldi- 
phenylphosphine, and triphenyl-, tri-/>tolyl- and tri-o-tolylphosphine. 
The cis-trans ratios, obtained from 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance 
chemical shifts, were discussed in terms of the proposed reaction mechan- 
ism and ligand size as defined by cone angles. 

Equilibria Between Diols and the NMR Shift Reagent Eu (fod) s . Lois 
M. Ounapu, P. L. Rock, T. L. Kruger, and J. A. Mosbo, Bali State 

University. The solution equilibria between a difunctional molecule, 

S, and the lanthanide shift reagent Eu(fod).>, L, can include three 
product forms: LS and LS. ( where the substrate functions as a mono- 
dentate ligand, and LS 1( where a single substrate functions as a 
bidentate ligand. An iterative computer program was used to fit ex- 
perimental and calculated NMR proton chemical shifts while optimizing 
the parameters of equilibrium constants and limiting chemical shifts. 
Results were compared from fits of (1) LS b parameters only, (2) 



130 



Indiana Academy of Science 



LS b and LS parameters only, and (3) LS h , LS and LS 2 parameters 
for the strongly chelating a!,/-2,4-pentanediol, the more weakly chelating 
cis-l,3-cyclohexanediol, and the non-chelating ira?is-l,3-cyclohexanediol. 
The viability of single equilibruim constant fits for each type of diol 
were discussed. 

The Dehydration of 2-Methyl-l-Phenylcyclohexanol. Howard Dunn, 
Andrew Jorgensen, Robert Deweese and Michael Walker, Chemistry 
Department, Indiana State University-Evansville, Evansville, Indiana 

47712. Competing factors in the placement of a double bond upon 

dehydration of 2-methyl-l-phenylcyclohexanol, 1, were studied. Dehydra- 
tion of 1 resulting in the formation of l-methyl-2-phenylcyclohexene, 
2, would place the double bond in the most substituted position. This 
would, however, lock the phenyl group into the same plane with the 
methyl group and thus lead tc steric interactions. A dehydration product 
of 3-methyl-2-phenylcyclohexene, 3, would relieve the steric strain but 
would place the double bond in a less substituted position. 

The dehydration reaction was carried out and the products were 
isolated, quantified, and identified. A discussion of the results and 
spectral interpretation will be presented. 



^^ 



^^ 




r^ 




I. 



2. 



3. 



Phosphorous Ligand Cone Angles from MINDO/3 Optimized Geometries. 
Janice T. DeSanto, P. L. Bock, J. A. Mosbo, and B. N. Storhoff, Ball 

State University. The modified neglect of differential overlap 

(MINDO/3) technique was used to obtain optimized geometries (bond 
lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) of twelve phosphine com- 
pounds. Although computer program limitations precluded inclusion 
of compounds with greater numbers of atoms, calculations were per- 
formed on an additional five phosphines containing phenyl and substi- 
tuted-phenyl groups by deleting atoms from portions of the phenyl rings. 
This appears to be a useful procedure, particularly for o-tolyl species, 
as illustrated by the excellent agreement between the calculated 
geometries of o-tolylphosphine obtained when all atoms were included 
versus that obtained when portions of the o-tolyl ring were deleted. 

The MINDO/3 atom positions were used to calculate ligand cone 
angles, a measure of ligand size. The results were compared to previously 
published values obtained from measurements of CPK models. 



Chemistry 131 

Ambidentate Phosphine Ligands. Daniel P. Harper and Bruce N. 

Storhoff, Ball State University. Synthetic routes to several biden- 

tate ligands, each with two types of donor sites, will be described. The lig- 
ands are of the types R 2 P(0) (CH 2 ) n CN, R 2 P(CH 2 ) n CN, R 2 P(CH 2 ) n 
C0 2 R, and R 1 ,P(CN 1 ,) 11 OH. The cyano-phosphines and oxides are ob- 
tained from R 2 POCH 3 and X(CH 2 ) n CN (X = Cl,Br) via Arbuzov re- 
actions. Thus, (C 6 H 5 ) 2 P(0) (CH 2 ) 3 CN is obtained in ca. 70% yield 
from Br(CH 2 ) 3 CN and (C 6 H 5 ) 2 POCH 3 . The phosphines are obtained 
by selective reductions of the P(O) function. The other functional 
groups, such as CO..R, are subsequently obtained from the nitrile 
group. 

The Chlorination of Several 2-Pyridones. Donald J. Cook and Larry 

Boardman, DePauw University. In some unreported work done at 

DePauw University over the past ten years it was noted that the 
reaction of elemental bromine on 2-quinolones and 2-pyridones in a 
carbon tetrachloride solution resulted in the formation of what appear 
to be 1:1 molecular complexes between the quinolones or pyridones 
and the bromine molecule. These complexes decompose to the starting 
materials on standing, can be used to brominate an alkene or can enter 
into a substitution reacting with methyl ketones. The present work 
was initiated to investigate the possibility that chlorine reacted with 
2-pyridones in the same manner. 

A study of the chlorination reaction has shown that no molecular 
complex is formed but the substitution of chlorine in the 3 or 5 position 
of the pyridone ring occurs and the 3- or 5-chloro-2-pyridone hydro- 
chloride precipitates from the chloroform or carbon tetrachloride solvent. 
The chlorination of 3-methyl, 4-methyl, 5-methyl, 6-methyl, 1-methyl, 
1,3-dimethyl, 1,4-dimethyl, 1,5-dimethyl, 1,6-dimethyl and unsubstituted 
2-pyridones was studied. 

The Stereospecificity of A New Photochemical Synthesis of /3-Lactam 
Molecules. Lynn Sousa, Kevin Willard and Marcus McKinley, Ball 

State University. The ^-lactam ring is essential to the antibiotic 

activity of penicillin and cephalosporin medicinals. Generally, /3-lactams 
are not active antibiotics unless substituents at ring carbons 3 and 4 
have the cis geometry. We have tested the stereo-specificity of a new 
(Sousa, Johnson, and Fazio-unpublished work) photochemical /^-lactam 
synthesis. Photolysis of £raws-l,l-dioxo-2-(2-furyl)-l,3-dimethylthiazoli- 
din-4-one produced the tra >?s-4-(2-furyl)-l,3-dimethylazetidin-2-one 
(trans /^-lactam) in moderate yield. Fortunately, the corresponding cis 
thiazolidinone gives mainly the desired cis /3-lactam upon photolysis. 

The Synthesis and Properties of Tris- (u-1 -substituted tetrazole) hexa 
carbonyldimolybdenum Complexes. Lawrence L. Garber, Indiana Univer- 
sity at South Bend. TVis-acetonitrilemolybdenum tricarbonyl reacts 

with various 1-substituted tetrazoles (molar ratio, 1:2) in the solvent 
methylene chloride at room temperature to form, almost quantitatively, 
(CO)oMo(l-RTKMo(CO).,. The structure of 1-substituted tetrazole is 



132 Indiana Academy of Science 

H 

t. R= CHo (1-MT) 



A 

R-Nl 4N 
\»1 



3 
C 6 H 5 (1-PT) 

C 6 H X1 (1-CT) 



All of the dimers formed show appreciable stability towards di- 
oxygen in the state solid with the 1-MT complex exhibiting the least 
stability. These complexes exhibit very limited or no solubility in all 
common solvents except CH 2 C1 2 and acetone where only limited solu- 
bility is exhibited. Solutions of these complexes rapidly decompose upon 
exposure to dioxygen. The solvent DMSO reacts with these dimers re- 
sulting in the replacement of the tetrazole and forming a product 
believed to be, based upon IR and NMR data, /ac-Mo(CO) 3 (DMSO) 3 . 

The infrared spectra (solvent, CH 2 C1 2 ) of the 1-MT and 1-CT 
complexes each exhibit two intense carbonyl stretching frequencies at 
1922 cm 1 and 1805 cm" 1 and 1927 cm 1 and 1813 cm" 1 , respectively. 
These results suggest that the symmetry about each molybdenum atom 
is C., v with a facial arrangement of ligands. In the case of the 1-PT 
complex the infrared spectrum shows considerable more complexity in 
the carbonyl region. A weak band is observed at 1948 cm -1 , an intense 
band at 1922 cm" 1 and a broad, intense, band centered at 1804 cm 1 
with shoulders at 1820 cm -1 , 1816 cm 4 , and 1796 cm 1 . This suggests 
that the symmetry about each molybdenum is less than C 3v which 
indicates possible interaction between the two molybdenum tricarbonyl 
moieties. Similar results were observed in the solid state for all three 
complexes. 

These tribridging complexes may be treated by the Cotton-Kraihanzel 
method assuming that the above assignments are correct. The stretching 
carbonyl force constant and interaction constant for the 1-MT and 
1-CT in mdyn/A are 13.74, 0.59 and 13.85, 0.57, respectively. This result 
suggests that the interaction between molybdenum and the bridging 
tetrazoles involves some 7r-bonding as well as o--bonding. 

All proton NMR signals for the complexes are shifted downfield 
from those observed for the uncomplexed tetrazoles. A considerable 
downfield shift (0.66 ppm for 1-CT complex, 0.71 ppm for 1-PT, 0.72 
ppm for 1-MT) is observed for the proton bonded to the ring carbon. 
These shifts indicate an increase in C-H electron densities. 

The bonding of the tetrazole to the molybdenum atoms in these 
dimers most likely involves N(3) and N(4). Reasons for this will be 
presented. 

The Application of Isoelectric pH and Isoelectric Point (Isokinetic 
Potential) for Solids — Liquid Separation. Robert H. L. Howe, West 

Lafayette, Indiana and Roberta C. Howe, Seattle, Washington. The 

principle of applying the isoelectric pH and isoelectric point (Isokinetic 
Potential) to solids — liquid separation in a colloidal system is dis- 
cussed. Examples of determining the isoelectric point are presented. 



Gas Chromatographic Determination of Organic Compounds 

in River Water 

Joseph R. Siefker and Paul E. Catt 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Introduction 

There is interest in determining the concentrations of organic 
compounds in river water as is evidenced in a recent report in which 
a study on ninety-nine compounds is given (11). Our paper reports on 
the analysis of nine organic compounds in Embarrass River water 
samples taken at Lawrenceville, Illinois. The Embarrass River rises in 
Champaign County, 111., and flows in a southerly direction to Newton. 
It then flows southeast to join the Wabash River near St. Francisville 
at the Indiana-Illinois border, about sixty miles north of the confluence 
of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers. 

Experimental 

Between fall 1975 and spring 1977, sixteen grab samples of 2.5 1 
each were collected from the central channel of the Embarrass River. 
The concentrations of nine organic compounds were determined in these 
samples using liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography. 

Liquid-liquid extraction has been widely used with a variety of 
solvents. The choice of solvents used depends upon the type of organic 
compounds of interest. To extract petroleum products from natural 
water, DelPAcqua et al., (3, 4) and Garza and Muth (5) used hexane 
as the solvent. Adams (1) used a similar procedure with hexane to 
determine petroleum products in waste water. Jeltes (9) and Jeltes 
and Veldink (8) used nitrobenzene for the extraction of gasoline and 
diesel fuel from polluted ground water. They used carbon tetrachloride 
for extraction of heavier petroleum fractions. However, they found that 
carbon tetrachloride, ether, and carbon disulfide were not suitable for 
gasoline determinations. Novak et al. (10) reported that both carbon 
tetrachloride and nitrobenzene were not suitable to extract organic 
substances from polluted drinking water. Boylan and Tripp (2) used 
pentane in their determination of crude oil solubility in sea water. 
Pentane was also used by Grob et al., (6) to analyze tap and natural 
water for a wide variety of organic compounds. Warner (12) has re- 
cently reported the use of ether extraction for the determination of 
petroleum components. To show the relationship between urban storm- 
water runoff and organic contaminants in river water, Hites and Bie- 
mann (7) used methylene chloride as a solvent. A wide variety of 
solvents have been and are being used for the extraction of organic 
compounds in water, as can be seen by the above examples. 

Our choice for the extraction solvent was 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaptha- 
lene (tetralin). Samples collected from the surface of the central chan- 

133 



134 Indiana Academy of Science 

nel of the river were transferred immediately into clean glass bottles 
equipped with foil-lined caps. Samples were extracted in the glass 
bottles in which they had been obtained. Ten ml of tetralin was added 
to the sample along with 1 ml concentrated sulfuric acid and 5 g 
sodium chloride. Samples were shaken for 2 minutes. The two layers 
were separated by use of a separatory funnel. After the water had 
been drawn off, the tetralin layer was filtered through glass wool, 
previously washed with tetralin, into a separatory funnel. The glass 
wool was used to break the emulsion formed. The water was again 
placed in the bottle and an additional 10 ml of tetralin was added. The 
procedure was then repeated and the volume of the sample was measured 
after the second extraction. The tetralin portions were combined in 
the separatory funnel and any additional water separated was removed. 
The tetralin was then dried for 15 minutes over anhydrous calcium 
chloride and transferred to a 25 ml volumetric flask and diluted to 
25 ml. Ten /J of this sample was injected into a gas chromatograph 
for analysis. The tetralin used was Fisher purified, which had been 
dried and distilled twice. All other reagents were ACS grade. 

Instrumentation 

A model 5711-A Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph was used. It 
was equipped with a dual fiame ionization detector and a linear tempera- 
ture programmer. The columns used were matched 12 ft. x x k in. O. D. 
stainless steel, packed with 5% of SE-30 (silicone gum rubber) on 80- 
100 mesh high performance acid-washed dimethyldichlorosilane treated 
chromosorb G. The recorder used was a Houston Instrument Omni- 
Scribe dual pen recorder with a built-in integrator. Gas flows were 60 
ml /minute for hydrogen, 240 ml /minute for air, and 60 ml /minute for 
the carrier gas helium. Conditions used were as follows: column oven, 
initial temperature 40 °C, final temperature 130° C; rate of heating 16° 
C/minute; initial time 8 minutes, final time 16 minutes; injection port 
temperature 150 °C; and detector temperature 150 °C. 

Results and Discussion 

The maximum concentration detected and the number of samples 
in which each of the compounds was detected are given in Table I. The 
compounds are listed according to the order of their retention times 
with toluene eluting last. Pentane and hexane were detected at the 
highest concentrations, and the average concentrations were calculated 
to be 1.3 and 1.7 ppb, respectively. In 15 samples, 1-hexene, 2-hexene, 
and cyclohexane were detected, and the averages were 0.5, 0.4, and 0.6 
ppb, respectively. For the 14 samples where cyclohexene was detected, 
the average was 1.3 ppb. Averages for the five samples in which 
heptane, methylcyclohexane, and toluene were detected were 1.1, 1.1, 
and 1.4 ppb, respectively. 

Nine organic compounds were readily detected and quantitated by 
our methods. The Embarrass River drains much of an area in southern 
Illinois having crude oil production. The possible sources for these 
compounds could be runoff from numerous oil wells in the area and 



Chemistry 



135 



possibly biological activity or other natural sources. The results ob- 
tained indicated that our analytical methods and techniques are useful 
for determining 1 concentrations as low as 0.1 ppb. 

Table 1. Maximum concentrations in parts per billion of nine selected organic com- 
pounds in Embarrass River water samples and number of samples in which the compounds 

were detected. 



Compounds 



Max. concn ppb 



No. of samples detected in 
(16 possible) 



pentane 

1-hexene 

hexane 

2-hexene 

cyclohexane 

cyclohexene 

heptane 

methylcyclohexane 

toluene 



4.7 
2.6 
7.7 
1.6 

2.:; 

2.S 
3.6 
3.0 
2.5 



16 

15 

16 

15 

15 

14 

5 

5 

5 



Literature Cited 

1. Adams, I. M. 1967. Oil in effluents. Process Biochem. 2:33-34. 

2. Boylan, D. B., and B. W. Tripp. 1971. Determination of hydrocarbons in sea water 
extracts of crude oil and crude oil fractions. Nature (London) 230:44-47. 

3. Dell'Acqua, R. and B. Bush. 1973. Microdetermination of gasoline in potable waters 
by gas chromatography. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 3:141-146. 

4. Dell'Acqua, R., J. A. Egan, and B. Bush. 1975. Identification of petroleum products 
in natural water by gas chromatography. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9:38-41. 

5. Garza, M. E., Jr. and J. Muth. 1974. Characterization of crude, semi-refined oils by 
gas liquid chromatography. Environ. Sci. Technol. 8:249-255. 

6. GROB, K., K. Grob, Jr., and G. Grob. 1975. Organic substances in potable water and 
and in its precursor. J. Chromatogr. 106:299-315. 

7. Hites, R. A. and K. Biemann. 1972. Organic Compounds in the Charles River, Bos- 
ton. Science 178:158-160. 

8. Jeltes, R. and R. Veldink. 1967. The gas chromatographic determination of gasoline 
in water. J. Chromatogr. 27:242-245. 

9. Jeltes, R. 1969. Gas chromatographic determination of mineral oil in water. Water 
Res. 3:931-941. 



10. 



11. 



Novak, J., J. Zluticky, V. Kubelka, and J. Mostecky. 1973. Analysis of organic 
constituents present in drinking water. J. Chromatcgr. 76:45-50. 

Sheldon, L. S. and R. A. Hites. 1978. Organic compounds in the Delaware River. 
Environ. Sci. Technol. 12:1188-1194. 



12. Warner, J. S. 1976. Determination of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in marine 
organisms. Anal. Chem. 48:578-583. 



Tetrahydropyrrolidoacenaphthene and Benzazapropellane 
Derivatives as Potential Analgetics and Narcotic Antagonists 1 

E. Campaigne and E. M. Yokley 

Department of Chemistry 

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Introduction 

The activity of a 3a, 4,5,6-tetrahydroposuccinimido (3,4-b) acenaph- 
then-10-one as a psychotic stimulant and hallucinogen (1) suggested 
the desirability of testing some related structures, containing a fused 
pyrrolidine ring and one or more quaternary carbon atoms, with the 
nitrogen of the pyrrolidine substituted by methyl or allyl, as possible 
analgetics or narcotic antagonists. Principal activity of either type is 
usually associated with polycyclic systems having one or more quater- 
nary bridgehead carbons and a cyclic tertiary amine. 
In general, a benzene ring is held perpendicular to the plane of the 
cyclic amine by cyclic bridging as in the morphinans, or benzomorphans, 
e.g., naloxone (1), or cyclazocine (2), (2). 



HO 




V^^Sl 




HO- 



,HC 




Campaigne, Roelofs and Weddleton (4) had developed synthetic 
procedures for the preparation of the anti-convulsant 3a,4,5,6-tetra- 
hydrosuccinimido [3,4-b] -acenaphthen-10-one, (3) and Campaigne and 
Mehra the azapropellanes 4 and 5 (Scheme I) (5). The N-alkylation 
and subsequent reduction of these compounds would produce structures 
seeming to fit all structural criteria for narcotic agonist and more 
especially antagonist activity. 

Weddleton (8) had investigated the N-alkylation of 3 rather ex- 
tensively and had attempted the reduction of the N-methyl derivative, 
6a. Campaigne and Mehra (5) prepared a variety of N-substituted 
derivatives of 4, including 7a and 7b, and studied the reduction of 7a 
to form 10a. With this background, we prepared compounds 9, 10 and 



1 This is contribution No. 3343 from the Chemistry Department of Indiana University, 
taken in part from a thesis submitted by EMY in partial fulfillment of the requirements 
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, April, 1973. This work was supported in part by 
Drug Abuse Center Research Grant 1-R03-DA 00559-01, National Institute of Mental 
Health, to Indiana University. 



136 



Chemistry 



137 



11 (Scheme I) where R = methyl or allyl, in sufficient quantities to 
permit their biological screening. 

Chemistry. Alkylation of 4 and 5 was accomplished using methyl 
iodide or allyl bromide in the presence of two equivalents of potassium 
carbonate. In the case of 3b, sodium hydride oil dispersion was employed 
as the base. All of the reductions were run in tetrahydrofuran solution 
with tenfold molar excess lithium aluminum hydride. The resulting 
amino alcohols were obtained free of intermediate reduction products ; 

Scheme 1 








7 a,b 




8 a,b q 



d, R*CH 3 
b, R = CH 2 CH=CH 2 






^^ 



9 a,b 



10 a,b 



11 a,b 



138 Indiana Academy of Science 

this being demonstrated by the lack of any observable carbonyl ab- 
sorption in the infrared spectra of the crude reaction products. 

Since the amino alcohols 9, 10, and 11 gave hygroscopic hydrochlor- 
ides, and the use of other salts such as oxalates would complicate the 
biological analysis, the purification of the viscous oily free bases was 
accomplished by distillation of these materials under high vacuum 
from small scale bulb to bulb Hickman flasks, where the distilling bulb 
was packed with glass wool which served both as a bubble source and 
an absorbent for the small amount of colored impurities which were 
present. 

Pharmacological Results. Samples of 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, and lib 
were submitted to the Division of Narcotic Addiction and Drug Abuse, 
National Institutes of Mental Health, Rockville, Maryland for pharma- 
cological evaluation. 

In preliminary pharmacological evaluation, 2 11a showed weak anal- 
getic activity in rats at high doses of 40 mg/kg in the tail pinch and 
phenylquinone writhing tests. Compound lib showed no such activity at 
doses ranging from 7.5 to 30 mg/kg. Neither compound exhibited an- 
tagonism against morphine. 

Samples of 9a, 9b, 10a and 10b were screened for analgetic (pain 
killing) activity by Dr. Everette L. May of U.S. Public Health Service 
Section of Medicinal Chemistry, to whom we are indebted for providing 
the preliminary screening data. Compounds 9a and 10a showed mild 
analgetic activity at doses of 20-40 mg/kg in mice using the Nilsen 
electric shock test (7). Compound 9b also exhibited very weak analgetic 
activity at 20-40 mg/kg. A typical ED 50 for morphine in such tests is 
0.8 mg kg. These compounds were inactive as morphine antagonists in 
morphine-dependent monkeys. 

In summary, all of the N-methyl compounds prepared in this in- 
vestigation exhibited weak analgetic activity at high dose levels. The 
N-allyl compounds are generally inactive as analgetics. 

Experimental 

Melting points were determined in open capillary tubes in a Mel- 
Temp heated block apparatus and are corrected. A Perkin-Elmer Model 
137 Infrared Spectrophotometer was used to record all infrared spectra 
in the range 2.5 to 15 fi. All solids were measured in potassium bromide 
mulls, and all liquids were measured as liquid films. Mass spectra were 
obtained on a Varian Associated CH-7 mass spectrometer. Exact masses 
were determined on an AE1 MS-9 double focusing mass spectrometer. 
Microanalyses were performed by Midwest Microlab, Inc., Indianapolis, 
Indiana. 
N-Methyl-3a,4,5,6,tetrahydrosuccinimido-[3,4-b]acenaphthen 10-one. (6a) 

Following a modification of the procedure of Calberson and Wilder 
(3), a mixture of 5 g (0.02 mole) of 3 (4), 5.7 g (0.04 mole) of potas- 



2 We are indebted to Jo Ann Nuite, National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda, 
Maryland, for these preliminary results. 



Chemistry 139 

sium carbonate, and 2.84 g. (0.02 mole) of methyl iodide in 25 ml of 
DMF was stirred at room temp, for 20 hours and poured over 250 g. 
of ice. The resulting precipitate was recrystallized from 95% ethanol to 
yield 4.84 g. (95%) of white crystals melting at 152-153.5°. 

Anal. Calcd. for C 15 H 13 N0 3 : C, 70.57; H, 5.31; N, 5.49. Found: 
C, 70.94; H, 5.45; N, 5.31.' 

N-Allyl-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydrosuccinimido-[3,4]acenaphthen-10-one. (6b) 

A 250 ml round bottom flask was charged with 24.1 g (0.1 mole) 
of 3, 75 ml dry DMF, and 4.2 g (0.1 mole of 56% sodium hydride oil 
dispersion. The mixture was stirred at room temp, and when evolution 
of gas ceased, 12.1 g (8.65 ml, 0.1 mole) of allyl bromide was added. 
The mixture was allowed to stir 20 hours at room temp., then poured 
into 300 ml of water, to form an oily precipitate. The water was de- 
canted and the remaining mass triturated with hexane. The resulting 
grayish solid 6 was recrystallized from isopropanol yielding 23.3 g 
(83%) of white crystals, mp 106-108°. After two recrystallizations, the 
analytical sample melted at 110-111° (8). 

Anal. Calcd. for C 17 H 16 NO ;5 : C, 72.34; H, 5.67; N, 4.96. Found: 
C, 72.49; H, 5.51; N, 4.95. 
8-Methyl-7,9-dioxo-ll,12-benzo-8-aza[4.3.3]propellan-10-one. (8a). 

To a solution of 1 g (3.93 mmole) of 5 (5) in 20 ml dry DMF 
was added 1.1 g (8.0 mmole) of potassium carbonate and 0.25 ml 
(0.57 g, 4.0 mmole) of methyl iodide. The reaction mixture was stirred 
24 hours at room temp, then poured into 100 g crushed ice. The result- 
ing precipitate and aqueous solution was extracted with ether (2 x 75 
ml) and the ether extracts dried over magnesium sulfate. Evaporation 
of the ether yielded 1.32 g (91%) of a slightly yellow oil which solidi- 
fied under vacuum to white microcrystals, mp 125-129°. Recrystallization 
from cyclohexane yielded 8a as microprisms, mp 125-126.5°; i.f. (/x) 
3.5 (C-H), 5.8-6.1 (CO), 13.3 (ArH). 

Anal. Calcd for C 16 H 15 N0 8 : C, 71.30; H, 5.57; N, 5.21; MW, 269. 
Found: C, 71.68; H, 5.44; " N, 5.25; M+269. 

8-Allyl-7,9-dioxo-ll,12-benzo-8-aza[4.3.3]propellan-10-one. (8b). 

In a similar manner, 1.0 g of 5 was allowed to react with 0.35 ml 
(0.48 g, 4.0 mmole) of a allyl bromide, to produce 1.0 g (95%) of a 
yellow-green oil which was crystallized from dilute ethanol to give 
white crystals of 8b, mp 74-75°; i.r. (fi) 3.30, 3.45, 3.52 (C-H), 5.65, 
5.85, 6.03 (CO), 13.25 (ArH). 

Anal. Calcd. for C 18 H 18 NO ;i : C, 72.97; H, 6.08; N, 4.73; MW, 295. 
Found: C, 73.10; H, 5.98; N, 4.63; M+295. 

N-Methyl-3a,4,5,6,-tetrahydropyrrolido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-ol. (9a). 

The procedure of Weddleton (8) was used as follows: to a sus- 
pension of 6 g (0.1 mole) of LAH in dry THF was added a solution 
of 2.55 g (0.01 mole) of 6a dissolved in 75 ml dry THF. The mixture 
was brought to gentle reflux. After 20 hours the reaction was quenched 
with water and 6N sodium hydroxide as described by Fieser (6), and 
the THF solution dried over magnesium sulfate. Evaporation of the 



140 Indiana Academy of Science 

solvent yielded 2.21 g (97%) of 9a as a light brown oil. Bulb to bulb 
distillation of 200° II. 00 mm gave 2.15 g of 9a as a clear yellow glass; 
i.r. (fi) 2.85 (OH), 13.0 (ArH) ; Calcd. for C 15 H 19 NO: exact mass, 
229.1467. Found: 229.1468. 

The hydrochloride of 9a was obtained from ether and dry HC1 
as a white hygroscopic solid, melting at 256-258° (dec) after recrys- 
tallization from isopropanol (8). 

Anal. Calcd. for C ir) H 2() ClNO: C, 67.78; H, 7.59; N, 5.27; CI, 13.34. 
Found: C, 67.70; H, 7.68; N, 5.11; CI, 13.31. 
N-Allyl-3a,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-ol. (9b). 

A solution of 2.81 g (0.01 mole) of 6b dissolved in 45 ml of dry 
THF was added dropwise to a slurry of 6 g (0.1 mole) of LAH in 
50 ml of the same solvent. The system was then allowed to gently 
reflux for 48 hours, and worked up as before to yield 2.4 g (94%) 
of a tan oil. Bulb to bulb distillation at 200° /1.0 mm yielded 9b as a clear 
yellow glass: i.r. (n) 2.96 (OH), 6.0 (C=C), 13.1 (ArH); exact mass, 
calcd. for C 17 H 21 NO: 255.1623; found: 255.1601. 

3-Methyl-7,8-benzo-3-aza[3.3.3]propellan-6-ol. (10a). 

Following a procedure previously reported (5), 2.1 g (9.15 mmole) 
of 7a was dissolved in 50 ml dry THF and added dropwise to a slurry 
of 6.0 g (0.10 mole) of LAH in the same solvent. After 24 hours of 
gentle reflux, the reaction was quenched and worked up as previously 
described yielding 1.3 g of 10a (56.7%) as a tan oil. Bulb to bulb 
distillation yielded analytical 10a at 120°/0.15 mm; as a colorless viscous 
oil; i.r. ( M ) 2.9 (OH), 13.3, 14.1 (ArH); calcd. for C 15 H 1{) NO: exact 
mass, 229.1472; found: 229.1467. The hydrochloride (ether, dry HC1) 
melted at 222-224° (dec.) as previously reported (5). 
3-Allyl-7,8-benzo-3-aza [3.3.3] propellan-6-ol. ( 10b) . 

A slurry of 1.4 g (5.8 mmole) of 7b (5) and 2.0 g (50 mmole) of 
LAH in 200 ml dry THF was gently refluxed for 6V2 days. After work- 
ing up, the filtrate was dried and the solvent removed under vacuum, 
yielding 1.2 g (90%) of 10b as a slightly tan viscous oil. Bulb to bulb 
distillation from a 135-140° oil bath at 0.17 mm produced a clear color- 
less glass; i.r. (^) 2.9 (OH), 10.9 (allyl), 13.2 (ArH); exact mass, calcd. 
for C 17 H 21 NO: 255.1623; found: 255.1629. 
8-Methyl-ll,12-benzo-8-aza[4.3.3]propellan-10-ol. (11a). 

A solution of 1.34 g (5 mmole) of 8a dissolved in 50 ml of dry THF 
was dropped into a slurry of 2.0 g (50 mmole) of LAH in 75 ml of the 
same solvent. The mixture was refluxed 36 hours, then worked up as 
before, yielding 1.3 g of 11a as a slightly cloudy colorless oil. Bulb to 
bulb distillation (95°/0.15 mm) produced 1.20 g (97%) of 11a as a 
colorless oil: i.r. ( M ) 2.9 (OH), 3.45-3.6 (CH), 6.1 (C=C), 13.2 (ArH); 
exact mass, calcd. for C 1(5 H 21 NO: 243.1618; found: 243.1623. 
8-Allyl-ll,12-benzo-8-aza[4.3.3]propellan-10-ol. (lib). 

To a slurry of 2.0 g (0.05 mole) of LAH in 75 ml of dry THF was 
added dropwise a solution of 1.0 g (3.39 mmole) of 8b. The reaction 
mixture was refluxed 24 hours and worked up as before yielding 0.97 g 



Chemistry 141 

of a clear yellow oil. Hickman distillation (90°/0.12 mm) yielded 0.91 g 
(99%) of lib as a colorless viscous liquid; i.r. (n) 2.9 (OH), 6.1 (C=C), 
10.85 (allyl C-H), 13.2 (ArH); exact mass calcd. for C 18 H 2:i NO: 269.1816; 
found: 269.1780. 



Literature Cited 

1. Angrist, B. M., S. Gershon, and A. Floyd, 1968. Psycho-activating Effects of a New 

Anticonvulsant-CM6. Current Therapeutic Res. 10:237-243. 

2. Blumberg, H., I. Monkovic, and L. S. Harris, 1972. Combat of Narcotic Addiction 
and Drug Abuse. Abstr. Thirteenth National Med. Chem. Symposium, Iowa City, pp. 
3-24. 

3. Calberson, G. F. and P. P. Wilder, Jr., 1960. The Synthesis of 2-Aza-l,2-dihydro- 
dicyclopentadienes. J. Org. Chem. 25:1358-1362. 

4. Campaigne, E., W. Roelofs, and R. F. Weddleton, 1968. 3a,4,5,6-Tetrahydrosuc- 
cinimido[3,4-b]acenaphthen-10-one. A Potent Anticonvulsant. J. Medicinal Chem. 
11:395-396. 

5. Campaigne, E. and R. K. Mehra, 1978. Reduction Studies on Benzaza[3.3.3]-propellane 
Derivatives. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 15:167-169. 

6. Fieser, L. F. and M. Fieser, 1967. Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Vol. I, John 
Wiley and Sons, New York, page 584. 

7. Perrine, T. D., L. Atwell, I. B. Tice, A. E. Jacobsen, and E. L. May, 1972. Anal- 
gesic Activity as Determined by the Nilsen Method. J. Pharm. Sci. 61:86-88. 

8. Weddleton, R. F., 1965. The Synthesis and Properties of Succinimido [3,4-b]-indan-8- 
one Derivatives. Ph.D. Thesis, Indiana University. 



ECOLOGY 

Chairman: Harold E. McReynolds 
Bedford, Indiana 47421 

Chairman-Elect: W. Herbert Senft 
Muncie, Indiana 47304 

ABSTRACTS 

Terrestrial Ecology : A Review of the Present State of Knowledge. Robert 

P. McIntosh, University of Notre Dame. The major facts of life in 

terrestrial ecology in recent decades have been exponential growth 
in the number of ecologists and great change in the nature of ecological 
studies variously described as "paradigm shifts", the "new ecology" or 
simply "revolution". A major impact was the development of systems 
ecology and large-scale studies of ecosystems in the International Bio- 
logical Program (IBP). Although the halcyon days of the IBP are over, 
emerging ecosystem-level projects are still significant aspects of current 
terrestrial studies. 

Another facet of the new ecology was the burgeoning of population 
ecology and ecological genetics and the efforts to integrate them as a 
basis for ecological theory. Theoretical mathematical ecology flourishes 
and strategy and tactics have become key words in some ecological 
studies, if not very explicit concepts. 

There has been an upsurge of work on the coevolution of plants and 
animals including the chemical interactions between them and the role 
of animals in the evolution of plant secondary substances. Animal ecolo- 
gists have reemphasized the community and extended descriptive and 
theoretical studies of community properties are apparent in the last 
decade. The problem of what controls community structure is much 
debated with competition reigning as the favorite of theoreticians, but 
no concensus evident. 

Physiological ecology continues a long and distinguished tradition 
with striking studies of adaptations of plants and animals to environ- 
mental extremes and efforts to develop models of the energy relations 
of organisms. 

A number of aspects of terrestrial ecology have expanded. Microbial 
ecology is developing new techniques in nature. Paleoecology has ex- 
panded into new areas and reinterpretation of Pleistocene events is 
underway. The establishment of the Organization of Tropical Studies 
(OTS) and the recognition of the importance of and tenuous status 
of tropical ecosystems has greatly expanded the effort to study the 
tropical regions before it simply is too late. 

A Classification and Management Plan for Indiana Lakes. W. Herbert 
Senft II and Byron G. Torke, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. 

During the summer months of the years 1972-1977, over 450 lakes 

and reservoirs of the state of Indiana were sampled as part of the Indi- 

142 



Ecology 143 

ana Lake Classification program. Various water quality parameters were 
measured to assess the trophic condition of each lake, and a composite 
eutrophication index was developed. The trophic information from this 
index and available lake morphometric data (lake area and mean depth) 
were used in cluster analysis to classify the lakes of the state into 
similar groups. Seven distinct major lake groups have been identified. 
Each group has been assigned management and restoration strategies 
based upon the similarities of the lakes in the group. This information 
is being used by the state of Indiana to formulate broad lake manage- 
ment policies. 

A Proposed Stream Classification. J. R. Gammon, Department of Zoology, 

DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 46135. For several years 

midwestern streams and rivers have been studied by sequentially electro- 
fishing 0.5 to 1.0 km long segments scattered throughout their lengths. 
Compositional differences make comparisons difficult, but community 
parameters have shown promise as evaluational tools. A composite 
index of well-being providing a single value reflective of both the 
abundance and diversity of fish in a collection was calculated as 
I = 0.5 LnN + 0.5 LnW + Shannon (no.) + Shannon (wt.) where 
N == number of fish captured per km, W = the aggregate weight of 
fish captured per km, and the Shannon indices of diversity calculated 
using natural logarithms. Composite index values of 5.0 or lower are 
indicative of poor water quality and /or habitat. Fair water quality 
and/or habitat is indicated by I values of 5.0 to 6.5. Good environmental 
conditions are indicated by I values of 6.5 to 7.5, and excellent conditions 
by I values greater than 7.5. 

Spatial Distribution of Resource Management Activities in Riparian 
Zones. H. E. McReynolds, U. S. Forest Service, Bedford, Indiana 47421. 
Both the National Forest Management Act of 1976 and the Presi- 
dent's Executive Order 11990 direct the Forest Service to protect riparian 
zones on National Forest lands. Previous protective measures (if any) 
usually followed the buffer strip concept by restricting certain manage- 
ment activities (timber harvest and road building) within the buffer 
strip between a stream or lake. However, widths of buffer strips were 
arbitrarily assigned, and were not based on standardized environmental 
criteria. Further, the same spacing distance (i.e., width of the buffer 
strip) was assumed to apply identically to all management activities 
within this area of the riparian zone. 

This present study is based on the premise that there are potentially 
different impacts on the riparian zone by different management activi- 
ties. Strip mining and picnic sites have differential effects on the re- 
ceiving waters which should be reflected in dissimilar spacing distances. 
In the formulation of this system, certain environmental criteria were 
judged to be of primary concern in determining the total impact on 
the stream or lake. I used three basic criteria to determine the sensi- 
tivity of the site to various management activities: soil erodibility, soil 
drainage, and water quality/use. In addition, slope of the land was 
judged to have a significant effect both on surface runoff and flooding. 



144 Indiana Academy of Science 

A simple point system was assigned to each of the three criteria, 
and these were summed to give the sensitivity of the site. These site 
sensitivities were plotted against slope of the land on graphs for various 
management activities. With the calculated site sensitivity and the 
measured slope of the land, the graphs indicate the minimum spacing 
from the water body for various activities. Management activities were 
aggregated into Activity Groups which included: (A) Assorted; (B) 
Aerial treatments and timber harvest-related activities; (C) Harvest by 
various cutting methods; (D) Range practices; (E) Mineral extraction; 
(F) Refuse and sewage disposal; (G) Silvicultural treatments; (H) Fish 
and wildlife practices; (J) Outdoor recreation; (K) Transport of logs 
across streams. Spacing determinations can be made manually from the 
graphs, or by use of a computer program which was written for this 
spacing system. 

The Indiana University Biological Station — Four Score and Five. Paul 

McKelvey, Indiana University, Purdue University at Indianapolis. 

The first inland biological field station in the United States was estab- 
lished by the Indiana University Board of Trustees in November, 1894. 
Between June 25 and September 1, 1895, the first session was held at 
Turkey Lake (Lake Wawasee) in northern Indiana. The director, Carl 
H. Eigenmann, and his staff of eleven workers studied variation, analyzed 
the lake environment, and conducted informal courses in embryology, 
lake fauna, and general zoology. 

In 1899, the Biological Station was moved to Winona Lake near 
Warsaw, Indiana. The variation studies ended abruptly in 1900 with the 
rediscovery of Mendel's principles of heredity. After that, researchers 
at the Station became primarily concerned with limnological investiga- 
tions. Formal course offerings at the Station increased during the next 
few years until over one hundred students, both graduate and under- 
graduate, were present at several of the summer sessions. Fernandus 
Payne succeeded Eigenmann as director in 1910. He remained in that 
position until 1920 when Will Scott became director. 

Under Scott's direction, cooperative research with the Indiana Divi- 
sion of Fish and Game was begun in 1922. This arrangement was 
expanded in 1939 after W. E. Ricker had become Station director follow- 
ing Scott's death, and continued with the appointment of David G. Frey 
as director in 1950. Much of the field research for the resulting Lake and 
Stream Survey was conducted at the Biological Station. The cooperative 
program ended in 1953. 

With an increasing emphasis on research and declining enrollments 
in Station courses, the formal instructional program was discontinued 
in 1938. The Station became a summer research center for graduate 
students and faculty. Later, following the winterization of one of the 
laboratory buildings, aquatic studies were encouraged throughout the 
year. Research has remained the primary function of the Station to date. 
However, some undergraduate field work has been conducted at the 
Station during the past few years. 

The Biological Station was moved from Winona Lake to Crooked 
Lake, near Columbia City, Indiana, during the early 1960's. A laboratory 



Ecology 145 

building- was constructed, and six mobile homes were purchased to be 
used as faculty and student housing. No instructional facility was built. 
In 1975, the operational responsibility for the Biological Station was 
transferred from Indiana University at Bloomington to Indiana Univer- 
sity-Purdue University at Fort Wayne (IUPUFW). Since that time, 
IUPUFW has utilized the Station primarily for undergraduate student 
field studies and for faculty research. The future of the Biological 
Station is uncertain. 

Pre- and Post-Treatment Results of Aquatic Herbicide Application at 
Purdue Wildlife Area. Deborah S. Torrey and Charles M. Kirkpatrick, 
Department of Forestry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. It was believed that excessive growth of submerged aquatic 

vegetation may have been detrimental to waterfowl use of Purdue Wild- 
life Area ponds located six miles west of West Lafayette, Indiana. This 
uncontrolled growth had possibly resulted in certain waterfowl species 
not being able to dive to obtain particular foods and was progressively 
filling in the sections of open water that were essential to attract water- 
fowl in general. Due to the concern over the amounts of submerged 
aquatic vegetation present, and in an attempt to preserve waterfowl 
habitat and increase waterfowl use of the area, aquatic herbicide was 
applied to the West Pond in June 1977. An untreated area, Otterbein 
Lake, was also used for comparison with the waterfowl observed during 
the study. 

The application of Aquathol herbicides divided the study into a pre- 
treatment period and a post-treatment period. The pre-treatment period 
began in October 1976 and continued through May 1977. During this 
time, observations were made of waterfowl using the West Pond con- 
current with the fall and spring migrations. Two plant collections were 
made from random plots and invertebrate populations were sampled. 
Muskrat houses were sampled for materials used in their construction. 
Similar studies were made after treatment during the fall of 1977 and 
waterfowl observations continued through the spring of 1978. 

Results from the two periods indicate that the herbicide had an 
effect on the aquatic vegetation, waterfowl, and aquatic invertebrates. 
The vegetation showed the most dramatic and predictable response to 
the herbicide by the absence of submerged vegetation in the fall 1977 
plant collection. The waterfowl observations indicated that although 
there was no increase in the number of diving ducks, these species 
appeared to dive more and increased their time at the area after the 
herbicide application. The number of dabbling waterfowl declined post- 
treatment, apparently due to the substantial reduction of aquatic vegeta- 
tion. Aquatic invertebrates typically found in the submergent vegetation 
exhibited a decline in weight, number, and species. A decrease was also 
noted in the benthic invertebrates, although the decline was not as great 
as among the plant-dwelling species. Studies of muskrat house composi- 
tion suggest muskrats were not affected by the reduction of submerged 
aquatic vegetation; and these animals do not appear to be dependent on 
a particular plant or group of plants, at least for building materials for 
houses. There are indications that aquatic herbicide may be an effective 



146 Indiana Academy of Science 

tool for preserving waterfowl habitat in that it inhibits the natural 
plant succession that would eventually replace the aquatic environment. 
Mixed Cropping of Beans and Tomatoes Ekpo Ossom. B. J. Hankins 
and C. L. Rhykerd, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West 

Lafayette, Indiana 47907. Mixed cropping, the practice of growing 

two or more crops together, is an often-practiced cultural method used 
in tropical agricultural regions. This is especially true of subsistence 
farmers. One of the more common examples of mixed cropping is the 
growing of edible beans in corn. 

As a rule, the major reason for growing two crops together is 
that one of the crops is a legume. The legume, if properly inoculated, 
can provide nitrogen (N) for itself and possibly some for the non- 
legume crop such as corn. The cost of N fertilizer in developing countries 
prohibits its use by many farmers, especially subsistence farmers. 

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the production of 
Rutgers tomatoes (Ly coper sicon esculentum Mill.) grown in association 
with Bountiful bush greenbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) or Amsoy soy- 
beans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) with that of tomatoes grown alone 
with and without N fertilizer. The population of the legume was 0, 1, 
or 3 plants per pot. After the plants were harvested, the pots were 
seeded to sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to determine 
whether there was residual N in the soil from the N fertilizer applied 
or from the N fixed by the rhizobia growing in the nodules of the 
legumes. 

The data obtained in the experiment were extremely interesting 
since soybeans appeared to have a very beneficial effect on tomato pro- 
duction while bush greenbeans seemed to have an antagonistic effect. 
The amount of growth and color of the sudangrass following the har- 
vesting of the tomatoes, soybeans, and greenbeans strongly suggested 
that N was added to the soil by legumes, especially soybeans. Addi- 
tional research is to be conducted to evaluate other legumes at varying 
populations relative to their effect on the growth of tomatoes. 

Size-Class and Age-Class Structure in an Aspen-White Pine Successional 
System. Edwin R. Squiers. Department of Biology, Taylor University, 
Upland, IN and AuSable Trails Institute of Environmental Studies, 

Mancelona, MI. Size-class and age-class data were used to study the 

developmental dynamics of an aspen-white pine successional ecosystem in 
Kalkaska County, Michigan. Data from random and non-random samples 
revealed a significant positive relationship between size and age among 
the white pines while no such relationship exists for the aspens. The 
results confirm the danger of assuming a relationship between the size 
of trees and their age. Information relating to intraspecific competition, 
reproductive strategy, and the pattern of past disturbances is used to 
develop a hypothetical explanation of the observed pattern. 

Competition and Spatial Patterning in an Aspen-White Pine Successional 
System. Edwin R. Squiers and Jane E. Klosterman, Department of 
Biology, Taylor University, Upland, IN and AuSable Trails Institute 
of Environmental Studies, Mancelona, MI. Competition and spatial 



Ecology 147 

patterning were studied in an aspen-white pine successional system in 
Kalkaska County, Michigan. Density, diameter, and distance measures 
were recorded for tree species on two 40-meter square grids composed 
of 64 quadrats each 5x5 meters. Regression analysis of nearest neigh- 
bor distance and tree diameter provided an index of competition and 
several indices of dispersion were used to assess pattern. The results 
suggest that interspecific competition with established aspen clones may 
lead to regular spacing among the invading white pines. 

Distribution of Barrens Vegetation in Harrison and Washington Counties, 
Indiana. James Keith, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana 46204. Distribution of barrens vegetation and sur- 
rounding forest composition in south-central Indiana was determined 
from the examination of photocopies of original land surveys (1805- 
1807) contained in the Archives of the Indiana State Library. Data were 
recorded on work sheets containing a 6x6 grid corresponding to each 
Congressional Township, and included the following: 

1) Size (dbh), distance and species of witness trees 

2) Surveyor's additional notes on vegetation and understory com- 
position 

3) Surveyor's notes on landforms, soils and geologic features. 

Survey notes from Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Washington, Orange, 
Lawrence, Jackson and Monroe Counties were examined. Only two coun- 
ties, Harrison and Washington, possessed barrens of any size. Barrens 
occurrence was easily determined from the surveyor's narratives. Bar- 
rens areas were outlined on base maps for Harrison and Washington 
Counties. Discussion is primarily concerned with the Harrison County 
barrens. 

Barrens in both counties occur predominantly in areas of sinkhole 
topography on soils of the Baxter-Crider Association. A change in either 
topography or soil type usually resulted in a change to forest vegetation. 

North of Indian Creek in Harrison County, the barrens occupied 
about 60% of the area underlain by the Baxter-Crider Association. 
South of Indian Creek, the barrens occupied less than 25% of the area 
underlain by these soils. Both areas have sinkhole topography. 

The barrens were closely associated with Oak-Hickory forest. How- 
ever, immediately east of the major streams of Harrison County (Indian 
Creek, Buck Creek), the forest composition is mixed, with beech and 
sugar maple becoming dominant in some areas. 

The available evidence suggests that the patterns of barrens and 
forest vegetation in Harrison County occurred as a result of past fires. 
This hypothesis is discussed. 

Population Studies of Indiana Cavernicolous Ostracods (Ostracoda: 
Entocytheridae ) . H. H. Hobbs III, Department of Biology, Wittenberg 

University, Springfield, Ohio 45501. Four species of entocytherid 

ostracods are associated with Indiana cave crayfishes: Dactylocythere 



148 Indiana Academy of Science 

susanae Hobbs, Donnaldsoncythere donnaldsonensis (Klie), Sagit- 
tocythere barri (Hart and Hobbs), and TJncinocy there xania (Hart and 
Hobbs). The following crayfishes serve as hosts to the ectocommensal 
ostracods : Orconectes inermis biennis Cope, Orconectes inermis testii 
(Hay) (both troglobites) , Cambarus (Eribicambarus) laevis Faxon 
(troglophile) , and Orconectes propinquus (Girard) (trogloxene) . S. 
barri was host specific to the troglobitic crayfishes, Dn. donnaldsonensis 
and Dt. susanae host specific to C. laevis, and Un. xania demonstrated 
a host preference for C. laevis and O. propinquus. There was relatively 
little interchange of ostracod species between the troglobitic crayfishes 
and the others, indicating a high degree of host specificity. C. laevis 
hosted significantly larger populations of ostracods than O. i. inermis 
and O. i. testii. 

Maximum size of an ostracod population was limited by the size 
of the host and relatively unaffected by the length of the intermolt pe- 
riod. Sexes and various instar stages of ostracods were selective for 
microhabitats on crayfishes (eye-antennae, gnathal, sternal-leg basal, 
and abdomen). Numerous other symbionts were associated with cray- 
fish exoskeletons, placing possible pressures on ostracods in competition 
for food and space. 

Influence of Nutrient Concentrations on the Spatial Distribution of 
Pithophora oedogonia (Chlorophyceae) in Surrey Lake, Indiana. D. F. 

Spencer and C. A. Lembi, Department of Botany & Plant Pathology, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Although filamentous 

algae may contribute significantly to the total productivity of some 
aquatic ecosystems, there exists relatively little information on the 
role played by environmental factors in regulating their temporal and 
spatial distribution. Observations made at Surrey Lake, Indiana sug- 
gested that P. oedogonia biomass was more abundant in the shallow 
area near the stream inflow than in the deeper portion of the lake. 
Measurements of N0 3 -N and P0 4 -P concentrations along a transect 
clearly suggested a gradient in NO a -N but not P0 4 -P concentration. 
The results of batch culture studies and tissue analysis of field-collected 
P. oedogonia suggested that NO :{ -N concentrations in the water column 
were important in determining the distribution of this species. 

Notes on the Biology of the Yellow Perch in Indiana Waters of Lake 
Michigan in the 1970's. T. S. McComish, Department of Biology, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. Selected aspects of the 

life history of the yellow perch (Perca flavesce?is) were investigated 
from 1970 to 1978 in the Indiana waters of Lake Michigan. Young- 
of-the-year (YOY) perch ate primarily cladocera and copepods (zoo- 
plankton) and chironomid larvae (zoobenthos) . Larger perch (^ age I) 
ate mainly chironomid larvae (zoobenthos) and alewife (Alosa pseudo- 
harengus) eggs and YOY (fish). Both YOY and larger perch fed at 
or near the bottom. 

Length x weight relationships for perch from 1976 to 1978 were 
similar comparing males for each of the years and for females in 
each of the three years. Body x scale length relationships were linear 



Ecology 149 

and highly correlated in each year. The mean estimated length at scale 
formation was 39 mm. Growth by year was summarized and females 
grew faster than males after age I. All males were sexually mature 
by age II (150 to 160 mm) while females were not all mature until 
age IV (230 to 240 mm). Commercial harvest in Indiana waters results 
in high mortality of age III and IV fish and therefore numbers of age 
V and older fish is greatly reduced compared to nearby Michigan 
waters (New Buffalo) where commercial harvest is restricted. 

What Determines the Species Composition of Larval Amphibian Pond 
Communities in South Central Indiana? Craig E. Nelson, Indiana Uni- 
versity, Bloomington, Indiana 47405. This contribution addresses 

the question: what determines which amphibian species breed success- 
fully at ponds in the vicinity of Bloomington, Indiana. Published and 
unpublished data and speculation are combined to suggest the following 
hypotheses. 1). Differences in temporal stability among ponds explain 
most of the variation in aquatic vertebrate predators present in early 
spring. In order from most to least stable, the dominant aquatic preda- 
tors are fish, adult newts (Notopthalmus viridescens) and the fall- 
breeding marbled salamander (Amby stoma opacum). The least stable 
ponds typically lack aquatic vertebrate predators in early spring. 2). 
These early spring aquatic vertebrate predators are in turn the primary 
determinant of the breeding success of spring breeding amphibians in 
the ponds, with success for most species strongly but inversely cor- 
related with predator density. 3). Some species are relatively immune 
to predation. Eggs and larvae of green frogs (Rana clamitans) and 
bull frogs (Rana catesbeiana) are distasteful to both adult newts and 
larval marbled salamanders. Larval spring peepers (Hijla crucifer) 
seem to be protected by alternative means. 4). Although habitat selection 
and competition are apparently less important than stability and preda- 
tion, they presumably explain partial complementary in the local dis- 
tributions of some related species. Moreover, the breeding success of 
the spring peeper in some ponds apparently increases when other 
species are decimated by salamanders, suggesting that it may be more 
strongly influenced by competition than by salamander predation. 
Finally, it is worth emphasizing that two groups of invertebrate 
predators, leeches and caddis fly larvae, which are often important 
elsewhere were never observed feeding on amphibia eggs in the Bloom- 
ington area. 

Factors Regulating the Abundance of Volvox aureus in a Small Borrow 
Pit Pond. Robert A. Hunchberger and W. Herbert Senft, Biology 

Dept., Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306. A detailed limnologi- 

cal study of Clark's Borrow Pit Pond (SW 1 /! Sec. 30 T22N R9E, 
Delaware County, Ind.) was conducted from the spring of 1978 through 
the fall of 1979 to ascertain what factors regulate the abundance of 
Volvox aureus, a major phytoplanktor of the pond. This algal species 
often dominates the spring and sometimes fall phytoplankton blooms 
that occur annually, but disappears from the plankton throughout the 
remainder of the year. 



150 Indiana Academy of Science 

Laboratory growth experiments suggest that the spring peak of 
V. aureus (10 5 colonies /ml in 1978) is most likely induced by the high 
nutrient levels in the pond (total P = 4.5 umoles/1; NH 3 + NO ;{ = 28.0 
umoles/1) and warming temperatures. Competition from other algal 
species is reduced at this time by the presence of the zooplanktor 
Daphnia ambigua which effectively grazes all but the V. aureus colonies. 
Decreased nutrient levels in the summer months (total P = 1.0 umoles/1; 
NH 3 + N0 3 = 4.0 umoles/1) restrict the abundance of V. aureus, and 
other algal species (notably blue-greens) dominate. Two of these species, 
Oscillatoria ornata and Microcystis aeuruginosa, were shown to exhibit 
no allelopathic influences on the growth of V. aureus. However, experi- 
ments suggested a possible growth inhibition of V. aureus by the large 
macrophyte populations in the pond. Increasing nutrient levels in the 
fall sometimes induce a second V. aureus bloom, but this declines rapidly 
as the water temperature drops below 10 °C. We conclude that the 
abundance of V. aureus in Clark's Pond is influenced mainly by abiotic 
factors (nutrient availability and water temperature) and only to a 
lesser degree by biotic factors (grazing and competition). 



History of Lotus corniculatus L. in Indiana 

B. J. Hankins, C. L. Rhykerd, G. 0. Mott,* and B. 0. Blair 

Department of Agronomy 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 

Introduction 

Broadleaved birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus L., is a warm- 
season forage legume which is native to Europe. The introduction of 
this legume into the United States is unknown. It is generally assumed 
that birdsfoot trefoil was introduced as a contaminant of other seed 
or from the emptying of ships' ballasts along the Hudson River in 
New York. Several Experiment Stations tested seed samples from 
Europe between 1885 and 1900 (5). In 1934, Prof. D. B. Johnstone- 
Wallace of Cornell University found a naturalized stand growing in 
Columbia County, N.Y. (1). During the late 1930's and the 1940's Prof. 
H. A. McDonald, also of Cornell University, conducted extensive research 
on birdsfoot trefoil and encouraged the seeding of this long-lived forage 
legume in northeastern U.S. (2). 

First Seeding in Indiana 

Dr. G. O. Mott, former professor of Agronomy at Purdue Univer- 
sity, made the first seeding of birdsfoot trefoil in Indiana on the Miller- 
Purdue Agricultural Center (formerly known as the Miller-Purdue 
Memorial Farm) at Upland in the spring of 1940. Empire birdsfoot 
trefoil, which tends to be more prostrate than the European type, was 
seeded. An excellent stand of birdsfoot trefoil resulted from this seed- 
ing, with Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis L., coming into the stand 
naturally within two to three years. This seeding of birdsfoot trefoil 
has persisted since 1940 while being utilized as pasture for beef cattle. 

Grazing Trials with Beef Cattle 

In 1948, a seven-year grazing trial was initiated on the Miller- 
Purdue Agricultural Center to determine the influence of lime, fertilizer 
and birdsfoot trefoil on the amount of beef produced on Kentucky blue- 
grass pastures (3, 4). Bluegrass pastures were treated in four different 
ways, and their production in terms of feed units, average daily gain, 
carrying capacity and beef production per acre was determined. Yearling 
Hereford steers, wintered on the farm, were used as grazing animals. 

Treatments and Description 

1. No lime or fertilizer applied. Management — continuous grazing. 

2. Lime applied to adjust the pH to 6.5, and 300 pounds per acre 
of 0-20-10 applied in 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, and 1952. Grazed 
under a 3-paddock rotation grazing system with 10- to 14-day 
grazing period. 



* Now a member of the Agronomy Department, University of Florida, dainsville, Fl. 

151 



152 



Indiana Academy of Science 



3. Lime and fertilizer the same as 2. In addition, 360 pounds of 
ammonium nitrate (NH 4 N0 3 ) was applied annually in two appli- 
cations — the first in the early spring and the second approxi- 
mately July 1. Three-paddock rotation grazing system. 

4. Lime and fertilizer the same as 2. Seeded to a mixture of 
Empire birdsfoot trefoil and Kentucky bluegrass. Three-paddock 
rotation grazing system. 

The results of the seven-year study presented in Table 1 demonstrate 
the tremendous benefit that birdsfoot trefoil has in increasing beef pro- 
duction of bluegrass pasture. Beef production per acre is determined by 
the rate of gain per steer and the carrying capacity of the pasture. 
In this experiment, very little difference in rate of daily gain resulted 
from the four treatments. Therefore, the difference in beef production 
between treatments was due primarily to the carrying capacity of the 
pasture. 

Over the seven-year period, the addition of lime, P and K resulted 
in a nearly 40 percent increase in beef production. Applying 120 pounds 
per acre of N along with the lime, P and K doubled beef production. 
Beef production resulting from pastures where birdsfoot trefoil was 
grown in association with Kentucky bluegrass exceeded that produced 
on N fertilized Kentucky bluegrass by 35 pounds per acre. 

As a result of the successful establishment of the original seeding 
of birdsfoot trefoil in Indiana and the productivity of this birdsfoot 
trefoil-bluegrass pasture over a seven-year period, as well as other 
successful seedings in the Midwest, the seeding of birdsfoot trefoil pas- 
tures has been promoted by forage specialists for nearly 40 years. 
Despite the many advantages of birdsfoot trefoil as a pasture legume, 
only a few thousand acres are presently being grown in Indiana. 
Farmers attempting to seed this legume have experienced many failures. 
These failures are probably associated with inoculation and grass and/or 
weed competition. Poor nodulation may be due to the fact that a specific 
inoculum is required and also that the seed is small and glossy, making 
it difficult for the inoculum to adhere to the seed. In addition, the 
trefoil seedlings are quite sensitive to grass and weed competition 
during establishment. Herbicides have been very beneficial in the suc- 
cessful establishment of birdsfoot trefoil. 



Table 1. Pounds of Beef Produced Per Acre on Bluegrass Pastures. 







Grazing 


Season 








Treatment 






Year 




No 


. Days 


1 


2 




3 


4 


1948 






140 


160 


232 




262 


307 


1949 






168 


154 


181 




321 


322 


1950 






154 


158 


208 




274 


298 


1951 






126 


134 


212 




250 


308 


1952 






168 


104 


188 




258 


304 


1953 






140 


92 


117 




219 


223 


1954 






168 

Average 


115 


140 




250 


319 




131 


182 




262 


297 



Ecology 153 

The persistence of the original seeding of Empire birdsfoot trefoil 
in 1940 on the Miller-Purdue Agricultural Center demonstrates that 
under proper management birdsfoot trefoil can be a highly productive 
and long-lived legume. It is essential, if Empire birdsfoot trefoil is to 
persist in a permanent pasture, that once birdsfoot trefoil is established 
the associated cool-season grass be grazed rather closely in early May 
to allow the legume to compete with the grass. Otherwise, the grass 
starts its growth in early spring and will out-compete the birdsfoot 
trefoil which does not make rapid growth until later in the spring and 
early summer. Also, permitting the birdsfoot trefoil plants to naturally 
reseed appears to be an important factor contributing to its long-term 
persistence in Indiana. 



Literature Cited 

1. Johnstone- Wallace, D. B. 1938. Pasture improvement and management. N. Y. State 
Coll. Agr. Ext. Bull. 393. 

2. McDonald, H. A. 1946. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.): Its characteristics 
and potentialities as a forage legume. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Memoir 261. 

S. Mott, G. O., R. E. Smith, and W. M. McVey. Bluegrass pastures for beef cattle. 
Mimeo AY-146. Purdue Univ. Agric. Ext. Service. Lafayette, Ind. 

4. Mott, G. O., R. E. Smith, W. M. McVey, and W. M. Beeson. 1952. Grazing trials 
with beef cattle at Miller-Purdue Memorial Farm. Sta. Bull. 581. Purdue Univ. Agric. 
Exp. Sta., Lafayette, Ind. 

5. Smith, Dale. 1962. Chapter 13-Birdsfoot trefoil. In Forage management in the 
north. Wm. C. Brown Book Co. Dubuque, Iowa. 



Parasites of the Yellow Bass from Two 
Southern Indiana Lakes 

Mark McReynolds and J. Dan Webster 

Department of Biology, Hanover College 

Hanover, Indiana 47423 

Sixty-two specimens of Morone mississippiensis were collected by 
rod and reel fishing from two Southern Indiana locations. They were 
measured, weighed, aged by scale readings and examined for protozoan 
and metazoan parasites. Six taxa of parasites were found. Hosts from 
Lake Monroe harbored fewer parasites and were significantly less 
often infested than those from Big Bayou Lake. Differences in infestation 
levels also occurred between host groups of different physiological 
condition and between various age groups of hosts. 

The yellow bass Morone mississippiensis is a member of the 
temperate bass family Percichthyidae, members of which are referred 
to as the "true basses" in order to distinguish them from the black 
basses of the Centrarchidae. The range of M. mississippiensis centers 
around the Mississippi River and its overflow waters. In Indiana (with 
the exception of Lake Monroe) the species is mostly found in lowlands 
of the Wabash River drainage, where it inhabits quiet ponds and 
backwaters of large or medium-sized streams (9). 

The only reported comprehensive examination of yellow bass for 
parasites was a general metazoan survey of fish parasites in 54 
Louisiana watersheds in 1967 by Arnold et al. (1). These investigators 
examined 52 yellow bass and found that 73% were infested by one or 
more species of parasites. Also, Hoffman (4) listed 24 species of worms 
and crustaceans which had been recorded as parasites of this host, 
including several not found by Arnold et al. 

In our study, samples were obtained from two Indiana locations: 
Lake Monroe in Monroe County, and Big Bayou Lake in Gibson County. 
All samples were collected by hook-and-line fishing, which unfortunately 
introduces some bias against procurement of young-of-the-year fish, as 
well as a lesser bias against age groups I and II (7). The Monroe 
fish were taken from five scattered sites on the reservoir, and the Big 
Bayou specimens from two sites. All fish were put into cold storage 
immediately after being caught and were processed at the earliest 
opportunity, always within 24 hours of capture. Each specimen was 
weighed and measured as to both standard and total lengths (5). 

In order to locate multicellular parasites, the following tissues in 
each fish were examined macroscopically and under a dissecting micro- 
scope: the skin, fins, body surface mucous, gills, oral cavity, all 
viscera, the coelom and mesenteries. The brain and eyes of many 
specimens were examined. To locate protozoans, the following tissues 
were examined with the compound microscope in each fish : fresh blood 
samples, Geimsa-stained thin and thick blood smears, and iron- 
hematoxylin-stained smears from two levels of the intestine (2, 4, 5). 

154 



Ecology 155 

A sample of 15-20 scales was removed for age assessment of each 
specimen (6, 11) . 

A total of 49 fish was collected from Lake Monroe but only 13 
could be obtained from Big Bayou. The relatively small number of fish 
in the latter sample raises questions regarding the statistical sound- 
ness of these samples. A collection the size of the Monroe sample (49 
fish) is statistically sufficient to detect a target parameter (parasitism, 
in this case) in a population of one million fish with 10 % parasite 
infestation. The estimated yellow bass population of Lake Monroe of 
one million fish was given by reservoir fisheries biologist Ron Ridenour 
in 1977 (10). At this estimate of population and at the 95% confidence 
level, the number of specimens in the Monroe sample is well above the 
required sample for a 10% infestation rate, 27 fish, and slightly under 
that required to detect a 5% infestation level, 57 fish (8). (In view 
of later results showing an infestation rate of 67% for all parasite 
taxa in the Monroe sample, rather than 5 or even 10%, it would appear 
that this collection is well within the required sample size.) In other 
words, the higher the postulated infestation rate, the smaller the sample 
can be to achieve statistical significance for a given population size 
and confidence level. The much smaller sample from Big Bayou cannot 
be tested for statistical significance because the population size there 
is unknown. However, if we assume a very much smaller population at 
Big Bayou than at Monroe (and assuming the 92% infestation rate 
found later for this sample), even 13 fish may be a sufficient sample. 

In the Monroe sample 5 taxa of parasites (3 protozoans and 2 
metazoans) were found. In the Big Bayou collections 6 taxa (3 proto- 
zoans and 3 metazoans) were observed (see Table 1). The protozoans 
encountered belonged to the genera Hexamita, Babesioma, and Balanti- 
dium. Metazoans located were the cestode Proteocephalus ambloplites, 

Table 1. Parasitic infestation level of Morone mississippiensis as a function of sample 
location. (Infestation is measured as the parasitized fish per site divided by the total 

fish collected per site.) 



Parasites 


Monroe 


Sample 


Big B 


ayou 


Combined 






(49 fish) 




Sample 


Samples 












(13 f 


ish) 


(62 fish) 




Number 


Percent 


Num 


ber 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


PROTOZOANS : 


















Hexamita 


19 




39 


7 




54 


26 


42 


Babesioma 


6 




12 


4 




HI 


10 


16 


Balantidium 


5 




10 


2 




15 


7 


11 


METAZOANS: 


















Proteocephalus 


17 




35 


10 




77 


27 


44 


Neochasmus 


6 




12 


3 




23 


9 


15 


Philometra 










1 




8 


1 


2 


Parasitized Fish 


33 




67 


12 




92 


45 


73 


Unparasitized Fish 


16 




33 


1 




8 


17 


27 


Fish with 1 Metazoan 


18 




37 


6 




46 


24 


39 


Fish with > 1 Metazoan 


15 




31 


4 




31 


19 


31 



156 Indiana Academy of Science 

the trematode Neochasmus umbellus, and the nematode Philometra, 
species undetermined. 

A statistical analysis of the incidence of parasite groups was 
made between the Monroe and the Big Bayou locations. Statistically 
significant differences were found in the incidence of Babesioma, 
cestodes, nematodes, and in the total number of metazoan parasites 
between sites (see Table 1). In other taxa and in the average number 
of parasites per fish, no statistically significant difference was found. 

The samples from each lake were analyzed to determine whether 
significant differences occurred in the incidence and variety of para- 
site infestation as a function of sex; however, statistical analysis 
showed no significant differences. A slight seasonal effect was noted, 
in that fish taken in late summer appeared to harbor more parasites 
than those taken in late autumn. However the times of collection and 
the numbers of fish caught during each trip were of necessity too 
sporadic to quantify this effect. 

Next, the samples were analyzed for possible differences in the 
incidence and variety of infestation as a function of host age. Sig- 
nificant differences occurred between age-group II and age-group IV 
fish in both site samples. This, however, might have been a reflection 
of the small number of fish collected in these age-groups. The great- 
est number of bass belonged to age-group III, which also showed the 
lowest infestation rate in all calculations — the Monroe, the Big Bayou 
and the combined samples. However, the small size of other age- 
groups raises doubts about statistical soundness when compared to the 
more than adequate sample of age-group III. We can only suggest that 
age-group III fish harbored fewer parasites than both younger and older 
age-groups. 

In addition to aging the fish via scale examination, their phys- 
iological condition was calculated. This had two purposes: to identify 
possible differences in physiological condition between infested and 
non-infested fish, and to compare and contrast the conditions of fish 
at each of the locations in relation to their relative infestation levels. 
We used the length-weight formulas common to fisheries work (3, 5, 
11) to produce a condition factor, K. Weights, lengths, ages, and other 
variables were tabulated and entered into a FORTRAN program which 
gave a K value for each fish. These were then averaged for each 
sample location and compared with those of other yellow bass populations 
from Clear Lake, Iowa, and Norris Lake, Tennessee (3), via a con- 
version factor. (These were the only data available from habitats at all 
similar and geographically close to the ones in our study.) Variation 
in those K values which would definitely not correlate with differences 
in either parasite infestation or lake ecology included variation with 
host age, with host sex and with seasonal changes. Age variation in 
K can be negated by ascertaining the age of the fish by scale examina- 
tion (5). Variation in weight, size, and most other physiological 
parameters relevant to parasitism is normally not significant in M. 
mississippiensis, which is perhaps correlated with the lack of significant 
infestation differences as a function of sex. Lastly, seasonal K vari- 



Ecology 157 

ation is usually confined to changes before and after spawning (9); 
therefore these collections, made in the fall, would be unaffected. 

The average fish weight in the Big Bayou sample was 12.0 grams 
less than that of the Monroe sample, despite a slightly greater average 
length in the former (see Table 2). The condition factor variations 
between sites were significant at the 90% confidence level; at this 
level, fish from Big Bayou showed a poorer physiological condition than 
fish of roughly similar age from Monroe (see Table 3). These dif- 
ferences are not necessarily causally related to the higher parasitic 
incidence in the Big Bayou sample; however, the two factors do show a 
definite correlation. Parasitism may contribute to a diminished con- 
dition, but parasites also tend to infest fish which are initially diminished 
in condition. 



Table 2. Comparison of average lengths and weights of Morone Mississippiensis from 

the Monroe and Big Bayou locations. 



Sample 


Standard Length (mm.) 


Total Length (mm.) 


Weight (grams) 


Monroe 
Big Bayou 


157 
165 


194 
203 


114.3 
102.3 



The two sites differ ecologically. Pollution, especially that due to 
agricultural or livestock runoff, is probably greater at the Big Bayou 
location. On the other hand, Lake Monroe is used as a reservoir and 
has a shoreline with few commercial and residential establishments, 
with little runoff. Big Bayou Lake is much shallower and weedier, and 
the number and variety of forage fish is thought to be much greater in 
Monroe (10). The yellow bass population of Monroe has grown ex- 
tremely rapidly in the past six years. In a series of cove-sampling studies 
in 1975, Indiana Department of Natural Resources personnel noted that 
this species comprised approximately 15 r /r of the total fish taken, a 
tremendous increase over percentages found in earlier surveys (10). 
Yellow bass have never been stocked in Monroe, but since all local fish 
species were eliminated at the time the reservoir was impounded (by 
poisoning the feeding waterways for many miles upstream), the 

Table 3. Comparison of the average physiological condition of Morone mississippiensis 
from the Monroe, Big Bayou and combined samples. (K T and K s are the condition factors 

Weight • 10 5 
calculated for total and standard lengths, respectively: K T = , and 

Total length* 
Weight •10 s 
K„ = J 









Standard 


length 3 






Length 


K, Monroe 
Sample 


K 


, Big Bayou 
Sample 


Variation 

Number 


Between Lakes 
Percentage 


Standard 
Total 


2.91 
1.54 




2.28 
1.19 




0.63 
0.35 


25.1 
26.0 



158 Indiana Academy of Science 

species was perhaps introduced surreptitiously by enthusiastic fisher- 
men (7). 

In contrast, yellow bass have inhabited selected areas of southwest 
Indiana for a much longer time. In the 1940's Hubbs and Lagler (5) 
located the species in various lakes and ponds throughout the area, 
although its incidence was fairly low. The creation of a reservoir often 
opens a number and variety of new ecological niches while eliminating 
others, and a successful species during its rapid growth phase would be 
expected to experience lower parasitic infestation rates and higher 
condition factors than would the same species in a less desirable locale. 



Literature Cited 

1. Arnold, J. G., H. E. Schafeb and R. L. Vulliet. 1967. The Parasites of the 
Fresh Water Fish of Louisiana — Incidence and Distribution of Parasitism. Pro- 
ceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of Southeast Fish and Game Com- 
missioners, New Orleans, Louisiana, pp. 462-468. 

2. Cable, R. M. 1967. Illustrated Laboratory Manual of Parasitology. Ninth edition. 
Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota. 165 p. 

3. Cablandeb, K. D. 1950. Handbook of Freshwater Fisheries Biology. William C. 
Brown Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 281 p. 

4. Hoffman, G. L. 1967. Parasites of North America Freshwater Fishes. University 
of California Press, Berkeley. 486 p. 

5. Lagleb, K. F. 1956. Freshwater Fishery Biology. Second edition. William C. Brown 
Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 421 p. 

6. Lagleb, K.F., J. E. Babdok, R. R. Milleb, and D.R.M. Passino. 1977. Ichthyology. 
Second edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 506 p. 

7. McReynolds, H. E. 1978. Personal communication. 

8. Ossiander, F. J. and G. Wodemeyeb. 1973. Computer Program for Sample Sizes 
Required to Determine Disease Incidence in Fish Populations. Journal of the 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 30:1383-1384. 

9. Pfleiger, W. F. 1975. The Fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation 
and Western Publishing Co., Missouri. 343 p. 

10. Ridenoub, R. 1977. Personal communication. 

11. Rounsefell, G. A. and W. H. Evebhabt. 1966. Fishery Science: Its Methods and 
Applications. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 444 p. 



A Classification of Indiana Plant Communities 

Marion T. Jackson 
Department of Life Sciences 

Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Abstract 

A hierarchical plant community classification was compiled for both the natural and 
modified plant communities of Indiana. The data source was the known published and 
unpublished stand attributes tables and qualitative descriptions of individual plant com- 
munities. The hierarchical taxa in sequence are: vegetation system (formation) ; environ- 
mental regime (habitat type) ; vegetation cover class (association) ; vegetation cover type 
(vegetation type) and community type (biotope). Natural plant communities include 55 
forested, 7 savanna and glade, 7 shrub, 34 herbaceous and 8 cryptogamic cover types. 
Modified plant communities and land-use types total 93. 

Introduction 

The vegetation of a region consists of the total of the plants 
growing on its soils and in its waters (Curtis, 1959). Plant communities 
are subdivisions of that vegetation cover. Whenever more or less 
obvious spatial changes occur within vegetation, different communities 
may be recognized. These spatial changes in life form or dominant species 
may be apparent to even a casual observer so that it is often possible 
to recognize visually the correlation between different species combina- 
tions and changes in the environment. For example, in environments 
having steep gradients such as mountain slopes, lake margins and 
coastal dunes, the physiognomy and species composition are often so 
strikingly different from the adjacent plant cover that they are self- 
evident as different communities. 

Depending on the nature of the vegetation and the environment, 
changes vary from abrupt to transitional to diffuse. As a result, plant 
communities may be self-evident to the field worker on first inspection, 
or they may become evident even to the experienced investigator only 
through careful quantitative analysis of the vegetation. Additionally, 
differences which appear obvious on first inspection may prove to be 
only successional stages or transitory phases of the regional plant 
community. Consistent and accurate recognition and definition of plant 
communities is a skill that can be acquired only through broad field 
experience and careful interpretation of sample data. 

Since natural plant communities are often recognizable as separate 
entities, many vegetation ecologists have assumed that the component 
species are interdependent, have considerable influence upon one another, 
and that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. An equally 
large and growing number of plant ecologists are convinced that com- 
munities are more accurately characterized as the chance meeting of 
several species whose tolerance ranges happen to overlap. Those hold- 
ing this latter view assume little or no interdependence, and feel that 
the whole is not greater than the sum of the parts. 

159 



160 Indiana Academy of Science 

That vegetation does vary continually (and sometimes predictably) 
along environmental gradients has been pointed out convincingly by a 
growing number of ecologists for over 50 years. In fact, close exami- 
nation reveals that every square meter of the Earth's surface does 
have a different biota from every other. 

That "communities are not precise entities of fixed and unvarying 
composition," as Curtis (1959) stated, does not invalidate the community 
concept or reduce the utility of plant community classifications. The 
human mind does not respond as effectively to continuous variables as 
it does to sets of similar items grouped to facilitate learning, com- 
munication or use. Practical considerations, such as the teaching of 
ecology, land management, and the protection of endangered species 
and the habitats that support them, require that representative and 
usable plant community classifications and vegetation maps exist. 

Classification System 

This classification system was initially developed for use by the 
Indiana Natural Heritage Program in categorizing the natural plant 
communities of the State. My aim was to produce a classification ap- 
plicable by field biologists in surveying the elements of Indiana's natural 
diversity, yet comprehensive enough to characterize the range of plant 
communities found in Indiana for research and teaching purposes. 

The classification is hierarchical and open ended. New units can 
be added as discovered, and previously described or designated com- 
munities can be modified, divided or recombined as new information 
becomes available. An additional taxon could be added below the five 
basic taxa (Table 1) if more detailed community information becomes 
available in the future. 

The basic classification hierarchy is similar to the system de- 
veloped by staff ecologists at The Nature Conservancy's National Office. 
Hierarchical separations are based on physiognomy and species compo- 
sition except for the Environmental Regime category which was in- 
cluded to characterize stand locations by habitat type and to facilitate 
recognition, separation and description of units in the field. The single 
environmental "taxon" presumes to be an integrative collective ex- 
pression of all environmental factors which impinge upon and influence 
the nature and distribution patterns of the individual plant community. 
In instances where environmental data have been more thoroughly 
studied it might have been useful to subdivide the environmental 
regimes according to topographic position, soils, moisture conditions, 
pH, etc. Since differences in topographic position and moisture condition 
are generally recognizable in the field, these habitat characteristics 
were used in naming the environmental regimes. Most other environ- 
mental factors can be evaluated only by detailed measurement. 

The lower three categories of Vegetation Cover Class, Vegetation 
Cover Type and Community Type are roughly comparable to taxonomic 
separation at the genus, species and variety levels, respectively. Most 
references to individual stands by vegetation scientists will be at the 



Ecology 



ir,i 



Vegetation Cover Type level, just as species are the primary focus of 
plant taxonomists. 

Organization of Units 

The Classification was divided into two major sections: 1) Natural 
plant communities, and 2) Modified plant communities (Table 1). 
Natural communities are those in which the structure and species 
composition closely approximate presettlement conditions. They do not 
necessarily represent potential natural vegetation in the sense of 
Kuchler's (1964) definition, or climax communities in the traditional 
sense. Modified communities range from recovery stages of stressed 
natural communities to landscape units which have been totally altered 
from their natural condition. 

The physiognomic character of the upper stratum defines the units 
at the Vegetation System level, i.e., forest, savanna and glade, shrub, 
herbaceous, and cryptogamic systems. These units are equivalent to 
formations of more traditional classifications. The dominant life form 
in an upper stratum is sufficient to characterize all vegetation systems 



Table 1. Hierarchical organization of jilant community classification. 





Code 


Hierarchical Unit 


Scope 


or Control of Unit 




Section I. 


Natural 


Plant Communities 


A 


Vegetation System 


I. 


Physiognomy of vegetation 




(Formation) 








AA 


Environmental Regime 
(Habitat Type) 




A. 


Topographic position ; drainage-aeration 
conditions ; susceptibility to inundation ; 
substrate type ; soil characteristics ; acid- 
base reaction ; microclimatic variation, 
etc. 


AAA-- 


Vegetation Cover Class 
(Association) 






1. Dominant genus/genera in upper 
stratum 


AAAA- 


Vegetation Cover Type 
(Vegetation Type) 


! 




a. Dominant species, plus subdomi- 
nant/associated species 


AAAAA 


Community Type 
(Biotope) 






1) Variations in presence or im- 
portance of dominant species ; 
or the presence of unusual spe- 
cies assemblages in subordinant 
strata. 



Section II. 

A Land-Use System 

AA Management Regime 



AAA Vegetation Cover Class/ 

General Land-use Class 

AAAA - Vegetation Type/Specific 

Land-use Type 

AAAAA Community Type/Land-use 

Pattern 



Modified Plant Communities 

I. Land-use type 

A. Land-use practice ; duration of usage ; 
intensity of development ; level of en- 
vironmental attrition or contamination ; 
degree of soil erosion or deposition ; 
microclimatic alteration, etc. 

1. Dominant life forms/genera of plants 
or land-use type 

a. Dominant plant species or spe- 
cific land use 

1) Mosaic of variations within 
specific land use 



162 Indiana Academy of Science 

except savanna and glade. The latter is a mosaic of scattered trees 
with less than 50% canopy cover within a grassland community. 

Environmental Regimes within a given Vegetation System were 
arranged in roughly a xeric to hydric sequence and as either upland 
or lowland units. Moisture levels within the Environmental Regime 
categories are obviously relative to the range of conditions represented 
in Indiana, rather than throughout the biosphere. 

Vegetation Classes were separated on the basis of dominant genera 
in the upper vegetation stratum. Data considered in Cover Class desig- 
nations include importance value percentages (Curtis, 1959) ; frequency 
or presence data for communities not having importance value data; 
and stratum rank values (after Lindsey et at., 1961) or other qualita- 
tive estimates when quantitative data were not available. Cover Classes 
for forest communities were usually based on dominant genera having 
a combined importance value greater than 50%, although for some 
units of a more mixed composition, the combined importance value used 
was as low as 25%. Associated species considered in Cover Class separa- 
tions normally contributed 5% importance or more in at least one 
referenced stand. Cover Classes within non-forested communities were 
separated primarily on stratum rank or other qualitative data (e.g., 
stand presence). Separation of cover classes was not made for modified 
communities. The Cover Class taxon reported here is equivalent to the 
association of traditional plant ecology. 

Vegetation Cover Types were separated according to dominant 
species plus consideration of subdominant and associated species. Nomen- 
clature for these units may or may not differ from that of their more 
inclusive cover classes. Cover types were arranged roughly according 
to the moisture gradient typical of their cover class, although this 
sequence is inferred from community structure, rather than interpre- 
tation of actual environmental measurements. Vegetation Cover Types 
are comparable to the traditional vegetation types of most classifications. 

Subdivisions of Vegetation Cover Types were not made, but may 
be required in some communities to characterize local differences in 
dominant species, or the presence of unusual species assemblages in one 
or more of the subordinant strata. For example, a pure stand of water 
leaf in the groundlayer of a beech-maple cover type differs sufficiently 
from one dominated by jewel weed to be placed in a separate biotope. 

Five digit alphabetic plant community codes were assigned for 
each community recognized within this classification for use in computer 
storage of data by the Heritage Program. 

The order of hierarchical breakdown and sample units are listed 
in Table 2. Representative stands for each Vegetation Cover Type are 
available from the author, but were not included in Table 3 to conserve 
space. 

Compilation 

The foremost data source was the major plant ecological and 
taxonomic papers pertaining to the field botany and vegetation of 
Indiana. Almost all such papers written within the past century were 



Ecology 163 

Table 2. Examples of plant community classification system. 

Section I. Natural Plant Communities 
I. Broadleaf Deciduous Forest System 

A. Xeric upland forest (well to excessively-drained ridge crests and slopes and/or 
over porous substrates). 

1. Oak (Quercus) Cover Class (Q. spp. > 50% IV; C. spp. < 10% IV) 
a. Scarlet oak-White oak (Q. coccinea-Q. alba) Vegetation Type 
Assoc, spp. — Qst, Qv, Qpr, Cg 

Example — Bluffs of Beaver Bend, Martin County 
1) Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) Community Type in Groundlayer 

Section II. Modified Plant Communities 
I. Tree Management System 
A. Tree plantations 

1. Coniferous plantings 

a. White pine-Red pine stand 

1 ) Bluegrass access lanes in pine stand 

located, indexed and searched for qualitative and quantitative descrip- 
tions. Personal research data and verbal descriptions by other field 
botanists supplemented the published data. The most useful single 
reference on the total range of Indiana plant communities was Natural 
Areas in Indiana and Their Preservation by Lindsey, Schmelz and 
Nichols (1969). Other sources of particular value include Gordon's 
(1936) map and classification of Indiana communities; Beam's (1940) 
Flora of Indiana; Braun's (1950) description of the Eastern Deciduous 
Forest; Curtis' (1959) Vegetation of Wisconsin; and Schmelz' (1969) 
dissertation on old-growth forests of Indiana. 

Indiana plant communities described in sufficient detail to be fit 
into the hierarchical classification system are listed in their respective 
positions in Table 3. It is not proposed that this classification represents 
the best selection and grouping of units, or that it is a finished product 
as it stands. It represents a "state of the art" interpretation of the 
available information. Lack of complete and comparable sample data 
on known stands makes final determinations impossible at this time. 
Some community types {e.g., many herbaceous and cryptogamic com- 
munities) are almost totally lacking in quantitative descriptions. There 
is also the problem of how much variation within a unit is permissable 
for a plant community to be entirely a "this" and not partially or 
wholly a "that". Obviously, there are as many interpretations of these 
separations as there are interpreters. 

Community separations were accomplished by placing stand at- 
tributes tables for all high quality contemporary communities and 
those from presettlement forest communities (primarily from Crank- 
shaw, 1964, and Qadir, 1964) on 5" x 8" McBee punch cards. Separation 
into progressively smaller units was made by placing cards into similar 
groups on the basis of physiognomy, ecological similarity of habitat, 
dominant genera, and importance values of dominant species. Charts 
were made for each group of cards by listing all the species and their 
respective quantitative values. An evaluation of repeating combinations 



164 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 3. Classification of plant communities of Indiana. 



A 



Section I. Natural Plant Communities 
Broadleaf Deciduous Forest System 



AA-- 
AAA- 
AAAA 
AAAB 
AAAC 
AAAD 
AAAE 
AAB- 
AABA 



Xeric Upland Forest 
Oak Cover Class 

Chestnut oak-American Chestnut Cover Type 

Chestnut oak Cover Type 

Scarlet oak-White oak Cover Type 

Black oak Cover Type 

Black oak-White oak Cover Type 
Oak-Hickory Cover Class 

Black oak-White oak-Upland Hickory Cover Type 



AB-- 

ABA- 

ABAA 

ABAB 

ABB- 

ABBA 

ABC- 

ABCA 

ABCB 

ABCC- 

ABD- 

ABDA 

ABE- 

ABEA 



Dry Mesic Upland Forest 
Oak Cover Class 

White oak-Red oak Cover Type 

Chinkapin oak-Red oak Cover Type 
Oak-Hickory Cover Class 

White oak-Red oak-Upland Hickory Cover Type 
Oak-Maple Cover Class 

White oak-Sugar maple Cover Type 

Red oak-Sugar maple Cover Type 

Red oak-Sugar maple-Basswood Cover Type 
Oak-Beech Cover Class 

White oak-American Beech Cover Type 
Western Mesophytic Cover Class 

Western Mesophytic Cover Type 



AC-- 
ACA- 
ACAA 
ACB- 
ACBA 
ACBB 
ACBC 



Mesic Upland Forest 

Mixed Mesophytic Cover Class 

Mixed Mesophytic Cover Type 

Beech-Maple Cover Class 

American beech-Sugar maple Cover Type 
American beech-Sugar maple-Tulip tree Cover Type 
American beech-Sugar maple-Basswood Cover Type 



AD-- 
ADA- 
ADAA 
ADAB 
ADB- 
ADBA 
ADC- 
ADCA 



Wet Mesic Upland Forest 
Maple Cover Class 

Sugar maple-Black maple Cover Type 

Sugar maple-Black maple-American beech Cover Type 
Beech Cover Class 

American beech Cover Type 
Oak-Elm-Ash Cover Class 

Oak-Elm-Ash Cover Type 



AE- 

AEA- 

AEAA 

AEAC 

ABAC 

ABB- 

AiEBA 

AEBB- 

AEBC 

AEBD 

ABC - - 

AEOA 

AED- 

AEDA 



Hydric Upland Depressional and Flatwoods Forest 

Maple Cover Class 

Red maple Cover Type 

Red maple-Ash Cover Type 

Red maple-Yellow birch Cover Type 

Beech Cover Class 

American beech Cover Type 
American beech-Wet site oak Cover Type 
American beech-Black gum Cover Type 
American beech-Sweet gum Cover Type 

Oak-Gum Cover Class 

Pin oak-Sweet Gum Cover Type 

Aspen-Cottonwood Cover Class 

Trembling aspen-Eastern cottonwood Cover Type 



Ecology 



165 



Table 3 — Continued. 



AF-- 
AFA- 
AFAA 
AFB- 
AFBA 



Mesic Lowland Forest 

Beech-Maple Cover Class 

American beech-Sugar maple-Black maple Cover Type 
Maple Cover Class 

Sugar maple Cover Type 



AG-- 

AGA- 

AGAA 

AGB- 

AGBA- 

AGBB 

AGBC- 



Wet Mesic Lowland Forest 

Sweet gum-Tulip tree Cover Class 

Sweet gum-Tulip tree Cover Type 
Oak-Hickory Cover Class 

Shumard's red oak-Shellbark hickory Cover Type 

Post oak Cover Type 

Pin oak Cover Type 



AH-- 

AHA- 

AHAA 

AHB- 

AHBA 

AHBB 

AHBC- 

AHC- 

AHCA 



Hydric Lowland Forest 

Elm-Soft maple-Hackberry Cover Class 

American elm-Silver maple-Hackberry Cover Type 
Soft Maple Cover Class 

Silver maple-Cottonwood Cover Type 

Silver maple-Black willow Cover Type 

Silver maple-Green ash Cover Type 
Cottonwood-Willow Cover Class 

Cottonwood-Black willow Cover Type 



B 



Mixed Broadleaf Deciduous Forest-Needleleaf Forest System 



BA-- 
BAA- 
BAAA 
BAAB 
BAAC 
BAAD 



Xeric Upland Forest 

Oak-Pine Cover Class 

Chestnut oak-Virginia pine Cover Type 
Black oak- White oak- Virginia pine Cover Type 
Black oak- White oak-White pine Cover Type 
Black oak-Jack pine Cover Type 



BB 

BBA- 
BBAA 
BBAB 



Dry Mesic Upland Forest 

Oak-Hemlock-Pine Cover Class 

White oak-Hemlock Cover Type 

Red oak-Hemlock-White pine Cover Type 



BC-- 
BCA- 
BCAA 
BCAB 



Mesic Upland Forest 

Beech-Maple-Hemlock Cover Class 

American beech-Sugar maple-Hemlock Cover Type 

American beech-Sugar maple-Hemlock-White pine Cover Type 



BD 



Wet Mesic Upland Forest (Examples presently unknown) 



BE 



Wet Mesic Lowland Forest (Examples presently unknown) 



BF-- 
BFA- 
BFAA 
BFB- 
BFBA 
BFC- 
BFCA 
BFD- 
BFDA 
BFE- 
BFEA 



Hydric Lowland Forest 

White cedar- ? Cover Class 

*Northern white cedar- ? Cover Type 
Soft maple-Ash-Tamarack Cover Class 

Red maple-Black ash-Tamarack Cover Type 
Swamp oak-Tamarack Cover Class 

Swamp white oak-Bur oak-Tamarack Cover Type 
Ash-Soft maple-Cypress Cover Class 

Green ash-Silver maple-Bald cypress Cover Type 
Cypress Cover Class 

Bald cypress Cover Type 



166 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 3 — Continued. 



C Savanna and Glade Systems 

CA Xeric Upland Savanna 

CAA-- Oak Cover Class 

CAAA - Black oak Savanna Cover Type 

CAAB - White oak Savanna Cover Type 

CAAC - Post oak-Blackjack oak Cover Type 

CB Xeric Upland Glades 

CBA-- Oak-Red cedar Cover Class 

CBAA - Post oak-Eastern red cedar Glade Cover Type 

CBAB - Black oak-Eastern red cedar Glade Cover Type 

CC Dry Mesic Upland Savanna 

CCA - - Oak-Beech Cover Class 

CCAA - * White oak-American beech Savanna Cover Type 

CCB — Oak-Hickory Cover Class 

CCBA - *White oak-Black oak-Upland hickory Savanna Cover Type 

D Shrub System 

DA Xeric Upland Shrubs 

DAA — Cherry-Dogwood-Juniper Cover Class 

DAAA - Sand cherry-Red osier dogwood-Prostrate juniper Cover Type 

(High Foredunes) 

DB Dry Mesic Upland Shrubs (Examples pi-esently unknown) 

DC Mesic Upland Shrubs 

DCA Sweet f ern-Heath-Sumac-Spirea Cover Class 

DCAA - Sweet fern-Heath-Sumac-Spirea Cover Type 

DD - Wet Mesic Lowland Shrubs (Examples presently unknown) 

DE Hydric Lowland Shrubs 

DEA Cinquef oil-Ninebark Cover Class 

DEAA - Bush cinquefoil-Ninebark Cover Type (Shrub Fen) 

DEB — Dogwood-Cranberry-Sumac-Cinquefoil Cover Class (Tall Shrub Bog or 

Fen) 

DEBA - Red osier dogwood-Poison sumac-Cranberry Cover Type 

DBBB - Red osier dogwood-Bush cinquefoil Cover Type 

DEC Leatherleaf-Birch Cover Class (Low Shrub Bog or Fen) 

DECA - Leatherleaf -Dwarf birch Cover Type 

DED — Buttonbush Cover Class (Shrub Swamp) 

DEDA - Buttonbush Cover Type 



E 



Herbaceous System 



EA-- 
EAA- 
EAAA 

EAAB 

EAAC 

EAB- 
EABA 

EAC 
EACA 



Xeric Upland Prairie 

Little Bluestem Cover Class 

Little bluestem-Grama grass-Porcupine grass Cover Type (Gravel 

or Limestone Prairie) 
Little bluestem-June grass-Porcupine grass Cover Type (Sand 

Prairie) 
Little bluestem-Sand cherry-Red osier dogwood Cover Type 
(Dune Sand Shrub Prairie) 
Bluegrass-Povetly Grass Cover Class 

Canada bluegrass- Poverty grass Cover Type (Glacial Drift or 
Loess Hill Prairie-Disturbed) 
Beachgrass-Reedgrass Cover Class 

Beachgrass-Reedgrass Cover Type (Dune Sand Prairie) 



Ecology 



167 



Table 3 — Continued. 



EB Dry Mesic Upland Prairie 

EBA Little Bluestem Cover Class 

EBAA - Little bluestem-Grama grass-Indian grass Cover Type (Glacial 

Drift or Loess Hill Prairie) 

EBAB - Little bluestem-Porcupine grass-Indian grass Cover Type (Sand, 

Gravel or Limestone Prairie) 

EC Mesic Upland Prairie (Glacial Till Black Soil Prairie) 

ECA Big bluestem-Indian grass Cover Class 

ECAA - Big bluestem-Indian grass-Little bluestem Cover Type 

ECAB - Big bluestem-Indian grass-Prairie dropseed Cover Type 

ECAC - Big bluestem-Indian grass-Little bluestem-Shrubs Cover Type 

(Black Soil Shrub Prairie-Unburned) 

ED Wet Mesic Depressional Prairie (Black Soil Prairie of Swales) 

EDA Big bluestem-Indian grass-Bluejoint-Prairie cordgrass Cover Class 

EDAA — Big bluestem-Indian grass-Bluejoint-Prairie cordgrass Cover Type 

EDB Big bluestem-Prairie dock Cover Class 

EDBA - Big bluestem-Prairie dock Cover Type (Herbaceous Raised Fen) 

EE Hydric Lowland Prairie 

EEA Prairie cordgrass Cover Class 

EEAA - Prairie cordgrass-Bluejoint Cover Type 

EEAB - Prairie cordgrass-Tufted hairgrass Cover Type 



EF-- 
EFA- 
EFAA 
EFB- 
EFBA 
EFC - 
EFCA 



Hydric Lowland Forb (Mudflats and Stream Islands) 
Giant ragweed-Bidens-Nettle Cover Class 

Giant ragweed-Bidens-Nettle Cover Type 
Dock-Smartweed-Lovegrass Cover Class 

Dock-Smartweed-Lovegrass Cover Type 
Jewelweed-Snakeroot-False nettle Cover Class 

Jewelweed-Snakeroot-False nettle Cover Type 



EG-- 

EGA- 

EGAA 

EGB- 

EGBA 

EGC- 

EGCA- 

EGD- 

EGDA 

EGE- 

EGEA 



Hydric Lowland Sedge Meadow 

Bluejoint-Sedge-Rush Cover Class (Calcareous Seep or Panne) 

Bluejoint-Sedge-Rush Cover Type 
Sedge-Marsh marigold-Skunk cabbage Cover Class (Seeps) 

Sedge-Marsh marigold-Skunk cabbage Cover Type 
Sedge-Rush-Spike rush Cover Class (Sedge Meadow) 

Sedge-Rush-Spike rush Cover Type 
Sedge-Nut sedge-Forb Cover Class (Sedge Meadow) 

Sedge-Nut sedge-Forb Cover Type 
Sphagnum-Sedge-Fern-Forb Cover Class (Herbaceous Bog) 

Sphagnum-Sedge-Fern-Forb Cover Type 



EH-- 
EHA- 
EHAA 
EHB- 
EHBA 
EHBB 
EHC- 
EHCA 
EHCB 



Hydric Lowland Emergent Aquatic (Marsh) 

Cattail Cover Class 

Cattail Cover Type 

Cattail-Bulrush Cover Class 

Cattail-Bulrush Cover Type 
Cattail-Water parsnip Cover Type 

Bulrush-Burreed-Loosestrife Cover Class 
Bulrush-Burreed Cover Type 
Bulrush-Loosestrife Cover Type 



EI 

EIA-- 
EIAA- 
EIAB- 
EIAC- 
EIAD- 



Hydric Lowland Floating-leaved Aquatics 
Waterlily Cover Class 

Yellow waterlily Cover Type 

Yellow waterlily-White waterlily Cover Type 

Yellow waterlily-Arrowhead- Water willow Cover Type 

Yellow waterlily-Watershield Cover Type 



168 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 3 — Continued. 



Hydric Lowland Submerged Aquatics 
Pondweed Cover Class 

Pondweed-Hornwort Cover Type 
Pondweed-Hornwort-Stonewort Cover Type 
Pondweed-Tapegrass-Waterweed Cover Type 



EJ 

EJA-- 
EJAA- 
EJAB- 
EJAC- 

F 

FA 

FAA-- 



Cryptogamic System 

Xeric Sandstone Surfaces 
Lichen Cover Class 



FB-- 
FBA- 



Xeric Limestone Surfaces 
Lichen Cover Class 



FC- 

FCA 



Dry Mesic Sandstone Surfaces 

Moss-Reindeer lichen Cover Class 



FD- 
FDA 



Dry Mesic Limestone Surfaces 
Moss-Cliff fern Cover Class 



FE- 
FEA 



Mesic Sandstone Surfaces 

Moss-Liverwort- Walking fern Cover Class 



FF- 
FFA 



Mesic Limestone Surfaces 

Moss-Fern-Forb Cover Class 



FG- 

FGA 



Wet Mesic Sandstone Surfaces 
Liverwort-Moss Cover Class 



FH- 
FHA 



Wet Mesic Limestone Surfaces 

Moss-Liverwort-Forb Cover Class 



Section II. Modified Plant Communities 



M 



Tree Management System 



MM- 

MMM 

MMN 

MMO- 

MN-- 

MNM- 

MNN- 

MNO- 

MNP- 

MO-- 

MOM- 

MON- 

MP-- 



Managed Forest Lands 

Timber production forests 
Grazed woodlands 
Farm woodlots 

Tree Plantations 

Deciduous plantings 
Coniferous plantings 
Mixed nursery plantings 
Arboreta and formal gardens 

Hedgerows and Windbreaks 
Tree 
Shrub and bramble 

Orchards and Vineyards 



N- 



Agricultural System 



NM 


Forage Crops 


NMM - 


Pastures 


NMN- 


Hay fields 


NN 


Grain Crops 


NNM- 


Small grains 


NNN-- 


Row crops 


NO - 


Animal Confinement Areas 


NOM- 


Feed lots 



Ecology 



169 



Table 3 — Continued. 



O Aquatic System 

OM Small Private Units 

OMM — Farm ponds 

OMN — Drainage ditches 

ON Large Public Projects 

ONM Reservoirs and impoundments 

ONN — Strip-mine lakes and ponds 

ONO Highway borrow pit lakes 

ONP Channelized streams 

OO Heavily Stressed Waters 

OOM — Cooling lakes 

OON — Mine washing ponds 

OOO — Sewage lagoons 

OOP — Excessively polluted streams 

P Reversionary System 

PM Forest Lands 

PMM — Abandoned tree plantings 

PMN — Clear-cut areas 

PN Agricultural Lands 

PNM — Recently abandoned fields 

PNN — Old field succession 

PNO — Mid-seral communities 

PNP — Late-seral communities 

PNQ — Fence row successions 

PO Aquatic Areas 

POM Dying farm ponds 

PON — Filled reservoirs 

PP Developed Lands 

PPM — Abandoned homesites 

PPN Vacated urban lands 



Q- 



Recreational System 



QM- 

QMM 

QMN 

QMO 

QMP 

QN- 

QNM 

QNN- 

QNO 

QO- 

QOM 

QON 



Quasi-natural Lands 

State parks (intensively used sections) 

County and city parks 

Youth camps 

Campgrounds 
Manicured Lands (mowings) 

Lawns 

Golf courses 

Athletic fields 
Developed Sites 

Race tracks 

Amusement parks 



R 



Extraction System 



RM- 
RMM 
RMN 
RMO 
RN- 
RNM 
RNN 
RNO 
RNP- 



Aggregate Recovery 

Limestone quarries 

Sand mines 

Gravel pits 
Strip-mining Lands 

Active pits 

Raw spoil areas 

Unreclaimed serai spoil banks 

Reclamation lands 



170 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 3 — Continued. 



RO 

RP- 

RQ- 

RQM 

RQN 

RR- 

S 

SM- 

SMM 

SMN 

SMO 

SMP 

SMQ 

SMR 

SN-- 

SNM 

SNN 



TM-- 
TMM- 
TMN- 
TMO- 
TMP- 
TMQ- 
TN-- 
TNM- 
TNN- 

U 

UM- 
UMM 

UMN- 
UN- 

uo- 

UOM 
UON 
UOO- 
UOP- 



Peat Mining Sites 
Petroleum Recovery Sites 
Abused Farm Lands 

Borrow pits 

Eroded lands 
Construction Sites (also depositional) 

Depositional System 

Social Alluvium 

Agricultural wastes 

Sawdust and wood processing wastes 

Refuse dumpings 

Landfills 

Scrap holding and processing yards 

Junkyards 
Sedimentations 

Terrestrial 

Aquatic 

Transportation System 

Vehicular Traffic 

Railroad rights-of-way 

Highway borders and medians 

Streets and parkways 

Airports 

Vehicle storage areas 
Flowage Traffic 

Utility corridors 

Pipeline corridors 

Residential System 

Rural 

Farmsteads 

Country homes 
Suburban 
Urban 

Single dwelling homes 

Condominiums 

Apartment complexes 

Motel-hotel units 



V Municipal-Industrial System 

VM - Recreational Sites 
VMM - - Theatres 

VMN Sports arenas 

VN Educational Units 

VNM - Schools 

VNN - Colleges 

VNO Universities 

VO Medical Complexes 

VP Governmental Units 

VQ Business Centers 

VQM — Shopping centers 

VQN Small businesses 

VR Light Industrial Areas 

VRM Construction firms 

VRN Service industries 



Ecology 171 



Table 3 — Continued. 



VS Heavy Industrial Areas 

VSM Steel manufacturing 

VSN Petro-chemical refining 

VSO Heavy manufacturing 



* Known only from presettlement forest data. 

of dominant genera and the constancy of their quantitative values per- 
mitted the grouping of stands into Vegetation Classes according to the 
method described by Phillips (1959). 

Subdivision of Vegetation Cover Classes into Vegetation Cover 
Types resulted from separations according to similarities in dominant 
and subdominant species, plus consideration of patterns within subordi- 
nant strata. 

A lack of consistency among stand table data taken by so many 
botanists using such different methods over so many years of field 
work precluded the use of more objective mathematical approaches to 
taxa separation. Subjective interpretations based both on available 
quantitative data and field experience in studying Indiana vegetation 
seemed to be the best approach in this initial effort to develop a plant 
community classification for the State. 

Refinement of this classification system will become much easier 
once comparable stand table data are generated for large numbers of 
communities representing all physiognomic systems of the State's 
vegetation. Your suggestions and comments for improving this classi- 
fication are welcomed. 

Acknowledgments 

Special thanks are extended to the staffs of the Indiana Natural 
Heritage Program, Indiana Division of Nature Preserves and The 
Nature Conservancy's National Office who offered many suggestions. I 
am particularly indebted to the professors of plant ecology at many 
Indiana colleges and universities who critically reviewed early drafts 
of the classification. The nearly countless botanists who studied the 
ecology and taxonomy of Indiana vegetation during the past 150 years 
really wrote this classification, I merely reorganized their findings. 
They who studied major portions of the 99 % of Indiana's original vege- 
tation that has been modified give us cause to save at least part of the 
remaining l f / f that presently resembles the natural communities of 
presettlement Indiana. 



Literature Cited 

1. Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. Deciduous forest of Eastern North America. Blakiston Press. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 596 p. 

2. Cbankshaw, W. B. 1C64. The edaphology of tree species in presettlement Indiana 
south of the Late Wisconsin Glacial border. Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue Univ., W. 
Lafayette, In. 



172 Indiana Academy of Science 

3. Curtis, J. T. 1959. Vegetation of Wisconsin. U. Wise. Press, Madison. 657 p. 

4. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Dep. Conserv., Div. For., Indianapolis. 1,236 p. 

5. Gordon, R. B. 1936. A preliminary vegetation map of Indiana. Amer. Midland Natur. 

17:866-877. 

6. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Natural vegetation of the coterminous United States. Map 
and Manual. Amer. Geog. Soc, N.Y., N.Y. 

7. Lindsey, A. A., R. O. Petty, D. K. Sterling and W. VanAsdall. 1961. Vegetation 
and environment along the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers. Ecol. Monogr. 31 :105-158. 

8. Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmelz and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural areas in Indiana 
and their preservation. Indiana Natural Areas Survey, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, In. 
594 p. 

9. Phillips, E. A. 1959. Methods of vegetation study. Henry Holt and Co., Inc., N.Y., 
N.Y. 107 p. 

10. Qadir, S. A. 1964. A study of edaphic controls of tree species in presettlement forests 
in northern Indiana. Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, In. 150 p. 

11. Schmelz, D. V. 1969. Methodological approaches in the analysis of Indiana old-growth 
forests. Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, In. 199 p. 



Plankton and Benthos of Spicer Lake 

Clarence F. Dineen 
Department of Biology, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Introduction 

Spicer Lake Nature Preserve was dedicated May 31, 1978, under 
the Indiana Nature Preserve Act of 1967, (Burns Indiana Statutes, 
14-4-5; p. 433). The area was purchased by the nature Conservancy 
in junction with the South Bend Audubon Society and a federal grant 
to the Saint Joseph County Parks and Recreation Board. The Saint 
Joseph County Park and Recreation Board in cooperation with the 
Division of Nature Preserve of the Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources controls and operates the Spicer Lake Nature Preserve. 

This kettle-hole swamp forest preserve, approximately 16 hectares, 
located in the extreme northwest corner of Saint Joseph County (Fig. 
1), was recognized by Lindsey et al. (2) as an outstanding natural 
aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. The circular Spicer Lake, 2 hectares 







lllfct 



-;■■■•■■■ ' • Jbrt. 



, " ;.; >, ■' ^ ay : 

* :rf l||^^ ||if j||iif: 

ii§ M 

A* i *§lllliit 







s • 



Ifitll 



Figure 1. Spicer Lake Nature Preserve (-\- Spicer Lake) 

173 



174 



Indiana Academy of Science 



in area and a maximum depth of 6.1 m, is bordered by a uniform 
floating mat of vegetation 4 to 8 m wide (Fig. 2). The mat consists 
primarily of yellow pond lily, Nuphar advena, and swamp loosestrife, 
Decodon verticillatus var laevigatus. Dodder, Cuscuta gronovii, badder- 
wort, Utricularia and hornwort Ceratophyllum demersum are common 
in the floating mat. 

This study pertains primarily to the plankton and benthos in the 
open water area from the inner edge of the floating mat to the center 
of the lake. Chemical analyses of the bottom materials from the center 
of the lake, light measurements and temperature — oxygen profiles are 
also included. 



: '%AlMMiM&& 










Figure 2. Spiccr Lake 



Ecology 175 

Methods 

The plankton and benthos were collected eight times in 1978 from a 
deep and a shallow station. The deep water samples were from the 
center of the lake and the shallow from 1 m inward from the edge of 
the floating mat of vegetation. All samples were preserved in formalin 
and 3 ml of a 5% Rose-Bengal dye solution were added to aid in the 
identification of some invertebrates. Two 100 liter samples of water at 
each collection site were strained through a #10 mesh (153 n aperture) 
net. The number of each species per/1 of water was determined and 
recorded (Table 1). The benthos were collected with a Ponar grab 
sampler (0.0232 m 2 ), screened in the field through a #30 (0.52 mm 
aperture) brass sieve. In the laboratory the organisms were separated, 
identified and recorded in n/m 2 (Table 2). Nine grab samples were 
taken at each site on each collecting date. 

Results and Discussion 

Physical Characteristics. — Light penetration in the open water was 
a major limiting factor. A white disk, 20 cm in diameter disappeared 
from sight at about 1 m depth throughout most of the year. The range 
of measurements varied from .8 m to 1.5 m. The open water always 
appeared dark brown to blackish. Mudminnows could be identified to 
depths of less than .5 m. The circular, kettle-hole lake is surrounded 
by a swamp forest with red maple, Acer rubrum, as the predominant 
species in the canopy layer. Wave action on the lake was limited to 
small ripples even when the southwest prevailing winds were strong. 
Several temperature-oxygen profiles were taken during the study 
and no well defined thermocline was established. Temperature measure- 
ments in the upper 1 m usually varied less than 2°C. From the 1 m to 
3 m level the temperature dropped 4-6 degrees per/m. The decline in 
temperature from 3 m to the bottom was a uniform, gradual gradient 
of 3-4 degrees per/m. For example in September the temperature read- 
ing in °C were: surface, 23; 1 m, 21; 2 m, 16; 3 m, 10; 4 m, 7; 5 m, 5; 
6 m, 5. Consistently, the oxygen content of the water was reduced 
dramatically at the 1 to 2 m depth. The 2 (ppm) in the upper .5 m 
ranged from 8.4 to 5.4. At 1 m depth the highest reading was 3.8 and 
the lowest was 0.2. At the 2 m depth the oxygen content ranged from 
1.8 to 0.2 and then reduced gradually to bottom readings of 0.1 to zero. 

The depth of the water near the inner edge of the floating mat of 
vegetation varied from 3 to 4 meters and dropped rather abruptly to 
5 and 5.5 m toward the center of the lake. The maximum depth in a 
few areas was 6.1 m. All bottom materials in the open waters areas 
appeared uniform. The materials were very fine, gray to black and 
rather cohesive. Almost 100% of the materials could be screened through 
a #30 brass sieve when washed for a considerable period of time. Six 
chemical analyses of bottom samples from the center of Spicer Lake 
were conducted in the laboratory (Table 3). 

Plankton. — The significance of limited light penetration in Spicer 
Lake was reflected in the primary producer level of the plankton. In 
the 4 major taxa, Pyrrhophyta, Chrysophyta, Cyanophyta and Chloro- 



176 



Indiana Academy of Science 



^9 



B ~ 



in 



CO o 

T+ O 

ID CO 



00 o 
■>* 00 
CM -^i 



I I 



->* I iH 



m © co i-t cm t- 

CO O i-H 
CM O 



00 O i-l iH to O 



co o in m o m 



I I 



CO C- CO CO 



■^ ^* ^* ^* 



CO CO 



CM CM 



as o o t- oo m 



>* O 13 00 ■* o 
CO O CM CM CO 



t- 51 lO U3 M 
CM •"* 









CO 


o 


o 


o 


00 


rH 








T-H 


o 


00 


rH 


CM 








Q 




in 


CM 










>, 
















M 


03 
















_c 


55 
















$H 


'. 
















& 


?H 
















w 


ft 


















^ 




00 


CO 


in 


t- 


© 


in 






r/l 


I— 1 


i-H 


CO 


co 


CM 


C\l 



CM 05 cm m 



>*S e * 



s s 



si v> to 

t«o o 
< 



S 2 .1 



e e» a 



? o S ej 



5 £ 



a 
s 



© 

05 « 

S 

s a 

o 



e 

,3 S> 
3 8 






Ecology 177 

Table 2. Benthos (#1 m-) 





Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


Jun. 


Jul. 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Diptera 


















Tendipedidae 


















Tendipes 


— 


450 


1550 


105 


28 


50 


60 


160 


Culicidae 


















Chaoborus 


* 


50 


60 


35 


450 


350 


50 


750 



* Exuviae 

phyta only Ceratium hirundinella and Oscillatoria (chiefly or entirely 
one species) were consistently frequent in the samples (Table 1). 
Ceratium hirundinella was very abundant in June and Oscillatoria was 
common in the spring and summer months. Dinobryon appeared mainly 
in the spring collection. The desmids, mostly Closterium and Pleuro- 
thaenium were consistently present in small numbers in the spring and 
summer plankton. Many taxa of diatoms were collected but no one 
species appeared in great numbers. The Zygnematales representatives, 
Zygnema and Spirogyra, seemed to be related to the floating mat area 
where these genera were abundant. 

At the consumer level, 14 taxa of Rotatoria were identified (Table 
1). The populations were similar to those collected in a bog pond in 
Minnesota (1) where 29 taxa were collected. However, only one species, 
Brachionus havanaenis, in the common genus Brachionus appeared in 
Spicer Lake as compared to six species in the Minnesota pond. Six 
genera, namely Filinia, Polyarthra, Asplanchna, Keratella, Kellicottia 
and Platyids were found in most collections. Only Polyarthra and Kera- 
tella were represented in large numbers. 

Cladocerans were very sparse in Spicer Lake. Bosmina was com- 
mon in June. Daphnia and Alona guttata appeared sporadically in the 
open water collections (Table 1). Alona guttata and other shallow water 
species were identified in collections taken at random from the floating 
mat area. 

Diaptomus oregonensis was taken in most collections, in particular 
the spring and early summer samples. A species of Cyclops was common 
in spring and remained in very small numbers the remainder of the year. 
A few harpacticoids appeared in shallow water and samples taken from 
the floating mat area contained considerable numbers in the spring. 

Table 3. Bottom Sample Chemical Analyses 

Parameters Method Results 

Volatile Solids Gravimetric 15.8% 

Ammonia Nitrogen Distillation and Colorimetric 23 mg/g 

Kjeldahl Nitrogen Digestion and Colorimetric 26.9 mg/g 

Total Phosphorus Digestion and Colorimetric 60 mg/g dry wt. 

Iron A. A. 13 mg/g 

Lead A. A. <0.03 mg/g 

Zinc A. A. 0.14 mg/g 



178 Indiana Academy of Science 

No plankton was found in the winter collection. The total popula- 
tion of plankton from the open water of Spicer Lake was very limited 
due to low light penetration. As stated above, several taxa of plankton 
were associated with the floating mat of vegetation. The mat is no 
doubt the most productive area of the lake. 

Benthos. — The macrobenthos were limited to two genera of Diptera 
(Table 2). Tendipes (Tendipedidae) was present consistently in the 
collections and a significant peak population appeared in May. Chaoborus 
(Culicidae) was common in the samples and a peak population was 
reached in October. Annelida appeared very sporadically in the collec- 
tions. No macrobenthos were taken in the winter collections. However, 
many exuviae of Chaoborus accumulated beneath the ice. In March 1978 
the winter cover consisted of layers of solid ice and mixtures of ice and 
snow which totaled 60-70 cm. There were numerous air pockets and 
fine organic and inorganic materials were frozen in the winter cover. 
The absence of light seemed apparent. The water was dark brown and 
the odor indicated stagnant conditions. No direct 2 measurements 
of the water (4-6° C) was taken but the complete void of algae suggested 
very little or no oxygen. 

Summary and Conclusions 

The populations of plankton and benthos in the open water area 
of Spicer Lake were small and limited in the number of significant taxa. 
Predominant plankters included two producers, Ceratium hirundinella 
and Oscillator ia; the crustacean, Diaptomus oregonensis, and two rotifers, 
Polyarthra and Keratella cochlearis. The benthos were represented pri- 
marily by Tendipes and Chaoborus. 

The dark color of the water restricted the depth of light penetration, 
consequently, productivity in the open water was limited. The reduced 
depth of the photic zone and the absence of wave action were major 
factors contributing to the very low 2 content below the 1 to 2 m 
depth. 

A complete chemical analysis of the water is planned to determine 
what factors limited the light penetration. Also it is apparent that the 
extensive floating mat area is the most productive facet of the Spicer 
Lake ecosystem. A very diverse population of algae and invertebrates 
inhabit the mat zone. The green frog, Rana cla?nitans malanota, and the 
Central mudminnow, Umbra limi are the top predators. Thus, a study 
of the biotic impact of the floating mat on the Spicer Lake ecosystem 
is essential. Research is in progress on the ecology of the mudminnow, 
which is perhaps the only fish in the lake at the present time. 



Literature Cited 

Dineen, C. F. 1953. An Ecological Study of a Minnesota Pond. Am. Midi. Nat. 
50:2, pp. 349-376. 

Lindsey, A. A., D. V. Schmelz and S. A. Nichols. 1969. Natural Areas in Indiana 
and Their Preservation. Pub. Indiana Natural Areas Survey, Department of 
Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, pp. 594. 



Ecology 179 

Acknowledgments 

This study was supported by a grant from the Indiana Academy of 
Science. Also, I wish to thank Victor Riemenschneider for his assistance 
in the field work and the professional help related to the history and 
botanical aspects of the study. Thanks to Gregory Prezbindowski for the 
chemical analyses and to others who helped with field collections and 
gave suggestions: Geza Csapo, Hein family, Robert Fischgrund, Richard 
Jensen, David Sever and Larry Stewart. 



Current Developments in Applied Limnology 

Byron G. Torke 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 

Some 37 years have passed since Raymond Lindemann published 
his classic paper entitled "The trophic-dynamic aspect in ecology". At the 
time of its publication in 1942, ecology represented a number of rather 
independent lines of research, largely derived from systematically based 
field investigations and descriptive natural history studies which had 
developed from the traditions of the 19th century. Much concern was 
given to the naming and classification of ecological patterns and proc- 
esses. Lindemann's contribution was two-fold. First, it stressed the 
role of trophic relations, that is, the transfer and flow of matter and 
energy and the quantification of these processes in communities, as 
fundamental to the understanding of ecosystem function and develop- 
ment. Secondly, his paper established the validity of a theoretical orien- 
tation in ecology. By formulating a theoretical model of trophic inter- 
actions, Lindemann was able to develop a number of predictions, by 
which the validity of the model could be tested. This established the 
idea that ecosystems can be studied from an experimental standpoint 
and has been of inestimable significance in the development of modern 
approaches in aquatic ecology. 

The International Biological Program (IBP) was sponsored by 
UNESCO during this decade and several lakes around the world, includ- 
ing Lake Wingra in Wisconsin and Lake George in New York State, 
became the focus of intensive, interdisciplinary studies, which attempted 
to include all pertinent aspects of lake ecosystem function and pro- 
ductivity, with the ultimate goal of developing predictive models which 
would aid in protection and management of the world's lake resources. 
The results of many of these whole-lake ecosystem studies have been 
published, and although some of the original questions remain unan- 
swered and many new questions have been proposed, a general frame- 
work of lake ecosystem function and an understanding of the effects 
of man's activities on the trophic relations and productivity of lakes 
has emerged. With the current problems of population growth and 
technological development and their often drastic effects on lake eco- 
systems, it is essential that we begin to devote efforts to protecting 
and managing our lakes so that they can continue to serve as resources 
for future generations. Therefore, in this presentation, I will attempt 
a brief overview of some of the most important recent concepts leading 
to the development of lake problem assessment and management 
strategies. 

Lakes undergo a natural aging process, which leads to their eventual 
enrichment and final extinction, which has been most commonly termed 
"eutrophication." 

A much clearer understanding of the process involved in eutrophica- 
tion was gained by the advent of studies of lake development or evolu- 

180 



Ecology 181 

tion as evidenced by sediment cores. Early studies in European lakes by 
Lundquist (1927) and Gams (1927) showed that lake sediments very 
often exhibit a stratigraphic sequence in which inorganic silt or clay is 
overlain by more organic sediments. 

Paleolimnological studies on glacial lakes in North America (Hutch- 
inson and Wollock, 1940, Deevey, 1942) confirmed the results of these 
earlier studies in Europe. Typically the newly formed lakes undergo an 
initial oligotrophic phase during which the nutrient concentrations and 
phytoplankton biomass increase slowly over time. This phase may in 
some cases occupy a time span of several thousand years. 

After some time, the input of nutrients from the watershed and 
recycling of nutrients from the sediments is balanced by the export 
of nutrients through the lake's outlet and /or by permanent loss to the 
sediments. This initiates a trophic equilibrium phase which is character- 
ized by relatively stable and unchanging nutrient concentrations and 
biological production. This phase may be of very long duration. 

Pretty Lake in Indiana was studied by Wetzel (1970) who ex- 
amined the distribution of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products 
per gram of organic matter in cores which were aged by a C-14 tech- 
nique. The lake was formed about 14,000 B.P., and after an initial 
oligotrophic phase, which lasted about 4,000 years, entered a trophic 
equilibrium phase, which has persisted up to the present with perhaps 
a slight overall decrease in the concentration of nutrients and produc- 
tion of phytoplankton. 

The trophic equilibrium phase comes to an end when sedimentation 
reduces the lake volume and mean depth beyond a certain point. After 
this point is achieved, the littoral plant community rapidly expands to 
the limnetic regions, and completely dominates the metabolism of the 
lake. Extinction may follow one of three routes, according to Wetzel 
and Allen (1970), depending on the amount of allochthonous input of 
CaC0 3 and nutrient inputs from both the watershed and the lake's 
sediments. 

Cultural or man-induced eutrophication, in contrast to natural eutro- 
phication, typically takes place over a much shorter time span. 

Cultural Eutrophication is defined as the increase of productivity 
and sedimentation rates in lakes as a direct consequence of the activities 
of man. It is often difficult to make clear distinctions between the prob- 
lems of eutrophication and other problems associated with man's activi- 
ties such as erosion caused by poor land use activities and certain pol- 
lutant sources producing toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Often these 
and other conditions occur along with and are interrelated with the 
effects of nutrient enrichment. 

In defining the problems of eutrophication, one must separate the 
causes and effects. Usually the effects, in cases of advanced eutrophica- 
tion, are obvious even to the casual observer, whereas the causes may 
or may not be easily identified and eliminated. Vollenweider (1971) dis- 
tinguishes the following symptoms as being typical of incipient cultural 
eutrophication. 



182 Indiana Academy of Science 

1. An increase in the quantity of the biomass of either the aquatic 
macrophytes and periphytic algae near the shore or of the algae of the 
open water regions or both. Usually such increases are accompanied 
by a decrease in the number of species that are typical of oligotrophic 
waters and, concurrently, by an increase in the number of character- 
istically eutrophic species. 

2. Changes in both the numbers and types of animal species in the 
littoral, benthic, and plankton communities and also in the fish popula- 
tions. In the very beginning stages of culturally induced eutrophication, 
an initial increase in biomass of various segments of the animal communi- 
ty is often observed. At a more advanced stage of eutrophication there 
is typically a shift of oligotrophic species to eutrophic and facultative 
species. In lakes of north-temperate regions, Salmonid and Coregonid 
fishes are typically replaced by Centrarchid and Cyprinid fish which are 
more tolerant of the existing conditions. 

3. Physical and chemical changes include a decreasing water trans- 
parency and an accompanying change in water color. There is often 
a development of an oxygen maximum or minimum in the metalimnion 
and in severe cases this condition may alternate on a diurnal basis. 
Because of an increased input of organic materials to the sediments, 
there is a gradual overall decline in the oxygen concentration of the 
hypolimnion during the period of summer thermal stratification. There is 
an increase of the average nutrient level, that is, concentrations of phos- 
phorus and nitrogen, which can easily be detected by chemical methods. 

As the process of eutrophication advances, all of these symptoms 
become more pronounced finally leading to almost catastrophic changes. 
This advanced stage is usually characterized by massive blooms of blue- 
green algae (Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Aphanizomonon, etc.), an enormous 
proliferation of aquatic macrophytes, periphyton, and floating algal mats 
along the lake shore, the total elimination of oxygen from the hy- 
polimnion during the summer, the accumulation of considerable quanti- 
ties of phosphorus and nitrogen, the appearance in the hypolimnion of 
hydrogen sulphide, ammonium ions, iron and manganese, non-mineralized 
organic substances and sometimes the formation of methane, the dis- 
appearance of the benthic fauna in the deeper regions of the lake and 
massive fish kills. Such changes present serious consequences for man's 
use of the lake. Besides the drastic losses incurred from an aesthetic 
standpoint, difficulties in terms of water use and human health result. 
Because of problems of filter clogging, precipitates of iron and manga- 
nese, pronounced corrosion, unpleasant taste and odor, etc., direct use 
of water for drinking and industrial purposes is severely impaired. 

From the recreational standpoint, advanced eutrophication is highly 
detrimental and gives rise to various unpleasant situations, such as 
various forms of skin irritation known as swimmer's itch, more frequent 
insect bites, tangling of motor boat props in weeds, and poor fishing. 
It is obvious that such changes do have serious repercussions on the 
economic value of lakes and their surroundings, including local govern- 
ments, industry, resorts and other recreation based businesses, fisheries, 
cottage owners, and local residents. Therefore, preventative and cor- 



Ecology 183 

rective measures to curb the effects of eutrophication are highly desir- 
able to all concerned. 

It is quite apparent from numerous studies that nutrient inputs are 
the fundamental cause of the phenomena collectively known as cultural 
eutrophication. The importance of phosphorus and nitrogen has been 
the subject of major symposia and reviews (e.g. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1969, 
Likens, 1962). In lakes of the north temperate zone there can be little 
doubt that phosphorus is most often the limiting nutrient, that is, the 
element in shortest supply necessary for algal growth. 

Perhaps the most important contribution regarding the concentra- 
tion of nutrients in relation to eutrophication is the nutrient loading 
concept of Vollenweider (1968). Although nutrient concentration rather 
than nutrient supply will control the biomass of phytoplankton and 
macrophytes in a lake, nutrient loading is directly responsible for 
nutrient concentration. Vollenweider's early model (1968) for nutrient 
loading involved plotting the areal total phosphorus loading against the 
mean depth on a log-log scale. From this plot, straight lines could 
be arbitrarily drawn separating the lakes into types: oligotrophic, 
mesotrophic, and eutrophic. This initial simple model was received by 
the scientific community with much enthusiasm, because, for lakes with 
phosphorus loading data available, the predicted trophic states in most 
cases closely matched the observed trophic status as described by 
other criteria of lake trophy: transparency (secchi disc depth), chloro- 
phyll concentration, oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, etc. How- 
ever, Dillon (1975) criticized Vollenweider's model because it fails to 
consider lake flushing rates. Dillon's model includes a factor for hydraulic 
flushing rate and a coefficient for the retention of phosphorus in the 
lake. Dillon applied this phosphorus loading equation to two Ontario 
lakes with very different flushing rates. His calculations accurately 
predicted that the lake with low flushing rates would be almost identical 
to the lake with high flushing rates in terms of degree of eutrophy 
despite the fact that the lake with high flushing rates received a phos- 
phorus load 20 times greater than that of the other lake. Vollenweider 
(1975) also recognized the importance of water renewal time and modi- 
fied his simple loading vs. mean depth (Z) relationship to include the 
mean residence time of water (T w ). By plotting loading against Z/T w , 
Vollenweider arrived at a more realistic representation of phosphorus 
budgets for lakes. Dillon's equation is perhaps more representative be- 
cause it includes both flushing rate and retention time in its calculation. 
Other factors not considered in the models of either Dillon or Vollen- 
weider include the effects of internal loading and the extent of the shore- 
line and the littoral area. The effects of internal loading are exemplified 
by the highly eutrophic Rotsee in Switzerland (Vollenweider, 1976). 
Input-output calculations for phosphorus budgets failed to account for 
the very high concentrations of phosphorus in the lake. Vollenweider 
concluded that the phosphorus enriched sediments serve as a long term 
periodic source for large inputs of phosphorus. It seems likely that many 
lakes which have been eutrophic for some time will contain large 
reserves of phosphorus in their sediments. This is of considerable impor- 



184 Indiana Academy of Science 

tance for lake restoration because it implies that mere reduction in 
phosphorus input will not always result in lower phosphorus concen- 
trations within the lake, and that the sediments may supply phosphorus 
to keep the lake in an advanced eutrophic state for years to come. 
Although phosphorus loading budgets require substantial information 
for their construction, they appear to be one of the most valuable tech- 
niques in the identification of the causes of and solutions to cultural 
eutrophication. 

Approaches to lake restoration can be placed into two categories: 
1. procedures to limit production and sedimentation in lakes by curbing 
nutrient input, and 2. procedures to remove or manage the consequences 
of lake aging. 

The objectives of limiting fertility in lakes are to reduce the ex- 
cessive and undesirable growth of algae and rooted aquatic macrophytes 
and hence, by reducing their production, to reduce the rate of au- 
tochthonous sedimentation. It is generally agreed that the most desirable 
long term lake management approach is to reduce and control the input 
of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. These inputs may be 
diverse for a particular lake basin and therefore studies must be con- 
ducted to identify and locate nutrient sources for each lake in question. 

A. Wastewater Treatment 

For many lakes domestic and industrial waste waters constitute 
a major source of nutrients. Waste water treatment is perhaps the 
most widely used technique for reducing the nutrient loads of wastewater 
effluents to rivers and streams, although nutrient removal for lake pro- 
tection and improvement is a major objective in only a minority of sit- 
uations. Unfortunately, removal of nitrogen and phosphorus is at the 
present time usually inadequate for the alleviation of continuing eu- 
trophic trends in lakes. Most wastewater systems currently in operation 
were primarily designed to reduce B.O.D. (Biological Oxygen Demand). 
In other words, in plant oxidation of organic matter in order to protect 
the oxygen resources of the recipient water body is the primary objec- 
tive. Some nutrient removal does occur although the efficiency is rather 
low. Furthermore, housing developments and communities on many lakes 
do not have sewer facilities for collective wastewater treatment, but 
rely on septic systems which in many cases have saturated the ground 
water, thus causing a diffuse discharge of nutrients from the shore into 
the lake. Any septic system, by its very nature, must eventually saturate 
the soil of the septic field into which the wastewater is discharged. 
The time required for saturation to occur depends largely on the char- 
acteristics of the soil (Hook et al. 1978). 

B. Diversion 

Diversion is the rerouting of waters outside of a lake's drainage 
basin. This may or may not be used in conjunction with wastewater 
treatment. Diversion without treatment has been severely criticized 
because it simply displaces the problem to another location. If, however, 
the new location is a river or stream some benefits may be realized 



Ecology 185 

since rivers and streams have a higher self-cleansing potential than 
lakes. Some well known examples of this procedure include Lake 
Washington, Seattle, Washington (Edmondson 1970); the Madison Lakes 
(Mendota, Menona, Waubesa and Kegonsa) Madison, Wisconsin (Sonzogni 
and Lee 1974); and the Chicago Sanitary Canal which diverts waste- 
water formerly discharged into Lake Michigan to the Illinois River. 
In essence, diversion can be a simple and economical solution to pollu- 
tion problems which otherwise are not easily dealt with. However, 
a decision must be made on what sort of trade off or sacrifice will incur 
to the receiving water body. In many instances such sacrifices would 
probably be unacceptable in Indiana in view of the state's efforts to 
improve the water quality of our streams and rivers. 

C. Control of Incoming Sediments 

In reservoirs, as well as some state's natural lakes, sedimentation 
is a major problem, restricting recreational use, and in many cases 
greatly shortening the lifetime of the lake. Control measures at the 
present time include both procedures to reduce sediment loss in the 
watershed, e.g. contour plowing, grade stabilization, grassed waterways, 
mulching and others, and procedures to prevent eroded sediments from 
entering the lake, e.g. sediment basins and diversion basins. Many of 
these procedures are applicable to problems in Indiana's lakes and may 
be used in conjunction with nutrient abatement and in-lake rehabilita- 
tion projects. Where allochthonous sediments are a problem, these pro- 
cedures should be given serious consideration. Sediment basins may 
be of special importance in that they may also function in nutrient 
removal, if properly designed. 

D. In-lake Rehabilitation Techniques 

The objectives of various in-lake rehabilitation schemes are either 
to accelerate nutrient outflow or to prevent recycling of nutrients within 
the lake ecosystem (Dunst et al. 1974). It must be emphasized that 
these techniques by themselves will usually provide only temporary 
relief from the effects of high nutrient levels unless they are used in 
combination with programs to reduce the input of nutrients to the 
lake. These techniques are directed at removing residual nutrients pres- 
ent in the water, the sediments, or the biota. An attempt here is made to 
present some of the techniques and assess their usefulness for Indiana's 
lakes. 

1. Dredging. At the present time many people regard lake rehabili- 
tation as being synonymous with dredging. Indeed, many of the com- 
pleted lake restoration projects in the U.S. have involved dredging the 
pond in the city park. In the past this has usually been done without 
any prior studies on conditions previous to dredging and often there 
were no follow-up studies as well. 

In non-stratified shallow lakes, nutrient regeneration from the sedi- 
ments by wind generated mixing can be the major source of nutrients. 
Thus, dredging to expose a nutrient-poor layer can result in very sig- 
nificant reduction in nutrient concentrations. In deeper thermally strati- 



186 Indiana Academy of Science 

fied lakes, however, dredging may not have this desired effect. Sedi- 
mentary phosphorus concentrations may only reflect the binding capacity 
of the sediments and not the nutrient concentration levels in the over- 
lying waters. Furthermore, the dredging of lakes with large surface 
areas becomes impractical both from an economic and engineering 
standpoint. 

2. Drawdown and Sediment Consolidation. The water content of 
organic rich sediments in eutrophic lakes frequently exceeds 90% 
by volume. Consolidation of flocculent sediments by dessication is largely 
irreversible and results in a deepening of the lake basin and an increase 
in Jake volume (Smith et al.). 

3. Chemical Treatment for Nutrient Inactivation and/or Precipita- 
tion. The intent of these procedures is to change the form of nutrients 
to make them unavailable to plants, remove nutrients from the photic 
zone and prevent release and recycling of nutrients from the sediments. 
Usually this is done by application of alum slurry from a boat or barge. 
Recent studies indicate the effects are temporary, and the process may 
have to be repeated every year or so. However, when used in conjunction 
with procedures to curb nutrient inputs, nutrient inactivation may be a 
very useful procedure which gives immediate results. 

4. Other In-lake Techniques. Dilution/flushing requires a large and 
convenient source of water low in nutrients. This alone restricts its use- 
fulness in Indiana. Aeration and circulation may be useful in some sit- 
uations. Macrophyte harvesting does have some value in nutrient re- 
moval, provided the cut plants are removed from the lake. Control of 
algae and macrophytes by use of herbicides, however, is purely a cos- 
metic treatment which does nothing to solve the causes of the eutrophi- 
cation problem. 

Currently the federal government, under section 314 of the Clean 
Water Act, provides for state and local assistance in restoring publicly 
owned freshwater lakes. The Clean Lakes Program is administered 
through the US EPA and provides grants for 3 types of programs in 
Lake Restoration. Each state is required to prepare a report (in Indiana, 
the responsible agency is the Indiana State Board of Health) on the 
identification and classification of all publicly owned freshwater lakes 
in the state according to "eutrophic" condition, and procedures and 
methods to control pollution sources to these lakes, and methods and 
procedures to restore these lakes. This report has been completed for 
Indiana's lakes and the results of the classification and management 
plan for Indiana's lakes will constitute the topic of another paper in 
the Academy Meeting program. 

Phase I grants provide 70% up to $100,000 funding for diagnostic 
and feasibility studies on individual lakes. The remaining 30% funding 
must be generated from local and in-state sources. Phase I studies must 
identify a lake's trophic characteristics and lake problems and nutrient 
sources, and must recommend feasible restorative measures. Phase II 
grants provide 50% federal funding for implementation of Phase I 
report recommendations. No limits on the amount of federal funding 
are specified. 



Ecology 187 

The Clean Lakes Program provides a vehicle for the states to 
protect and restore our valuable lake resources. The future of Indiana's 
lakes is in our hands. If we are to preserve these valuable resources 
for future generations, we must act now to insure the continued well- 
being of Indiana's lakes. 



Literature Cited 

1. Deevey, E. S. 1942. A re-examination of Thoreau's "Walden". Quart. Rev. Biol., 
17:1-11. 

2. Dillon, P. J. 1975. The phosphorus budget of Cameron Lake, Ontario: The im- 
portance of flushing rate to the degree of entrophy of lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr, 
20:28-39. 

3. Dunst, R. C, S. M. Born, P. D. Uttormark, S. A. Smith, S. A. Nichols, J. O. 
Peterson, D. R. Knauer, S. L. Serns, D. R. Winter, and T. L. Wirth. 1974. 
Survey of lake rehabilitation techniques and experiences. Wisconsin Dept. Nat. 
Resources, Tech. Bull. No. 75, 179 p. 

4. Edmondson, W. T. 1970. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and algae in Lake Washington after 
diversion of sewerage. Science 169:690-691. 

5. Gams, H. 1927. Die Geschichte der Lunzer Seen, Moore und Walder. Int. Rev. 
ges. Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogr., 18:304-387. 

6. Hook, J. E., B. G. Ellis, L. W. Jacobs and D. L. Mokma. 1978. Nutrient Move- 
ment Through Soils From Septic Systems. Submitted to South-Central Michigan 
Planning Council. 

7. Hutchinson, G. E. and A. C. Woolock. 1940. Studies on Connecticut lake sediments. 
II. Chemical analyses of a core from Linsley Pond. Amer. J. Sci., 238:493-517. 

8. Lindemann, R. A. 1942. The trophic-dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecol., 23:399-418. 

9. Likens, G. E. ed. 1971. Nutrients and Eutrophication. Am. Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr., 
Special Symposia, Vol. I, 328 pp. 

10. Lundquist, G. 1927. Bodenablagerungen und Entwick lingstypen der Seen. Bin- 
nengewasser 2, 124 pp. 

11. National Academy of Sciences. 1969. Eutrophication: causes, consequences, cor- 
rectives. The Academy, Washington, D.C. 661 pp. 

12. Smith, S. A., J. O. Peterson, S. A. Nichols, S. M. Born, 1972. Lake Deepening 
by Sediment Consolidation-Jyme Lake. 

13. Sonzogni, W. C. and G. F. Lee. 1974. Diversion of Wastewaters from Madison 
lakes. Am. Soc. Civil Engrs. Trans., Jour. Environmental Engineering Div., 100: 
153-170. 

14. Vollenweider, R. A. 1968. Eutrofizzazione delle acque da fosforo. La Rivirta 
Italiano delle Sostanzo Grasse. 45:99-107. 

15. . 1971. Scientific fundamentals of the eutrophication of lakes and flow- 
ing waters, with particular reference to nitrogen and phosphorus as factors in 
eutrophication. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. 
159 pp., 34 fig., 61 pp. bibliography. 

16. . 1975. Input-output models with special reference to the phosphorus 

loading concept in limnology. Schweiz A. Hydrol., 37:53-84. 

17. . 1976. Rotsee, a source, not a sink for phosphorus? A comment to 

and a plea for nutrient balance studies. Hydrologie, 38 :29-34. 

18. Wetzel, R. G. 1970. Recent and postglacial production rates of a marl lake. Limnol. 
Oceanogr., 15:491-503. 

19. Wetzel, R. G. and H. L. Allen. 1970. Functions and interactions of dissolved 
organic matter and the littoral zone in lake metabolism and eutrophication. In 
Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, eds., Productivity Problems of Freshwaters. 
Warsaw, PWN Polish Scientific Publishers, pp. 333-347. 



ENGINEERING 

Chairman: Milton E. Harr 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Chairman-Elect: Ramachandra A. Rao 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

A Statistical and Stochastic Analysis of Synthetically Generated Storm 
Drainage Quantity and Quality Data. J. W. Delleur and G. Padman- 
abhan, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. For de- 
tailed planning and design of urban drainage systems the design storm 
concept is usually inadequate and it is necessary to simulate the water- 
shed response using extensive historical rainfall data. The purpose of 
this paper is to illustrate the statistical information that can be obtained 
from a continuous simulation using the planning model STORM. Making 
use of the model STORM calibrated for runoff quantity and quality 
on the Upper Ross-Ade watershed in West Lafayette, Indiana, and using 
a 21-year time series of recorded hourly rainfalls near the watershed, 
simulated series of hourly runoff, BOD, and suspended solids were ob- 
tained for the same 21-year period (1954-1974), for the assumption of 
no storage and no treatment. A detailed statistical analysis was per- 
formed on these 1826 storm events. Significant regression equations 
were obtained between rainfall and suspended solids, and rainfall and 
BOD, the rainfalls being classified according to their durations from 
1 to 6 hours in steps of one hour. Extreme value and partial duration 
analyses were performed for rainfall, runoff, suspended solids and 
BOD. For estimating the suspended solids and BOD for a given return 
period it is suggested to use the rainfall frequency curves, based on 
observed rainfalls, and the regression equation to obtain the correspond- 
ing expected suspended solids and BOD. A mixed autoregressive model 
of order one and a moving average model of order one were fitted to 
the cyclicly standardized series of monthly rainfall, runoff, suspended 
solids and BOD. These models can be used to generate synthetic series 
for each of these four variables which have the same statistical proper- 
ties as the historical series for the rainfall and as the STORM generated 
series for the other variables. 

Automatic Calibration of Urban Runoff Models. Ji Han and A. R. Rao, 
School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. To assign values to the parameters of the urban runoff models 

is both time consuming and subjective as it is usually done by trial-and- 
error procedures. It is unlikely that the urban runoff models will be used 
up to their full potential unless the calibration procedure is reliable 
and objective. A good optimization technique can assist the user in deter- 
mining the "best" set of input parameter values to be used with the 
model. 

Two widely used and better documented models, the "ILLUDAS" 
developed at the Illinois State Water Survey and the Runoff Block of 

188 



Engineering 189 

"SWMM" developed by EPA, were coupled with the modified version 
of Rosenbrock's optimization technique to form the self-calibrating- mod- 
els, OPTIL and OPTSWMM respectively. The basic concept is to get 
the best match between the generated and observed hydrographs accord- 
ing to a predefined objective function. 

The technique was tested by using data from upper Ross-Ade water- 
shed, located in West Lafayette, Indiana. The results were consistently 
good and reduced the bias inherent in subjective methods. Although 
there is a limit to the size and complexity of a model which can be 
optimized using an objective best fit criteria, the parameter optimization 
in urban runoff models can be achieved scientifically and economically. 

A Daily Flow Forecasting Model for the Green River Basin in Kentucky. 

H. Yazicigil, G. H. Toebes, and A. R. Rao, School of Civil Engineering, 

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. In operating flood 

control resevoirs it is desirable to forecast river flows at selected loca- 
tions in the downstream of the reservoirs in the immediate future. The 
development and testing of a stochastic model (GRBSYS2) for forecast- 
ing daily flows at system control points downstream of four reservoirs 
in Green River Basin, Kentucky is described. The GRBSYS2 model; 
comprises nine multi-input linear routing sub-models (MILRM) each 
representing selected river reaches. These MILRM models accept reach 
inflow, gaged tributary flows, and rainfall as inputs. Their single outputs 
are the reach outflows. 

The parameters of each MILRM were estimated by using a con- 
strained linear systems (CLS) estimation technique developed by Natale 
and Todini (1977). The estimated parameters of the model which satisfy 
the continuity and non-negativity restrictions were then used to forecast 
flows up to five days ahead. The analysis of forecast errors showed a 
bias in forecasts with an over-prediction in dry seasons and under- 
prediction in wet seasons. There upon the residual series of each MILRM 
were analyzed. They were found to be correlated. Consequently, models 
of the residual series were developed and incorporated into the original 
models to obtain one day ahead forecasts. The results indicated that 
the bias as well as the forecast errors were significantly reduced by 
this approach. 

An interactive GRBSYS2 simulation algorithm was written that 
may be employed by the Green River Basin reservoir managers (i.e., 
Corps of Engineers) that may facilitate their daily operations work. 
Its utility is currently the subject of field office tests. 

"A Chance Constrained Stochastic LP Model to Include Risk Explicity in 
Optimal Reservoir Planning. Hasan Yazicigil and Mark H. Houck, 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. A chance con- 
strained linear programming model, which utilizes multiple linear deci- 
sion rules and is useful for river basin planning and management, is 
used to evaluate the effects of risk and reliability on optimal reservoir 
design. Streamflow forecasts or predictions can be explicitly included 
in the linear program. The risk associated with the predictions is in- 



190 Indiana Academy of Science 

eluded in the model through the use of a cumulative distribution func- 
tions (CDF) of streamflows which are conditioned on the predictions. 

The present study deals with the construction and solution of this 
model for the Gunpowder River in Maryland. The conditioned CDFs 
were obtained by: fitting an ARM A (p,q) model to a portion of the his- 
torical streamflow record; using the ARMA model as a forecasting 
tool; and comparing the forecasted and actual streamflows from the 
remaining portion of the historical record. For this site, a single dam 
is considered for construction, and will be used to control streamflows 
to enhance the local water supply and to mitigate flooding damages. 

In order to provide the decision makers with complete and useful 
information, trade-off curves relating minimum reservoir capacity (a 
surrogate for dam costs), water supply and flood control targets, 
and the reliability of achieving the targets are developed. The trade-off 
curves are presented to the decision maker to allow the selection of 
the best dam capacity considering technological and financial constraints 
as well as the trade-offs between targets, risks, and costs. 

Lowering of Well Water Temperature by Natural Heat Equalization. 

Robert H. L. Howe, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906. The significant 

lowering of well water temperature by the natural heat capacity equali- 
zation in certain areas is explained. The principle of this technique for 
energy saving is advanced. 

Move Away, Moody Diagram! Aldo Giorgini, A. R. Rao, School of Civil 

Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907. 

Using graphically presented information hinders efficient use of com- 
puters and calculators. For example, if the widely used friction factor- 
Reynolds Number-Relative Roughness information presented in the 
Moody Diagram is to be used in a computer program, it may be stored 
and interpolated, which takes considerable computer storage and time. 
Alternatively mathematical relationships may be developed and used, 
and this is more efficient. 

In this paper, some of the previously proposed mathematical repre- 
sentations of the friction factor-Reynolds Number relationships are 
reviewed. A new representation for the information in the Moody dia- 
gram is presented. This new representation is shown to be more accu- 
rate than some of the previous ones. Extensions of this representation 
to friction factor-Reynolds number-roughness variations in open channel 
floivs are also discussed. 

A New Look at the K L Temperature Relationship in Oxygenation Proc- 
esses Below 100 Degrees. R. H. L. Howe, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47906. A new formulation K L a (T } = K L a (T ) /eT2-Tl, where T2 > Tl, 

for the oxygenation of water (and other biological fluids) is introduced 
and explained. This new formulation, now called Howe-Howland-Li-Dehye 
equation is in agreement with all gas laws. It is different from the 
old formulation and has significant impacts on stream water oxygena- 
tion, food and other aerobic fermentation engineering processes. 



A Comparative Application of the Rational Method and the 
Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator to an Indiana Subdivision 

Christopher B. Burke and Donald D. Gray 

School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

As the twin processes of industrialization and urbanization continue 
in Indiana, increasing areas of land are converted from natural or 
agricultural uses to residential developments. Among the important 
effects of this conversion is a radical modificaticn of the rainfall-runoff 
relationship. Roofs, parking lots, streets, and sidewalks reduce the area 
available for infiltration and tend to increase the percentage of precipi- 
tation which becomes runoff. Gutters and drainage pipes provide reduced 
resistance to flow compared to natural drainage paths. Thus urbaniza- 
tion usually results in an increased volume of runoff in a shorter period 
of time. 

Engineers have the primary responsibility for designing economical 
drainage systems which will minimize the danger, inconvenience, and 
cost of flooding. Over the past century, many methods have been devised 
to predict stormwater quantities and thus provide a quantitative basis 
for sizing storm sewer components. The rational method remains one of 
the most widely used methods in Indiana and throughout much of the 
world [5]. This old and frequently criticized technique [4] has retained 
its popularity because of its simplicity and because it is sanctioned by 
tradition. In recent years more detailed computer oriented methods 
such as the Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator, ILLUDAS, have 
become available. These methods embody the fundamental principles 
of hydraulics and hydrology more completely than does the rational 
method and so provide the means to design more effective and economical 
storm sewer systems. In this paper, the rational method and ILLUDAS 
are each applied to an existing Indiana subdivision. This concrete 
example illustrates the superiority and practicality of ILLUDAS and 
suggests the degree to which the state of the art of storm sewer design 
may be advanced by its adoption. 

Methods of Analysis 

The rational method allows the determination of the peak discharge 
from a watershed. The fundamental idea behind the rational method is 
that the peak rate of surface outflow from a watershed will be propor- 
tional to the watershed area and the average rainfall intensity over a 
period of time just sufficient for all parts of the watershed to contribute 
to the outflow. The constant of proportionality is supposed to reflect 
all those characteristics of the watershed, such as imperviousness and 
antecedent moisture, which affect the rate of runoff. In its simplest 
form, the rational formula is written as 

191 



192 Indiana Academy of Science 

Q = CiA 
where the symbols and conventional American units are 
Q = peak runoff (CFS) 
C = ratio of peak runoff rate to average rainfall rate (runoff 

coefficient) 
i = rainfall intensity ( inches /hr) 
A = area of watershed under consideration (acres) 

The value of C depends on the type of land use in the watershed and 
may be found from suitable handbooks [1]. The rainfall intensity is 
usually determined for a selected storm return period using a local 
rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation. The appropriate duration 
of rain is the maximum time of concentration considering all upstream 
subbasins, a parameter which may be estimated by any of several 
empirical formulas or by rule of thumb [1]. 

The second method under consideration is ILLUDAS, a non- 
proprietary computer program developed by the Illinois State Water 
Survey [7] which can design or evaluate a storm sewer system of up 
to 999 pipes or channels. ILLUDAS computes the complete runoff 
hydrograph at any point in the system for an arbitrary rainfall 
hyetograph. Reference 7 provides a program user's manual and presents 
evidence for the validity of the program's predictions. ILLUDAS was 
applied to 21 urban and 2 rural basins ranging from 0.39 to 8.3 
square miles. By comparison with measured outflow hydrographs it 
was concluded that ILLUDAS provided acceptable results for 14 basins, 
marginal results for 3 basins, and indeterminate results for 3 basins. 
The data for 3 basins was insufficient to allow a meaningful comparison. 

In the application of ILLUDAS, subbasins contributing runoff to 
each inlet are defined. In each subbasin separate inlet hydrographs 
for paved and grassed areas are generated from the rainfall hyetograph 
using the linear time-area method. Grassed area infiltration is cal- 
culated according to Horton's equation using parameters which reflect 
the soil type and initial moisture content. The combined inlet hydrograph 
is then routed through the pipe to the next inlet. The program com- 
putes the size of commercial pipe required to transmit the peak flow 
when laid on the slope specified. In the evaluation mode the program 
will check to see whether the specified pipes can transmit the actual flow. 
A great advantage of ILLUDAS is the ability to compute the necessary 
volume of desired detention storage or the undesired storage volume 
(flooding) due to inadequate pipes. 

Description of the Study Area 

Bar Barry Heights subdivision in West Lafayette, Indiana, was 
selected as the study area because of its history of street flooding due 
to inadequate storm sewers. Bar Barry Heights is a middle class sub- 
division with an area of 121.4 acres, about 30 percent of which is 
impervious. The topography is basically flat and the soil is Soil Con- 
servation Service Type B. A plan drawing of the subdivision is shown 
in Figure 1. The existing storm sewer layout and drainage subbasins 



Engineering 



193 






fTTI 
















.^^«Ti-'; 







■. i -.. i ■„ i- 

KENT 



AVENUE 



J-^i-l~-L^-LJ.j ( .J.„i.,l. a .i J J..J..J..._l..J_j Liir 



LuLJ: 



300' *>00' 



Figure 1. Plan Drawing of the Bar Barry Heights Subdivision. 



determined by field inspection are indicated in Figure 2. It can be 
seen all branches converge at the corner of Cumberland Avenue and 
Barlow Street on the northern edge of the subdivision. The stormwater 
then travels north through elliptical pipe for about 1400 ft before it 
discharges into Boes Ditch, part of the Tippecanoe County drainage 
system. 

Input Data Sources 

Basin characteristics needed in the analysis were determined 
primarily by field measurements. These data included gutter slopes, 
lengths and slopes of individual reaches of pipe, and the areas of 
subbasins contributing to each inlet. Aerial photographs were used to 
estimate the percentage of area with impervious cover. Table 1 sum- 
marizes this information. 

The first column denotes the subbasin which contributes to the pipe 
designated in columns 2 and 3. Column 4 is the total area of the sub- 
basin while columns 5, 6, and 7 give the areas in each of three cate- 
gories: DCPA (directly connected paved areas which are streets and 
driveways) ; SPA (supplemental paved areas which are impervious 
areas hydraulically separated from the inlet) ; and GA (grassed areas 
which contribute to the runoff). The last four columns give the lengths 
and slopes of the paths of flow to the inlet. These are used to compute 
travel times. 



194 



Indiana Academy of Science 



N 




200 100 



100' 300' 500' 

Figure 2. Drainage Subbasins and Storm Server Layout of Bar Barry Heights. 



The rainfall data were obtained from an intensity-duration-fre- 
quency curve developed for the Lafayette area from U.S. Weather 
Bureau Technical Paper #40 [3] by using maps of Indiana with lines 
of equal depths for a 6 hour storm duration and return periods of 2, 
5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. Depths for other durations were found 
by recommended conversions, and the intensity was then found by 
dividing by the appropriate duration. These values were then plotted 
against the duration on log-log paper to produce the curve shown in 
Figure 3. An equation suitable for use in computer or calculator 
programs was fitted to the curves in Figure 3. The final form of this 
equation is 

. _ 22.5 T 018 
1 ~ (t + 5)0-68 

where i = rainfall intensity (inches/hr) 

T = return period (years) 2 ^ T ^ 50 
t = storm duration (minutes) 5 ^ t ^ 120 

This equation was used to determine the rainfall depths associated 
with each duration and return period for ILLUDAS as well as the 
intensities needed in the rational method. 



Engineering 



195 



a: 

o 



1/1 




o.oy 



MINUTES 



HOURS 

DURATION 
Figure 3. Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for West Lafayette, Indiana. 

The rainfall data for the storm of July 4th, 1979, which was 
simulated with ILLUDAS, was measured at the Purdue gravel pit, 
2.5 miles south of Bar Barry Heights. 

Results 

The rational method was used to design a new storm sewer system 
for Bar Barry Heights, keeping the locations of all inlets and man- 
holes the same as in the existing system. Computations were carried 
out for a 5 year storm using individually weighted C values and an 
assumed 20 minute time of concentration for all subbasins. The system 
was designed to meet a fixed outfall elevation. Table 2 compares the 
existing and rational method designed systems. It is interesting to 
note that 3 existing pipes have a capacity smaller than required ac- 



196 



Indiana Academy of Science 



-c 

Cn 






O 



o ^ 



O J 



T3 

5 

Ph W w 



o S^ 



SS^ 



bo 


HP 


o o o 


c 


«H 


O M N 


Oi 


^-^ 


■* CO M 


J 







Ph 5 
w <3 



<; to 

Ah i. 



a g £ 

PQ < < 



« 



w M * 



o o o © © 
© © © © © 



© © © © 
© © © © 



© © © 
©©©©©©o© 



N N N N H 



© © © © lO 

O H t- a N 



© © t- © 

us ^i t- d h 

© ©' ©' ©' i-H 



N N N N 



i-H © © © 
t- t- © © 



(M © 00 © 
(O t- t- iO 



© © © © 



© © © © 

C- i-i 00 US 
N ^ lO N 



NHNNNNNM 



©©lO©©©©© 
©©©C-uO©©© 



©©©©©CO©lO 



•<* CO © © 

© © © 1-H 



00 CO 

© rH 



©©©©©©©© 



i-H rH CM 00 IN 



CO CO © © lO 
CM rH i-H -rf CO 



O N N N 



•^©1-HlHT-HCMrHrH 



to \a (O tr 



© © © © © 



© © © © 



©©©©©©©© 



■^ 10 oo © -* 
© ■* c- © © 



© -*J< © 00 

"<* © t- CO 



COCOt-HOOCOOOi-H© 

1-Hi*©t-E-©©© 



© © © © © 



© © © © 



if oo us o> 



HHOOOHOO 



CM i-H CO CO CO 



I-H 00 

CO CO cm' 



lOOONNNfflriM 



oo©iOi-ic>j©i-ie>JcO'^< 

I I I I I I I I I 

HHtONNKOJOJWOl 



•<*CMi-H©©t-i-H© 



© <jj r-j 



lO ^ US W Tf 



•>*-^coco©©t-co 



© oo t- •«* co 3 

CO CO CO CO CO O 

I I I I I I 

© © 00 E- ■<* CO 

-* CO CO CO CO CO 



i-H CM CO ■«* lO 



Engineering 



197 



o o o cj 



o o o © 



ooooooooooo 



ooooooooooooooooo 



N N Ol eg 



<MC^<N<N<MiM<N<M<M!M<Neg.-l<MNC^<M 



a © o © 

O 00 o o 



OOOOlOOOirt-^OOlOOOOOOO 

oowoasiooeo^oooc-ooc-OJCD 



lO CO lO O 

CO ■* t- to 



c- oo © 



o o o o 



o o o o © o o 



OOOOOOOi-i 



o o o © 

O 00 O Irt 
Tj< CO CO lO 



o © © o o o 



© © © © © 

t- !fi 05 N W 
i-H <M CO iO CO 



© © © © © 



H <M tO ■* © 
i-H C- ID © (M 



i-l©i-li-HiHC>l©»0 



HNrt^NrtMH 



H^tDNtOOOlOOO 
N H i- 1 H O i- I T-H CJ i-H 



© © © © 



©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 



t> © 50 ->* 

to co to t* 



© © © © 



©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©I-H© 



O lO M ■"* 

© Ttf t- "<* 



10 oo t- cp 



N H N » 



C<li-Hi-HegCvlC0»-H-»i<i-H<MC0i-HlOC0i-HlO 



lOlOt-OOffiOHNMOHNW^OHNOOHOOOOOrl 

llllllllllllllllllllllllll 

0)01®5)3>OOOO(D(0»(010'*'*f l U5l»00HNNt-MW 
,-H i-H T-H i-H i-H i-H 



H M W<!ooOt-!OiOI>W'* 

HWOJftOlHlOlOlOlOM^Tt 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

<|Hooam < jja>oohiow©io 

© ' -l JgJlOWiOWlO'^'ti 



"* <M I-H 



co eg ic to co 

^i t(( M M lO 



198 



Indiana Academy of Science 






CO 



59 

CO 



to 



co 



^ _ 



£ fa 



o .2 



p 


_^ 


CO o 


o 


"* 


oa 


OS 


i— i 


00 


-* 


co 


CO 


o 


10 


on 


-tf CO 


or, 


N 


CO 


qj 


co 


-* t- 


00 


o 


i— i 


?— i 


** 


00 


LO 


00 


00 


CD 


lO 


OJ 


O CM 


05 


i— i 


CO 


02 


fa 


CO lO 


rH 


«* 


or, 


on 


r-< 


o 


CO 


Tf 


■<* 


M< 


Of) 


5X3 


Ttf f 


H 


■«* 


r^ 


o 










1-1 


CM 


"* 


<* 


Tf 


■<* 


<x> 


t- 


rH 




tH 


rH 


rH 



3 a 
fa o 



tfl 




„ 


fi 


UJ 






w 


«H 




O 








-M 


KS 


C/J 


«H 



-, ! 


C3 


0) 


rfl 


0) 


C 
n 


0) 

£ 

s 




lO 


03 


V 



be 


CD 


c 


+-> 




0> 


*-> 

'A 


£ 


X 


CS 


fa 


ft 



h5 



M 

ID o 

ft O 






P cS 
03 0) 

M « 



CO[-C\|-'*COCO>-1<McOCM-*"'*00COtJ<C~ 



HHrlHN^i(i!C1tl<St-rt 



O O) CO Ol CO 00 t- CO 

■"tfrHCOOCMrH<M-«#-^<lOCaCO 
Oi-HOCTJOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 
©OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

oooooooooooooo'ooooo 



Tft-t-t-OtBNNCOOO^OlflOOHHt- 



_u 


U 

ca 
a 


CO 


i— 1 00 to 

©a -** co 


lO 
CO 


CO 


CO 


to 


C- 

o 


00 
CO 


00 
CO 


00 

co 


©J 

00' 


00 


o 

CO 


00 
CO 






CO 




fa 

o 


CO CO Tj< 
I— 1 


<* 

>— 1 


03 


o> 


CM 




CO 


CO 
lO 


CO 

Id 


00 


00 

oo 


oa co 


1—1 


C?5 


CO 
CO 


00 


3 
fa 


03 
U 



































©OOOOO00CM000000O© 



CO CO CO CD GO 



Nd^^^rfNeiJNNNWNHM^cOrlH 



O © © © 



OOiCOOOOOOOOrHO 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOoOO 
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



CMlO-tf^C-C-OfMCMCMCMGO^ 
i-HtH(MC<I(N(NCO'^-^<-<j<-*-^<io 



V - 00 ■** •>* t- CO 
^ rH CM (M oa CO 



^(fiOt-lOM^OlOHOONlO 
r-H r- ICDCDC-OiO^'— I OS lO 1- 1 M O) 

cocot-h^hi-i m m n in m m n 



» U3 lO lO M 
N CO t- t- N 
CO CO CM CM ->*i 



IS IS lO IS 

I I I I 

<J •<* CM rH 



P ffi t" H O 



•* •>* "<t "^ 



I I 



lO ifl IS U3 ^ 



I I 
< 3 



OS oo t- >* co 3 

CO CO CO CO CO o 

I I I I I I 

O Ol oo t- ■* to 

-^< CO CO CO CO CO 



<— I CM CO Th lO 



qcoio>hcm©.-icmcom< 

I I I I I I I I I I 

HHtBNNCSOlOlOlffl 



Engineering 



199 



frtH^N^t-001N»HM^!C»^Nt-N^ 



th r-t \a nt oo io t- 
tj< o5 t- oa t- 



iH pH i-H 1-H l-H CM 



MIOCClfilOMON'* 



iH t- OS t- t- E- lO <M U5 

M^Nooiat-iOHiDieo 

OOOOOOOOOOOtHOOOOOOOOOOi-IOOt-H 
OOOOOOOOOOCiOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

ooooooo'ooooooooooooooooooo 



© 00 ■<# <35 CO O 
O "* ■"* t- <M t- 



O CO 00 00 



o o © o o o o 



© O O T-H 1-H O " 



©©©ooooooo© 
o-^^oooo©-*© 



hhhhohoo 



©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 
©©'©©'©©©©©©'©'©©©'©©©'©'©©©©©©'©'© 



tO«CIMcg00mGOO0'-llO00i-l"*0O(MlO00Cq(M(Ni-llO(MC~(M© 
OOCO'^-tf'^'rHi-li-INi-li-ICVlNeOi-li-l.-li-li-li-lCJi-l'-ltNli-HCO 



co^oooaoowt-HcowaiofflfflooHcowooocoaiOH 

NNO<B(BH00(0l0NMHHC0ffi(CNt-10H(B0>!B<fit-'* 
■<*iC0INi-l«ClCOi-li-H0O00eO-^Tj<o0i-(IMfOIM000O0O(NCO(NN 



EB 



© © l-H CO 



PQ «J 



L— r-l ,— I i— ICOOiOlOii— I 



I I I I 



L i I 



° "^ rH °° M <3 



00 t- » 16 t- IS 't 1 

io io o a « ■* ■* 

I I I I I I I 

01 00 t> SB U5 (O lO 
lO lO lO Ifl lO -I <* 



N H tJ ■<* (M io 

•"* -* co co 10 ira 

I I I I I I 

CO CM W (C CO > 

■>* -v CO CO 10 j2> 



lo»^ooaoHN»OHNel3'* 

I III I I I I I I I I 

ffl0>0>C5fl!OOOO(C(0<0®»'*'J'»l00000 i-H 



OHNOOHOOOOOH 

I I I I I I 



w 



200 



Indiana Academy of Science 



0> 


0» 


3 


-i<C 
cd 

0< 


c 

a 


Oh 










c 










u 










3 






w 


_ 


<D 






- 


M 


« 






c 


fe 


5 




Oh 




O 



w 






05 






14 


CO 







7. 


fc 


Mh 


Oh 



■SSI 

p> M r 



<4H 






be 
c 




u 


M 


a 




El 


fc 


Hh 


ca 



S o t« .5 



.S S"§ 
eq q g 








be 

c 




u 


03 


d 




7; 


B 


dn 


03 

Oh 



O C8 .g 

Ph S 



Jd fc 7 

m CO 



cS -C 



r; 


a 


x 




a* 




eg 


Q 


( fi 



3 "3 

Q S 



t-OlOlO'i'WMN 



1-tSLOlO^MMN 



O O i-H OS t- 



O lO t- t- OO 



LO CO CO 
OS OS 



OOOOOOOO 



© © i-h OS 

© id i> t- 



t- us ffl a 
oo os as t> 

<_}©©©©©©© 



OOt-lClOlO^MN 



OOlO-^OOSOOlO 



m o t- t- a io ijj 

CM CM i-H t— I i-H ,-1 r-{ 



O! t- !D Ifi lO ■* W 



H 00 lO M « l> N 
W t- CO lO lO (O 00 
«D CO fc- C- C- fc- fcr 



<* lO 19 



H ^ Ifl lO 



■>* LO to 

i-H O OS 



I-H i-l O 



!DlfllO-*^MINN WlOWiiTliMMN WtDaiO^WWIN X CC (C Ifl ^ ■* CO 



^lHOSOAOt-JT-4-^ 

O ^* 00 OS O CM t- 

QNNNNWMM 



■^i 00 i-H CO ■"* -* CM 

(D lO lO I 1 M N H 



N HOlNM00M'*(B 
© -^< OS CO -*' © CO CM 

OtMCMCMco-^ioiOLO 

JLi-Hi-Hi-Hi-Hi-Hi-Hi-Hi-H 



(OlOOOHOO(Ot-ffl 
tOOOCONlOt-CCCO 

coc-ooososososos 



OS OS OS rj 

i-H i-H i-H 22 



t- « O N M i* ffl 

ffl 1(5 O CO H/ Tf M 

O H N « IN N N 

N N N N N N N 



(D Tf OO H CO ■* HJ 
t- <C lO lO if CO N 



i-h i-h oo c- eo co 

CO CM i-H I-H i-H i-H 



toioii'*conojN 



OlMtCNMhC-t- 



tDlOlOTfcOCOINN 



LOi-H00I>t-C-<O!O 



t-tfilfllflifCOCON 



O 00 fc» t- <0 U5 US 



00 tfi tc w ■* ^ CO 



iot-t-osoeo«Oi-H 



OSitf<DO5C0"tfCMOS 



HMtSiJOOHtflai 

Hfflidd-*t>ia'N 

Oi— I CM CO M CO M M 



■^ lO i-H CO CM CO lO 

© CO 00 i-H CO CO © 

■* lO IO (D U » tO 

CN CM CM CM CM CM CM 



OOlOOlOOlOO 

ffllO^H/cOCONN 



©©LO©LO©lO© 
WifliJi^cOCOINN 



OOlOOlOOlOO 

tClO-l'^COCONN 



o o lo o m © to 

(O W Tf -<f CO CO N 



Engineering 



201 




Figure 4. Areas in Bar Barry Heights which Undergo Flooding as Predicted by 
ILLUDAS for the Storm of July 4, 1979. 



cording to the rational method. These pipes are the outfall, MH #42 - 
MH #41, and MH #7 - MH #10. The outfall pipe has less than half 
the required capacity. 

ILLUDAS was applied to the existing system in the "evaluation 
in the design mode" for first quartile storms with return periods of 
2, 5, and 10 years, durations of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 60 minutes, 
and antecedent moisture conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4. The May 1979 pro- 
gram version with modifications made after an August 15, 1979, dis- 
cussion with Michael Terstriep was used. A one minute time increment 
and routing option 1 were specified. Each simulation required about 
one minute of computer time. The peak flow, time to peak, and number 
of existing pipes passing the predicted flows are shown in Table 3. It 
can be seen that the peak flows occur with the higher return periods, 
higher antecedent conditions (AMC's), and lower durations, with the 
peak value occurring for a ten year 30 minute storm with AMC 4. 

The peak flows for a two year return period and AMC 1 and 2 
are identical. This indicates that only the impervious areas are con- 
tributing to the flow. The peak flows for AMC 3 and 4 clearly show 
that pervious areas are now being considered. For a five year return 
period, the peak flows for AMC 1 and 2 are identical for the longer 



202 Indiana Academy of Science 

durations, but the shorter durations provide an intensity which is 
sufficient to exceed the allowable infiltration capacity of the pervious 
areas. The peak flows for AMC 3 and 4 are seen to change in the 
same manner as for the two year return period storms. The peak flows 
for a ten year return period clearly illustrate the effect of grassed 
area runoff contributing to the flow. In all cases the maximum peak 
flow occurs for durations of 25 or 30 minutes. Analysis of the pipes 
which fail for the various cases shows that once again the outfall pipe 
and the pipes between MH #42 - MH #41 and MH #7 - MH #10 fail for 
every condition. ILLUDAS automatically specifies the pipe sizes which 
would be needed to pass the peak flow from each case. 

The July 4th storm, which caused severe flooding, was simulated 
to get a gross check on the accuracy of ILLUDAS by comparing the 
predicted flooding areas to those actually flooded. The predicted flooding 
areas, shown in Figure 4, were found to be in relatively close agree- 
ment with those reported by residents [6]. It is seen that the most 
severe flooding occurs in the areas which feed into the previously 
determined undersized pipes. 

Simulation of the new rational method designed system by 
ILLUDAS revealed that 14 pipes failed for a 5 year, 60 minute, AMC 
1 storm [2]. Thus the rational method design did not provide the degree 
of protection specified in the design criteria. Additional simulations 
indicated that although a system designed according to the rational 
method for an N-year storm might be adequate for long duration 
N-year storms, it would fail for shorter durations. This appears to be 
a particularly undesirable characteristic of the rational method. 

Conclusions 

It is obvious that ILLUDAS provides a more comprehensive basis 
for design than does the rational method. Where the rational method 
provides only a peak flowrate for each pipe, ILLUDAS predicts com- 
plete hydrographs. This enables the engineer to specify detention 
storage requirements as well as pipe sizes. The lengthy hand calcula- 
tions required by the rational method effectively preclude the investi- 
gation of alternative pipe layouts or design storms. With ILLUDAS 
the investigation of alternatives is relatively easy. ILLUDAS provides 
a straight forward procedure to investigate the response of the storm 
sewer system to any storm for which a hyetograph is known. This is 
impossible with the rational method. Most importantly, the rational 
method often fails to provide the degree of protection specified in the 
design criteria. Hence, it lacks reliability. Since the data needs and 
computer requirements of ILLUDAS are not excessive, ILLUDAS 
offers a practical alternative to the rational method which offers the 
promise of significantly improved storm sewer design for Indiana's 
urbanizing areas. 



Engineering 203 

Literature Cited 

1. Anonymous. 1976. Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers. Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers, New York. Manuals and Reports on Engineering 
Practice No. 37. 

2. Burke, C. B. 1979. A Comparative Application of Several Methods for the Design of 
Storm Sewers. MS Thesis, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University. 

3. Hershfield, D. M. 1961. Rainfall Frequency Atlas of the Unitsd States for Durations 
from 30 Minutes to 24 Hours and Return Periods from 1 to 100 Years. U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce. Weather Bureau Technical Paper No. 40. 

4. McPherson, M. B. 1969. Some Notes on the Rational Method of Storm Sewer Design. 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Urban Water Resources Program. Technical 
Memo No. 6. 

5. McPherson, M. B. (Editor). 1977. Research on Urban Hydrology Volumes 1 and 2. 
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris. 

6. Sutton, C. D. 1979. Personal communication. 

7. Terstriep, M. L. and J. B. Stall. 1974. The Illinois Urban Drainage Area Simulator, 
ILLUDAS. Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana, Bulletin No. 58. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Chairman: Alan C. York 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47304 

Chairman-Elect: Michael J. Sinsko 
Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 

ABSTRACTS 

Arbovirus Isolations from Delaware County Mosquitoes, 1978. R. R. 
Pinger, Ball State University, P. R. Grimstad, University of Notre 

Dame, and M. J. Sinsko, Indiana State Board of Health. During 

the summer of 1978, 1166 mosquitoes were collected from six sites in 
Delaware County, Indiana and processed for virus isolation. Four of 
the 66 pools that were assayed for virus by intracerebral inoculation 
into 1 to 2-day old suckling mice were positive. The virus isolates 
were identified by compliment fixation and virus neutralization tests. 
The isolates were identified as follows: an isolate of LaCrosse virus 
from a pool of Aedes triseriatus, an isolate of trivittatus virus from 
a pool of Aedes trivittatus, and two isolates of Flanders virus from 
two pools of Culex mosquitoes. This is the first report of trivittatus 
and LaCrosse viruses from Indiana mosquitoes and the second report 
of a Flanders virus isolate. 

Automated taxonomic procedures applied to a revision of Geomydoecus 
lice from pocket gophers of the Thomomys bottae-umbrinus complex. 
Ronald A. Hellenthal, Biology Department, University of Notre 
Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, and Roger D. Price, Department of En- 
tomology, Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 

Minnesota 55108. One of the greatest challenges in mammalian sys- 

tematics is the Thomomys bottae-umbrinus complex, with its approxi- 
mately 225 described subspecies. As part of a taxonomic investigation 
of the lice from these gophers we have accumulated and mounted over 
31,000 adult lice from 2,000 hosts representing over 1,000 localities, 
and have quantified over 300,000 character observations from more 
than 11,000 of these lice. These character observations combined with 
their host and locality information form a computerized data base 
which is maintained at the University of Minnesota. Because of the 
quantity and complexity of these data we have automated our data 
handling and analysis and some portions of the taxonomic decision 
making process. We have developed an integrated group of computer 
programs called the BUG system which is used for the retrieval and 
analysis of stored louse data. This system provides for the definition 
of tentative taxonomic louse groups, the extraction of data for lice 
within these groups, and the analysis or comparison of these data 
within a group or between groups. Group definitions may be based on 
preliminary louse identification, host identification, host locality, spe- 
cific host, or specific louse, or any combination of these criteria. The 
kinds of analyses built into the system include general data sum- 

204 



Entomology 205 

marization, character correlations, analysis of variance, principal com- 
ponents analysis, and agglomerative clustering. The system also has 
some graphics capabilities, including character distribution graphs, 
principal components scattergrams, and host geographic distribution 
maps. It can also select and format louse data for use with general 
statistical analysis computer program packages such as the BMD — 
Biomedical Computer Programs. The system is used to evaluate 
character homogeneity within groups of lice, make comparisons be- 
tween groups and identify taxonomically useful characters for de- 
scriptions. Criteria for taxonomic groupings were developed from a 
comprehensive study of louse variation using a 5-level nested analysis 
of variance model. We have delineated 25 new louse taxa so far during 
this study and it is likely that more will be found. 

Statistical Analysis of Insecticide Efficacy Data for Urban Cockroach 
Control — A Comparative Study. Erik S. Runstrom, and Gary W. 
Bennett, Department of Entomology. Purdue University, West La- 
fayette, Indiana. Statistics have long been used to summarize and 

evaluate data in biological experiments; however, if misused, these 
analyses may be misleading and result in the formulation of unjustified 
conclusions. There are basically two approaches to analyzing field 
collected pesticide efficacy data, parametric and nonparametric statis- 
tics. Parametric tests are most commonly used ; however, complications 
develop due to certain critical assumptions that must be satisfied prior 
to the use of these statistical tests. Nonparametric methods afford the 
benefit of being designed to avoid most of these assumptions and are 
easier to apply computationally. A comparison of both types of tests 
were made on pesticide efficacy data for the German cockroach, Blat- 
tella germanica, (L.) in low income apartments. The ease of use 
coupled with their overall efficiency make the nonparametric tests 
reliable methods of analysis. 

Methods for Evaluating a Rodenticide Tracking Powder on Labora- 
tory and Field Populations of Nuisance Bats. Robert M. Corrigan and 
Gary W. Bennett, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 
West Lafayette, Indiana. Locating nuisance bat colonies for ex- 
perimental studies is usually accomplished with the aid of county 
cooperative extension agents and pest control companies and through 
various advertising campaigns. Collecting bats from colonies for 
laboratory studies may be conducted during the daytime by collecting 
bats directly by hand, using nets, cheese cloth traps or various im- 
provised cages. Evening collections involve using emergence funnel 
traps or by direct flight netting. In this study, wild-caught big brown 
bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were housed singularly in steel 28 cm x 20 cm x 
22 cm small mammal cages. Bats were acclimated to laboratory condi- 
tions for 28 days prior to testing and trained to accept food in cap- 
tivity using several methods. Diet consisted of a mealworm and bat 
"glop" diet. Rodenticide tracking powder was tested for efficacy against 
bats by treating three 20 cm x 10 cm x 2.5 cm rough red oak wood 
blocks with the tracking powder. Blocks were placed inside cages and 



206 Indiana Academy of Science 

used by bats for roosting activity. Bats were subjected to the toxicant 
for a period of 20 days, and were then held for a post-treatment 
observation period of 15 days. Observations on behavior, sickness and 
mortality were recorded on a daily basis. Rodenticide tracking powder 
was also used experimentally on field populations of nuisance bats. 
Population sizes of bat colonies were estimated using an evening 
flight emergence count method. The rodenticide was applied to bats 
and roosts directly within infested structures using hand and power 
dusters. Two control populations were used ; one treated with a non- 
toxic clay carrier to measure disturbance, the second untreated and 
undisturbed. Control and treated populations were counted at 24 hrs., 
3 days, 1 week, 2 week and 1 month intervals following rodenticide 
application. 

Possible insect-plant coevolution in the Late Paleozoic. Gene R. Kritsky, 

Department of Biology, Tri-State University, Angola, Indiana. This 

paper will present evidence that the Palaeodictyoptera (U. Carbonif- 
erous-Permian) may have acted as pollinators of the Pteridospermales. 
The Palaeodictyoptera possessed two pair of large membranous wings, 
a small pair of lobes on the pronotum, and sucking mouthparts which 
consisted of five stylets that superficially resembled the Hemiptera 
feeding apparatus. The presence of the sucking mouthparts has been 
cited as evidence that the Palaeodictyoptera fed on plant juices. The 
primary host plant is unknown but the giant lycopods and the Pterido- 
spermales have been suggested. Evidence from pollen studies indicate 
the pteridosperms required an insect pollinator and a review of the 
insect orders found in the U. Carboniferous indicates that the Palaeo- 
dictyoptera and its relatives were the most likely candidates. A survey 
of Palaeodictyoptera prothoracic lobes and wings revealed a similarity 
between certain species' lobes and wings with various pteridosperm 
pinnules. This similarity included the size, shape, placement, and even 
venation of the lobes and certain wings to seed fern pinnules. Even 
some highly modified paranotal lobes resembled specialized seed fern 
pinnules suggesting a close association between the Palaeodictyoptera 
and pteridosperms. Other Palaeodictyoptera wings had irregular spot 
patterns that may have aided in cryptic coloration. The evidence for 
the hypothesis presented is circumstantial, and the type of evidence 
needed for possible verification is explored. 

A New Beginning for Heat Units and the Alfalfa Weevil. A. K. Nelson 1 
and R. T. Huber, Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, 

Tucson, Arizona 85721. The affects of different thresholds and 

starting dates in a heat unit accumulation system are investigated. A 
system with a lower threshold will accumulate heat units faster than 
a system with a higher threshold. A system with a later starting 
date will always be a constant value less than a system with an 
earlier starting date. 

A heat unit accumulation system using a 45° F threshold and 
beginning at last frost is shown to accurately predict spring alfalfa 



Entomology 207 

weevil population peaks in areas where a system beginning on March 
1 does not. 

It is noted that identification of the conditions leading to the 
termination of diapuse and the beginning of adult activity in the 
spring would improve any phenological model of the alfalfa weevil. 

How Midges Swarm: A spatial temporal analysis of Chironmus riparius 
flight by computer. Mark Jansen and H. David Vail, Purdue Uni- 
versity, West Lafayette, Indiana. A laboratory colony of C. riparius 

was established to study the swarming behavior of the primitive flies. 
Life cycle parameters in the colony were found to agree with literature 
values for both field and laboratory populations. Initial analysis of 
swarming demonstrates that duration of swarming depends on swarm 
marker size. For large markers, the duration of swarming was in- 
dependent of the number of midges in the cage. Initial results indicate 
that midges are functionally identical and that special reconstruction 
from stereoscopic movie cameras will yield results interpretable in 
terms of classical mechanics. 

Examination of the Generalized Root Model RHIZOS in its ability to 
Simulate Corn Root Growth. E. L. Pang and H. D. Vail, Department 

of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

RHIZOS is a two-dimensional root model simulating root growth in 
a vertical soil slab. The purpose of this study was to adapt RHIZOS 
for the simulation of corn root growth. The original linear growth 
rate found in RHIZOS had to be modified as simulated root mass far 
exceeded expected values for corn growth and was not sensitive to 
growth at low temperatures. Thus, the slope was changed from 0.0215 
to 0.0182 and the y-intercept was changed from 0.212 to 0.0425. The 
model was then calibrated with corn root data. As a first approxima- 
tion, the total root mass alone was considered. A comparison of root 
weight for corn growth at constant temperatures of 10° and 15° C 
with simulated values, for root growth under similar conditions, showed 
that root mass and rate of root growth were very similar for the first 
15 days, after which, the simulated values lagged behind the actual data. 
Comparisons of the actual data with simulated values for growth at 
25° C proved the linear growth equation inadequate as the simulated 
values were far below the actual root mass values. The study was 
supported by Grant #R805429-01-0 from the U.S. Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency. 

The Biology of the Zimmerman Pine Moth (Dioryctria zimmermani) in 
Indiana Landscapes with Reference to it's Control. James W. Yonker 
and Donald L. Schuder, Department of Entomology, Purdue Uni- 
versity, West Lafayette, Indiana. The Zimmerman pine moth, a 

phloem and cambium borer, has become an increasingly important pest 
of ornamental pines over the last 25 years. Since it's discovery in 
Indiana in 1956, it has spread from 9 northern counties to at least 
48 counties in northern and central Indiana. Within this area, Scotch 
pine, a European species used extensively as an ornamental and Christ- 
mas tree, seems to be attacked most frequently and destructively. Ex- 



208 Indiana Academy of Science 

ternal evidence of Zimmerman attack is a resin mass that accumulates 
on the trunk, at the point of insect entry. Studies completed in 1978 
and 1979 on this insect/host/damage association indicates that hand 
removal of the resin masses could be an easy, effective and economical 
alternative for controlling this insect. 

The Influence of Organic Substrates Upon Oviposition Site- Selection in 
the Mosquito Culex restuans. BRIDGET Hoban, DURLAND Fish and GEORGE 
B. Craig, Jr., St. Joseph County Mosquito Abatement Program, De- 
partment of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana. 

Monitoring the egg production of adult mosquitoes affords many 

advantages over light trapping or man baiting in determining the 
presence of, or changes in, populations of blood-feeding mosquitoes. 
Many important species of Culex mosquitoes are known to oviposit in 
water with high organic content that provides a microbial infusion 
for the developing larvae. In an attempt to determine how to solicit 
the maximum oviposition response in Culex mosquitoes in northern 
Indiana, an array of oviposition monitoring stations containing dif- 
ferent organic substrates at various concentrations was offered to a 
natural field population of mosquitoes in a series of 2 experiments. 
Over 1,100 egg rafts of Culex restuans were collected during the 8 
week study period and their numerical distribution among the experi- 
mental stations was the criterion used for evaluating the effectiveness 
of each replicated treatment. In the first experiment, stations provided 
with fresh cow manure as the organic substrate yielded over 3X as 
many egg rafts as did commercially prepared, dehydrated cow manure 
or fresh horse manure. A concentration of 250 ml per 5 L of water was 
found to be superior or equal to higher concentrations of 500 ml and 1,000 
ml per 5 L of water for all substrates tested. In the second experiment, 
fresh cow manure yielded over 4X as many egg rafts as did either 
goat, buffalo, or llama manures and lOOx as many as alfalfa pellets at 
the same concentration. These results indicate that infusions generated 
with fresh cow manure are superior to other animal manures or plant 
substrates in their ability to attract ovipositing Culex restuans mos- 
quitoes and that cow manure might be the substrate of choice in ovi- 
position monitoring stations used in routine surveillance for other 
Culex mosquitoes that utilize similar aquatic habitats. 

The Use of an Ovitrap Grid for Measuring Adult Movement and Popu- 
lation Density of the Tree-Hole Mosquito Aedes triseriatus. William J. 
Berry, Durland Fish and George B. Craig, Jr., St. Joseph County 
Mosquito Abatement Program, Department of Biology, University of 

Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana. A modified ovitrap was used in 

a grid system in 6 northern Indiana woodlots to measure the movements 
of ovipositing mosquitoes within woodlots and to estimate adult popu- 
lation densities among woodlots. Black beverage cans were fitted with 
over-sized lids fixed at a slight angle to prevent contamination by rain 
and forest litter. Fresh oak stemflow (200 ml) served as an oviposition 
attractant and 4X12 cm balsa-wood strips served as oviposition 
substrates. A standard grid consisted of 50 ovitrap cans attached to 



Entomology 209 

trees V2 m above ground at regular intervals over a 2.3 ha area. A 
grid was placed in each woodlot and the balsa-wood strips were ex- 
amined for eggs each week. Differences in the number of eggs recovered 
from each ovitrap within a woodlot were interpreted as horizontal 
movement of ovipositing mosquitoes. The horizontal pattern of ovi- 
position showed aggregated distribution indicating preference for 
certain areas within the grids. These aggregations were not correlated 
with the size or density of trees, or the distribution of naturally occur- 
ring tree holes. Differences in the total number of eggs per woodlot 
were interpreted as differences in adult mosquito densities. In order 
to determine the relationship between egg numbers and population 
density, oviposition rates were compared between 2 woodlots where 
absolute population densities were known. One woodlot supported an 
adult population of 1,700 females and yielded an average of 1,000 
eggs/day. The second woodlot supported a population of 3,600 adult 
females but only yielded an average of 850 eggs/day. These results 
indicate that an increase in the oviposition rate is not necessarily 
indicative of an increase in population density. 



Insects and Other Arthropods of Economic Importance 
in Indiana During 1979 

Robert W. Meyer, Department of Entomology 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

Introduction 

Cold weather finally arrived with the new year, with weekly tempera- 
tures averaging from 1-17° F. (1-9° C.) below normal through Jan. 
and Feb. (weather data summarized from "Indiana Weather & Crops"). 
Even so, soils at most froze to a depth of only 6 inches, protected as 
they (and many insects) were by snows as much as 20 inches deep. 
Soil moisture through much of the year ranged from adequate to 
surplus in the S half of the state. Sporadic flooding was a problem 
there, and corn planting fell behind that of the N. In the N half of 
the state soil moisture ranged from short to adequate as early as 
May and through the summer, but only a few areas suffered losses 
because of overly-prolonged droughty periods. The rainfall pattern 
probably resulted in the population patterns observed in the corn borer, 
which in early instars is sensitive to excess rainfall. 

Through much of the year temperatures were on the cool side. 
The greatest meterological difference between 1979 and previous years 
was in solar radiation, which was the lowest on record and much lower 
than the previous, 1968, low. The total effect of this factor on insects 
activity is even less well known than its effect on crop yield. Whatever 
the factors responsible, adverse activity by arthropods was generally 
less than that of the previous year. 

Corn and Small Grains 

While there was undoubtedly some damage by western (Diabrotica 
virgifera) and northern corn rootworm (D. longicornis) larvae to grain 
corn, especially since rainfall was not always adequate in the N where 
these species are more common, the damage was probably little worse 
than that of 1978, a relatively light year. Since larval counts are 
difficult to make, the results of adult surveys made in 175 fields from 
7-21 Aug will be used as indicators of population levels of western 
corn rootworms. Mean numbers in the NW dropped from the 1977 
figure of 0.7/stalk to 0.5, the NC from 0.9 to 0.7 and the NE from 
1.0 to 0.3. West Central figures increased from 0.3 in 1978 (they were 
not a factor through most of the C districts in 1977) to 0.6, and remained 
at about 0.3 in the remainder of the C districts. In the S districts they 
remained under 0.1/stalk. The same trends, though at a lower level, 
were observed among the northern corn rootworms; there was an 
increase only in the NE. Ratios of western to northern adults ranged 
from 90:10 in the NW to 4:96 in the SE. Sticky trap catches in an 
untreated field in Tippecanoe Co. in 1979 were about as high in totals 
of both species together as they were in 1977; only the ratios changed. 
The ratio of WCR:NCR in 1977 was 31:69; in 1978, 70:30; in 1979, 

210 



Entomology 211 

92:8. The total catch in 10 traps of both species in the three years: 
17470, 8451, 17460, respectively. Few if any fields needed treatment 
to prevent economic injury to the silks. Adults were collected in Gibson, 
Perry, Spencer, Vanderburgh and Warrick counties — all new county 
records for the WCR. 

Larval European corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis) averaged 127/ 
100 stalks in the fall survey, the second highest average in survey 
history, exceeded only by the 200/100 stalks of the 1978 survey. Since 
the population in the S half of the state was below this average, 
this left the N with very high numbers. The NNW corner of the state 
had the highest average ever obtained in a district — 463/100 stalks. 
A Newton Co. field had an average of 1000/100, and four counties 
averaged more than 400/100 — Pulaski with 598; Starke, 595; Newton, 
452; and Jasper, 402. Pupation of the overwintering larvae had begun 
by mid-May as far north as Porter Co., and adults were collected on 
16 May in Knox Co. Black Light (BL) trap collections were at their 
lowest about mid-July which probably marked the beginning of the 
second flight (at least in the S), which was still going strong at the end 
of August when the trapping season ended. 

Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) populations were very 
late in appearing on grain corn. There is evidence that the greatest 
damage by this species is done while the tassel is still in the whorl. 
This year very few populations were observed before the tassel had 
escaped the whorl, even though populations were observed in sorghum 
as early as mid-June in Vigo Co. A susceptible variety, N28 x B37, 
grown to monitor aphid pressure, averaged 103.7 aphids/stalk, counted 
when the tassel could just be seen. Last year's level: 163.5. Populations 
began to build in the northern half of the state after tasseling had 
begun. However, by the end of September 47.5% of the crop had this 
aphid, sometimes in large numbers and in many places on the stalk. 
Since the populations were mainly in the N, that area was indeed 
heavily infested. 

Oat bird-cherry aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi) were first observed 
— in small numbers — in Harrison Co. by the beginning of May. This 
species normally attacks small grains, and does not build to large 
numbers until the grains are beginning to yellow. At this time they 
are frequently conspicuous because of their dark color on wheat heads, 
primarily in the southern half of the state. This year they were prac- 
tically non-existent on small grains, but increased in such numbers 
on corn, primarily in the N half of the state, that when handled the 
stalks became wet and slippery because of crushed bodies of the in- 
sects. Green plants sometimes glistened with their honey dew. They 
apparently do little if any harm to corn but are vectors of barley 
yellow dwarf disease in small grains. Indeed, late in September they 
were beginning to move to the newly sprouting wheat in numbers so 
large that they might have been responsible for injury to that crop in 
some areas. Their primary host is Prunus sp. 

Mean percent infestation by the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) 
averaged 1.1 for all wheat cultivators surveyed (USDA, Ind. Crop 



212 Indiana Academy of Science 

Improvement Association and Purdue cooperating) , down from the 8.3 
of last year. Cultivars having no source of resistance averaged only 
2.2%. Cultivars having W38(H. ? ) sources of resistance averaged 2.1; 
Ribeiro (H-), only 0.8. Mean number of puparia/100 stems for all 
cultivars was 1.3. 

Forage Legumes and Soybeans 

Fall 1978 oviposition by the alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) in 
a Harrison Co. alfalfa field averaged 57 eggs/15 cm 2 by 2 Dec, which 
was near the end of the oviposition period. About the same number 
were present 13 Mar, 1979, with little apparent loss due to the winter. 
On that date the first adults were observed, about 2 weeks earlier than 
1978. By 21 Mar, with alfalfa 3 cm tall, eggs averaged 100/15 cm 2 
and larvae were present on about 4% of the stems. By 9 Apr 43% of 
SC alfalfa was infested, averaging 10 cm and 1.9 larvae/infested plant; 
treatment was recommended for two-thirds of the fields surveyed. 
Though growth was lush and tended to mask the damage, treatment 
was probably in order on nearly all of the alfalfa S of US 50. Perhaps 
even half of the alfalfa between that highway and Indianapolis would 
have profited by treatment. Occasional economic damage was observed 
between Indianapolis and US 30 on the N, but N of US 30 damage 
again was severe, particularly when dry weather accentuated the 
damage effected by the weevil. 

Disease (see under Beneficial Organisms) arrived too late to 

prevent severe damage, and the adults that developed from larvae 

which escaped infection were sometimes numerous enough to delay 
regrowth. 

The first potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) was observed 7 
May in Howard Co. alfalfa. Alfalfa in the S districts was at or near 
treatment level by mid-June, and early in July the rest of the state 
had reached that stage. Pest management administrators from the N 
and C districts frequently named this insect as one of the most severe 
pests of the year. This year the presence in stubble of economic in- 
festations in scattered fields at both ends of the state was unusual. 

The first adult Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) of the 
year was swept from alfalfa 9 May in Owen Co. Adults were observed 
on snap beans in Lawrence Co. 15 May. The first egg mass of the year 
on soybeans was seen in Jennings Co. 30 May, and first instars were 
present by 11 June in Lawrence Co. In Owen Co., 21 Jul, 46% were 
late instar larvae, 49% pupae and about 5% adult in a field in which all 
stages together averaged 11/meter. This generation was slow be- 
ginning ovipositing; in some instances the resulting larvae proved 
beneficial, helping to remove the leaves of the plants to speed drying. 
This insect was the only significant pest in soybeans this year. Though 
infestations were observed in Tippecanoe and Jay counties north of 
Indianapolis, almost all economic problems with it were south of that 
city. This means, as one survey showed, about 24% of all soybeans 
showed feeding by Mexican bean beetles. A goodly portion of the 
southern fields was infested. At $6-7/acre, estimates put the acreage 



Entomology 213 

treated at about 400,000, of which about 60% was treated unneces- 
sarily or prematurely. 

Vegetables 

Of the garden pests the most conspicuous this year was the squash 
vine borer (Melittia satyrwiformis) ; less damaging, but nearly as 
conspicuous because of the distinctive nature of the injury, was the 
four-lined plant bug (Poecilocapsus lineatus.) 

Ornamentals, Forest, Shade and Fruit Trees 

Lawn and golf green problems this year included armyworm 
(Pseudaletia unipuncta) larvae and the grubs of the northern masked 
chafer (Cyclocephala borealis). A more general pest, the Japanese 
beetle (Popilia japonica) was noted in a variety of situations. Orna- 
mental plantings suffered heavily from two scales, the oystershell 
(Lepidosaphes ulmi) and the cottony maple (Pulvinaria innumerabilis). 
The prime evergreen pest was probably the European pine sawfly 
(Neodiprion sertifer), and among the deciduous trees, though several 
species were present, the green fruitworm (Lithophane antennnate) 
and cankerworms were the most widespread. Of the insects attacking 
peaches, the lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) was at the 
highest level in the last four years, as indicated by pheromone traps 
in Knox Co. Adults were taken at a mean rate of 63/trap/week from 3 
May-10 Oct. Of the apple insects, the redbanded leafroller ( Argyrotaenia 
velutinana) also reached a four-year peak — 18 adults/trap/week from 
5 Apr to 17 Oct, in the same county. 

The arthropods reported most frequently by nursery inspectors 
during 1979 were: 

1. Fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) 

2. Maple bladdergall mite, Vasates quadripes Shinier 

3. Bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius Gory 

4. Oystershell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus) 

5. Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman 

6. Spruce needleminer, Endothenia albolineana (Kearfott) 

7. Birch; leafminer, Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) 

8. Bagworm, Thyridopteryx ephemerae formis (Haworth) 

9. Velvet mite, Eriophyes aceris (Riley) 

10. Peachtree borer, Sanniiioidea exitiosa (Say) 

Man and Animals 

There was a silight decline in the number of household pest prob- 
lems referred to the Extension Service, the second time the total has 
been under 200/year. There was no significant difference in the species 
involved from lists of previous years. The German cockroach (Blat- 
tella germanica) and the eastern subterranean termite (Reticuliterynes 
flavipes), remain the main reasons for requesting the services of pest 
control companies, with no significant change in intensity level. There 
has been a tendency in recent years for carpenter ants (Camponotus 
sp.) and fleas (primarily Ctenocephalides felis) to increase their im- 



214 Indiana Academy of Science 

portance in this respect. And of the more serious problems, there were 
by mid-October only two confirmed cases of St. Louis encephalitis 
reported from the state. 

Beneficial Organisms 

A fungus, Entomophthora phytonomi, which has been responsible 
for keeping the clover leaf weevil (Hypera puntata) in check, was 
observed in many counties this year attacking the alfalfa weevil 
(Hypera postica). While widespread, it was only occasionally intense 
and then too late to prevent serious damage to alfalfa. One Harrison 
Co. field, untreated and unharvested, had nearly 100% weevil mortality 
after the disease struck. Adults however emerged in large numbers 
from the larvae that had completed their development prior to the 
onset of the disease. 

Parasitism by Bathyplectes anurus and B. curculionis was measured 
by rearing alfalfa weevil larvae collected from alfalfa by sweeping. 
The rate of parasitism by these species surpassed 25% in only the SC 
district (27%), average 15% statewide (1978:23%). B. anurus was 
collected for the first time from Franklin, Jackson, Johnson, and Orange 
counties. 

A parasite of adult alfalfa weevils (Microctonus aethiopoides), 
was reared from a wide range of counties from the Ohio River to the 
Michigan border, and may be presumed to be present over most of 
the state. It was collected for the first time from 24 counties : Clay, 
Daviess, Elkhart, Fayette, Franklin, Harrison, Huntington, Jackson, 
Johnson, Knox, LaGrange, Lake, Morgan, Noble, Owen, Porter, Ripley, 
St. Joseph, Shelby, Vermillion, Vigo, Wayne, Wells, and Whitley. 

Another adult weevil parasite, Microctonus colesi, was collected, 
the first time in the state, from Harrison Co. 

The cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus) egg parasite, Anaph.es 
flavipes, was collected for the first time from Brown, Green, Monroe, 
Morgan and Owen counties. 

The ratios (in percent of the total of these species) among the 
spotted (ColeomegiUa maculata), the convergent (Hippodamia con- 
vergens), the 13-spotted (H. tredecimpunctata) and Cycloneda sanguinea 
lady beetles as indicated by sticky trap collections in an untreated 
Tippecanoe Co. corn field in 1977, 1978, and 1979 follow: 27:65:3:5; 
69:6:16:9; and 81:9:3:7. Since the traps are in operation from early 
June to mid-October, i.e., when the various species peak, the ratios give 
some indication of the relative abundance of the species, and in this 
case, the growing importance of C. maculata. 

Rhinocyllus conicus, a curculionid that feeds as a larva on the 
seeds of the musk thistle, has apparently established itself in Ohio, 
Switzerland, and Johnson counties. 



Influence of Honey Bees on Cantaloupe 
Production in Indiana 

T. E. Mouzin 1 , D. K. Reed 1 , and W. E. Chaney 2 

Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory 

AR, SEA, USDA 

Vincennes, IN 47591 

Introduction 

Wild and domestic honey bees and other native bees play a vital 
role in food production. The production of at least 90 crops in the United 
States is dependent to some extent upon bees for pollination (Koch 
1977). In Indiana, one such crop is cantaloupes. Without the aid of 
pollinators, commercial cantaloupe production is impossible. Melon 
plants caged with bee colonies have sweeter, larger fruit with more 
seeds than plants in the open; plants caged without bees produce 
only a few small, worthless fruit (McGregor and Todd, 1952). 

Over the last 20 years, increase in population and related urban- 
ization of rural land, reduction of wild plants due to intensive prac- 
tices, and use of agricultural chemicals, often with little consideration 
of their impact upon bees, have reduced the number of the endemic pol- 
linators. As a result, farmers are increasingly supplementing the pol- 
linator by renting honey bee colonies from beekeepers. 

Materials and Methods 

Research was conducted at Vincennes, IN during 1977 and 1978 
to demonstrate the effect of bee pollination in cantaloupes and to 
provide information about optimum numbers of hives. In 1977, a 
two-story hive body with at least 30,000 bees was placed on each of 
four one-acre plots in each of 4 cantaloupe fields on June 1. Weekly 
counts of numbers of bees in the plants were made until August 15 
when the colonies were removed, counts were made by carefully placing 
a square grid made of V± in. rodding, which encompassed an area of 
101 cm 2 over a plant. The number of visible bees within that area was 
determined; then the plant was distrubed so other bees could be 
counted as they flew away. A minimum of 100 plants was counted 
at each location each week. Also the number of small (2.5-7.6 cm) 
and large 7.6-12.7 cm) fruit, in the area near each hive, and in an 
area at least 175 m away (in the same field) was determined. Mature 
fruit was weighed in both the areas on 3 dates when fruit would 
usually be harvested 

In 1978, 2 growers' fields received one hive and 2 fields received 
2 hives on June 2. The colonies were removed Aug. 21, one week later 



1 Fruit and Vegetable Research Laboratory, AR, SEA, USDA, Vincennes, IN. 

2 Co-operative Education Agreement for Graduate Students, Purdue University, USDA, 
SEA, AR. 

215 



216 



Indiana Academy of Science 



•«. 



r u 



« 



pq 



* 5 

I s 



£ c 

K ,2 

. 0) 

o § 



CG 



to 


CO 


S 


e 


j 


c 


v— 1 






u 


6 


3 


£ 





pq 



lO 00 
OS OS 






^ «D t- 



lO CO I 00 



00 00 I 

OS <N 

CM CO 



5 W 



t- I-H OS 

i-h r-i CM 



© ^ 

CM W 



cfl 



Eg 



.3 -O 



Entomology 217 

than in 1977, because of dry growing conditions. Counts were taken 
as in 1977. 

Results 

Results of observations made on the number of bees and melons 
during the two seasons are presented in Table 1 which gives the 
average of 4 fields. The plots pollinated by bees had a 10% increase 
in the number of melons in 1977 and a 12.8% increase in 1978. (The 
smaller number of melons produced overall in 1978 probably reflected 
the dry summer). The little difference seen between areas exposed 
to 1, 2 or 4 colonies indicated that one colony per acre would be 
adequate, but the increase in number of flowers as the plants mature, 
means that more bees are needed during the middle of the season. 
It is estimated that one bee for each 10 hermaphrodite flower will 
provide adequate pollination McGregor (1976). 

Table 2 shows difference in weights of melons between plots. The 
average weight gains differed only slightly (180 g. in 1977 and 157 g- 
in 1978), but even small gains become important when one considers 
the number of acres involved. Over the whole melon growing area, yield 
gains should be great in bee-pollinated fields. 

Bees are therefore beneficial as pollinators of cantaloupe in Indi- 
ana. Other experiments are planned to obtain quantitative data using 
caged bees and other techniques. 

Table 2. Weights of mature melons at various dates during 1977 and 1978 seasons in 

bee release and control blocks. 

Average Weight (Kg.) 
Eee Release Block 
Date Control Block 

1977 

7/7 1.956 1.814 

7/14 2.299 2.089 

7/21 2.384 2.197 

Avg./Date 2.213 2.033 

1978 

7/7 1.638 1.497 

7/14 1.942 1.777 

7/21 2.429 2.265 



Avg./Date 2.003 1.846 



Literature Cited 

1. McGregor, S. E. and F. E. Todd. 1952. Cantaloupe production with honey bees. J. 
Econ. Entomol. 45(1) :43-7. 

2. McGregor, S. E. 1976. Insect pollination of cultivated crop plants. Agriculture Hand- 
book No. 496. pp. 256-61. 

3. Koch, C. M. 1977. The role of honey bees in feeding the world. American Bee Journal, 
Nov. 1977, Vol. 117. 



Selected Factors Influencing the Number 
of Eggs Laid During Each Ovipositional Attack 
by Meteorus leviventris (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) 

E. E. Grafton-Cardwell and H. D. Vail 

Department of Entomology 
Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN 47907 

Introduction 

Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael) is a gregarious, internal parasitoid 
of the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel. The parasitoid attacks 
the larval stage of the black cutworm, depositing during each attack 
a group of eggs defined as a clutch, and numbering between 1 and 48 
eggs (Grafton-Cardwell, unpublished data). The number of progeny 
emerging from field collected cutworms has been found to average 27 
(El-Minshawy 1971; Schoenbohm 1975). 

Gregarious parasitoids, such as M. leviventris, deposit a variable 
number of eggs per ovipositional attack (Benson 1973). Therefore, 
it becomes necessary to continuously observe a parasitoid in order 
to accurately quantify the number of ovipositional attacks it has 
made on a host (van Lenteren et al. 1978). 

The ability to predict average clutch size under specific con- 
ditions can provide a tool for estimating the number of ovipositional 
attacks made on a host when parasitoids cannot be observed. There- 
fore, determinations of the relationships between specific factors and 
clutch size laid by M. leviventris were made. The research was sup- 
ported by EPA Grant #R805429-01-0. 

Materials and Methods 

The five factors chosen for this study were: 1) time of day, 2) 
parasitoid age, 3) intrinsic differences between parasitoids, 4) duration 
of ovipositional attack, and 5) host availability. Two experiments were 
conducted in order to examine the effects of these two factors on 
clutch size. 

Adult females of Meteorus leviventris were selected for use in 
the experiments from a laboratory colony maintained on Agrotis ipsilon. 
All parasitoids used had emerged within 6 hours of the experiments 
and were provided a 50% honey- water solution as a food source 
throughout the experiments. Black cutworm larvae were selected from 
a colony maintained on an artificial diet as modified by Reese et al. 
(1972). Host size was standardized at 40-60 mg. for all experiments. 
Hosts parasitized in the experiments were placed individually on diet, 
allowed to mature for 4 days in an environmental chamber (26° C, 
12L:12D), and then dissected. At this temperature, the parasitoid eggs 
began hatching on the 4th day. Both mature eggs and 1st instars 
were found in dissected hosts. Hosts were not dissected earlier because 
the less mature eggs were difficult to locate and remove. 

218 



Entomology 219 

Analyses of time of day and parasitoid age were performed using 
three different host densities (4, 8, and 12 hosts/12 hrs). The host 
densities were selected to be equal to or in excess of the average number 
of hosts attacked per 12 hours by M. leviventris. This experiment was 
conducted in a growth chamber (26° C, 12L:12D). Nine adult female 
parasitoids were placed in individual oviposition cages, as described by 
Schoenbohm (1975), at the start of the dark cycle. Three groups of 
three cages were utilized in which the cages in each group contained 
4, 8, and 12 nonparasitized hosts, respectively. Every 12 hours, exposed 
hosts were replaced by an equal number of nonparasitized hosts. This 
was repeated until the parasitoid died. The number of parasitoid 
progeny per host was determined by dissection. 

The remaining factors were examined in daylight (12L:12D) at 
room temperature (25° C). Ten 4-day-old female parasitoids were placed 
in individual oviposition cages and to each of which a nonparasitized 
host was exposed. If the parasitoid did not accept the host for oviposition 
within five minutes, the host was removed. If the host was accepted, 
the duration of ovipositional attack was recorded, and after dissection 
the number of progeny per host was determined. This procedure was 
repeated several times a day over a 12-day period for each parasitoid. 

Results 

Time of Day 

When M. leviventris females were continuously supplied with 
hosts, they laid significantly more total eggs during the dark 12-hour 
period (p = .05) than during the light 12-hour period each day (Fig. 
1). Oviposition between host densities was not found to be significantly 
different (p = .05). Since feeding and egg maturation may be affected 
by a diurnal rhythm (Engelmann 1970), it was thought that this rhythm 
might influence clutch size. However, the number of eggs laid per 
host (Fig. 2) was not found to be significantly different (p = .05) 
for the two periods. Time of day was found to have a significant effect 
on the total number of eggs laid, but did not have a significant effect 
on the number of eggs laid per host. 

Parasitoid Age 

When hosts were provided in numbers equal to or in excess of 
what is usually parasitized by M. leviventris (an average of 4 hosts/ 12 
hrs), clutch size (y) was found to decrease with increasing parasitoid 
age (x) after peak oviposition according to the decay curve y = 21.54e _ix 
(r 2 = .59) (Fig. 3). Clutch size decreased from 26 progeny to 3 progeny 
per host. An analysis of variance performed on the data indicated 
that the age of the parasitoid had a significant effect (p = .05) on 
clutch size. 

Intrinsic Differences between Parasitoids 

When parasitoids received fewer hosts than they can easily attack, 
all were observed to respond to the first host placed near them within 
five minutes. Each parasitoid was exposed to the same number of 
hosts, but each showed a different level of acceptance of hosts. Seven 



220 



Indiana Academy of Science 



121 






CO 

LD 
CD 
UJ 

U_ 
O 

Q£ 
Ll) 

m 



CE 

f— 

O 
t— 



UJ 

.J 

CE 
T 
UJ 
Ll 

cl: 
uj 
a 



80 r 



60 



40 



20 - 



□ DARK PERIOD 
a LIGHT PERIOD 




3 



9 

DRY 



12 



15 



Figure 1. Average daily egg deposition by M. leviventris divided into dark and light 

periods. 



of the parasitoids attacked 6 or 7 hosts out of 20 exposures to hosts. 
The other parasitoids attacked only 3 hosts each. It was found that 
clutch size was significantly different (p = .05) between the 7 parasitoids 
which attacked similar numbers of hosts (Table 1). Average clutch size 
for these parasitoids ranged from 19.6 to 29.4 eggs per host. Parasitoids 
which experienced the same experimental conditions laid significantly 
different clutch sizes. 

Duration of Ovipositional Attack 

Meteorus leviventris typically inserts its ovipositor into the host 
for an average time span of 1 second, but has been observed to leave 
it inserted for up to 3 minutes (Schoenbohm 1975). Three periods of 
ovipositional duration (1 sec; 2-5 sec; 6+ sec) were compared with 
the number of eggs laid during the corresponding ovipositional attack. 
The duration of ovipositional attack was not found to have a significant 
effect (p = .05) on clutch size (Table 1). 

Host Availability 

When parasitoids were provided hosts in numbers lower than they 
can easily attack (less than 4 hosts/ 12 hrs), clutch size per host 



Entomology 



221 



CO 

o 

X 

(Y 

LU 
Q_ 

CO 
CD 
CD 
LU 

Ll 
O 

CZ 

LU 
QQ 

t: 

ID 



UJ 

CD 
CE 

LY 

LxJ 
> 
CE 



25 



15 



□ DARK PERIOD 
a LIGHT PERIOD 




6 



9 
DAY 



12 



15 



Figure 2. 



Average daily number of eggs laid by M. leviventris per host divided into 
dark and light periods. 



Table 1. Summary of the Analysis of Variance for the effects of dxiration of oviposi- 
tional attack (L) and intrinsic differences between parasitoids (P) on clutch size. 



Source 



Degrees 
Freedom 



F test 



Duration of attack (L) 
Parasitoids (P) 
Error 



** Significant at the p = .01 level. 



2 

6 

44 



.6 

9.95** 



remained high throughout the parasitoid's life (Fig. 4). Clutch size 
(y) decreased from 30 to 20 progeny per host with increasing parasitoid 
age (x), and was found to be described by the equation y = 29.74e~-°- x 
(r- = .55) for the conditions of this experiment. The rate of change 
was small and the intercept high when parasitoids were provided few 
hosts (Fig. 4). Clutch size during a single oviposition attack did not 
exceed 48 eggs, which was within the range of progeny the host can 
support (Grafton-Cardwell, unpublished data). 



222 



Indiana Academy of Science 



28 



24 



CO 

o 

X 

c^ 20 

UJ 
Q_ 

CO 
CD 
CD 
UJ 

LL 

O 



16 



& 12 



UJ 
CD 
(T 

C£ 

> 

cr 



a a 



Y = 21.54e 

2 
R = .59 



IX 



□ 




CD 














n 


□ 


a 




a 












□ 


a 


a 


qN 


□ 




CD 


CD 


□ 








□ 




CD 
CD 




□ 

CD 







6 9 

DAYS 



12 



15 



18 



Figure 3. Effect of M. leviventris age on clutch size during continuous host supply. 



Discussion 

Host size is a factor known to influence the number of eggs laid 
by a parasitoid with each attack on a host (Salt 1934). This factor 
was standardized in all experiments to remove its effect, but should 
be considered in future experiments with M. leviventris. 

Of the five factors which were examined, three were found to have 
a significant effect on clutch size. Individual parasitoids oviposited sig- 
nificantly different clutch sizes even when they experienced the same 
environmental conditions. This result may have been caused by the 
various nutritional experiences of the parasitoids as larvae. The effect 
of parasite larval nutrition on adult fecundity was not standardized 
in order to examine the variability of clutch size in the laboratory 
colony for use in other experiments. The second factor, parasitoid age, 
caused the number of eggs laid per ovipositional attack to gradually 
decrease with time. Finally when hosts were not continuously available, 



Entomology 



223 









-.02X 








Y = 29.746 


40 






2 

R - .55 


30 


, 








20 






< 






10 
(2 


1 


I 


1 1 1 







12 



15 



DRY 

Figure 4. Effect of sporadic host availability on clutch size. The standard error of the 

mean is plotted for each point. 



parasitoids maintained a high clutch size throughout life. This high 
clutch size was possibly due to egg storage. Time of day and duration 
of ovipositional attack had no significant effects on clutch size. 

During each ovipositional attack, M. leviventris deposits a clutch 
of eggs whose number varies between individual parasitoids of equal 
age. As the parasitoid ages, average clutch size diminishes when hosts 
are continuously available. When hosts are not continuously available, 
the average clutch size remains high, possibly due to egg storage. For 
the conditions of these experiments, if the levels of each of these three 
factors are known, clutch size can be predicted and the number of 
attacks on a host can be estimated for an individual parasitoid when 
the attacks are not observed. 



224 Indiana Academy of Science 

Literature Cited 

1. Benson, J. F. 1973. Intraspecific competition in the population dynamics of Bracon 
hebetor Say (Hymenoptera :Braconidae). J. Anim. EcoL 42:105-124. 

2. El-Minshawy, A. M. 1971. Preliminary notes on the biology of Meteorus laeviventris 
Wsm., an internal larval parasite of Agrotis ipsilon Rott. Bull Soc. Entomol. Egypte 
54:361-64. 

3. Engelmann, F. 1970. The Physiology of Insect Reproduction. Pergamon Press, New 
York. 307 p. 

4. van Lenteren, J. C, K. Barker, and J. J. van Alphen. 1978. How to analyze 
host discrimination. Ecol. Entm. 3 :71-75. 

5. Reese, J. C, L. M. English, T. R. Yonke, and M. L. Fairchild. 1972. A method for 
rearing black cutworms. J. Econ. Entomol. 65:1047-50. 

6. Salt, G. 1934. Experimental studies in insect parasitism. II. Superparasitism. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Lond. (B) 114:455-76. 

7. Schoenbohm, R. B. 1975. The biology of Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael) Hymenop- 
tera rBraconidae) and the effect of parasitism on the feeding activity of its black 
cutworm host. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Purdue University. 70 p. 



Lesser Peachtree Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) : Influence of Water 
and Chemical Washes on Collection and Hatchability of Eggs 

D. G. Davis, N. J. Tromley, T. T. Y. Wong, and D. K. Reed 

Fruit and Vegetable Insects Research 

Science and Education Administration, Agricultural Research 

USDA, Vincennes, IN 47591 

One of the limiting factors in maintaining a working colony of the 
lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson), 
in the laboratory, is the distribution of eggs on pieces of teased cotton 
oviposition pad (1) for use in infesting rearing trays. The process is 
time consuming and laborious. Also, eclosion is often adversely affected 
by handling. 

To improve the efficiency of the rearing program, we needed a 
better method of egg removal and handling. If all or most of the eggs 
deposited on the cotton pads could be removed easily without drastically 
reducing the hatch, they could be distributed more uniformly in the 
trays and in less time. The problem is the cementing materials on 
the chorion of the eggs which must be dissolved. The eggs are attached 
to the cotton fibers and to each other by copious coatings of adhesive 
that bonds them to the cotton. Tapwater is not a suitable solvent of 
the cement, but the disinfectant washes of sodium hypochlorite or 
formalin have been used to remove glued eggs of other species and 
as surface sterilizers (2, 3, 4, 5). Also, they are reported not to reduce 
viability materially. Our studies were designed to measure the effect 
of water, formalin, and bleach on the removal of borer eggs from the 
cotton oviposition pads and on hatchability of the eggs. 

Methods and Materials 

Lesser peachtree borers (LPTB) were obtained from a laboratory 
colony maintained for 9 years on apples (Red and Golden delicious 
varieties) removed as thinnings (2.5-4.5 cm diam) at the Humid Areas 
Deciduous Fruit Insects Investigations Laboratory, Vincennes, IN. 

Mated females were handled as described by Cleveland et al. (1) 
except that: (a) two moist medium-sized (non-sterile) absorbent cotton 
balls, pressed into the bottom fourth of 15 ml jelly cups, were used as 
an oviposition pad, one female per cup; (b) a paper lid with a sawed 
slit (1.2 x 0.2 cm) for aeration was fitted into the lip of each cup to 
confine the female; and (c) females were held at 25.6 ± 2°C and 



1 Lepidoptera: Sesiidae. 

2 Received for publication . 

3 Mention of a proprietary product in this paper does not constitute recommendation 
or endorsement by the USDA. 

4 Biological Control of Insects Research Laboratory, Science and Education Adminis- 
tration, Agricultural Research, USDA, Columbia, Missouri 65205. 

5 Subtropical Fruit Insects Laboratory, Science and Education Administration, Agri- 
cultural Research, USDA, Honolulu, Hawaii 96804. 

225 



226 Indiana Academy of Science 

55 ± 5% RH on the oviposition rack where supplemental fluorescent 
lighting 1 provided a photophase of 14 h. 

After 6 days, females were removed from the cups and discarded. 
A series of 5 cups was selected at random for exposure to each treat- 
ment. The egg pads from these were removed. A corresponding number 
of cups was set aside as controls. In the latter, eggs were not washed 
from the pads. Before treatment, eggs on pads that were removed 
were counted (treatment + controls, average eggs /pad = 242). The 
egg pads used for treatment with water, formalin, or bleach, as well 
as the controls, were placed on 6.4-mm mesh hardware cloth racks 
(30 pads/rack/treatment). Each rack was stored in a plastic box lined 
with moist paper toweling and covered with a framed muslin lid. Pads 
were lightly sprayed twice each 24 h with tapwater to prevent 
dessication. 

The test solutions included tap or distilled water; also the follow- 
ing percentages of 6% sodium hypochlorite (Purex R ): 0.12, 0.24, 0.46, 
0.86, 1.50 and 2.40, in addition to formalin were prepared 24 h before 
use and stored in closed plastic containers. 

Sets of 5 egg pads were placed in each test solution for a 5-min 
soaking. Also, a 2nd set of egg pads was soaked in each solution for 
15 min. During the last 2 min of each soak, the egg pads were agitated 
with forceps to aid in releasing any eggs still attached. The pads were 
then removed from the test solutions and placed in marked petri dishes 
to be examined for eggs left trapped in the cotton fibers. Throughout 
the soak period and thereafter, controls were left in marked boxes and 
sprayed twice daily with tapwater. 

After soaking and agitations, the solution and eggs from each 
container were poured through an organdy cloth disc placed in a small 
plastic funnel and rinsed twice with tepid tapwater. Eggs were dried 
at room temperature for about 20 min, then transferred with a camel's 
hair brush to moist, sterilized filter paper in petri dishes. All petri 
dishes and control boxes were held in the oviposition room at the same 
temperature and RH described for egg-laying females. Ten drops of 
distilled water were placed on each filter paper every 3 days until 
hatching was completed. Checks of all egg dishes and control boxes 
were made daily for 6 days, which was generally sufficient for 92.3% 
hatch of the control eggs. 

Results 

Egg Removal 

Some eggs were removed from the cotton oviopsition pads by all 
Fig. 1(A) solutions. Fig. 1(A) shows the varying percentages of eggs 
removed. Bleach was clearly the most successful agent for removing 
the eggs. The highest percentages of eggs were removed as a result of 
the soaking in dilute bleach solutions. There was also a direct correla- 
tion between the decreasing concentrations of bleach, duration of soak- 
ing, and improved egg removal. The remaining washes were less satis- 
factory. Egg removal using formalin washes was quite irregular, 
although the highest percentages of eggs removed occurred with more 



Entomology 



227 




12 3 4 5 6 



< 

2 u 



O 60-| 

< 
X 

(A 

O 40H 

o 

bl 



(B) 



n 

I 



I 
1 



1 


n 


1 


5 


15 


CHK 


MIN 








II 



WAT E R 



3 4 5 < 

FORMALIN 



3 4 5 

BLEACH 



Figure 1(A). Pecentages of eggs that were loosened by tapwater (T), distilled water 
(D), formalin washes, and bleach washes. 

Figure 1(B). Percentages of hatch from checks (C) and from eggs washed for 5 and 

for 15 min. Percent concentrations of each chemical wash (formalin or bleach) were as 

folloivs: 1 = 0.12, 2 = 0.24, 3 = 0.46, 4 = 0.86, 5 = 1.50, 6 = 2.40. 



concentrated solutions. However, 5-min soakings were more successful 
in loosening eggs than 15 minutes. There was little difference in the 
numbers of eggs removed by soaking for 5 or 15 min in distilled water 
and tapwater. 

Egg Hatch 

Eclosion was increasingly reduced as the concentration of chemical 
Fig. 1(B) in the washes was increased (Fig. 1(B)). For example, the 
weaker solutions of bleach reduced hatch 2-4% compared with the 



228 



Indiana Academy of Science 



llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 


Z 

i 


1! 

z a: 

I 5 

in 


= 




Bi = 


n 1 


lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll! 


= 





_o 



in 



© (ft 

< 

Q 



^ 



G> 



X 

Q. 



< 

a: 
o 
u- 



JK 


cc 


-H 


a. uj 


<H 


t-< 


i-< 


</>£ 


* 



Figure 2. Days to attain 50 and 95% hatch of LPTB eggs exposed to water and chemical 

xvashes. Chemical washes are represented as single bars to show the additive effect of all 

concentrations for each soaking interval. Check is shown by a single bar that shows the 

combined hatching of all untreated eggs. 



Entomology 229 

control, but the higher concentrations reduced it much more, especially 
as duration of the soaking- time increased. The stronger formalin washes 
also reduced egg viability more than the weaker solutions and longer 
soaking time accentuated these differences. 

The 2 water washes produced similar hatching results, and length 
of soaking period had little effect. However, eggs treated with water 
washes eclosed in larger numbers and had a slightly larger hatch than 
the untreated controls. 

Altered Patterns of Hatching 

All eggs treated with water and chemical washes showed some 
changes in overall egg viability and in pattern of eclosion. Fig. 2 shows 
the average number of days eggs required to reach 50 and 95% hatch 
after treatment with the washes. In the check, 50% hatch occurred in 
9.3 days and 95% hatch in 11.1 days. With bleach washes, average 
hatching times were 10.2 days for 50% hatch and 11.9 days for 95% 
hatch, a delay of 0.2 days. However, the overall hatching pattern pro- 
duced by the formalin washes was more like that of the check than 
the patterns produced by other test solutions. Even distilled water 
washes gave averages of 10.0 and 11.1 days, respectively, for both 50 
and 95% hatch, a delay of 0.4 days; and tapwater washes gave averages 
of 10.2 and 11.5 days for 50 and 95% hatch, once again, a delay of 
0.5 days. Fig. 2 also shows that the longer soaking slightly extended 
the delay in hatching in all treatments and was especially noticeable 
in days required to reach 50% hatch. 

Discussion 

Treatments with the various concentrations of bleach aided in re- 
leasing the eggs more efficiently than treatments with formalin or 
water, probably because it removed the adhesive coating of the chorion. 
Eggs treated in bleach were separated quickly from the cotton pads and 
sank immediately without sticking to each other or to the sides of the 
soaking containers. However, the stronger bleach concentrations appar- 
ently reacted with the cotton fibers causing a tackiness which trapped 
portions of the removed eggs. Many eggs treated with formalin or 
water washes remained cemented to the cotton. Also, eggs soaked in 
formalin washes for 15 min showed some tendency toward stickiness 
and entanglement in the cotton fibers. 

When egg hatches for the various treatments were compared, 
chemically-treated eggs had a lower percentage of eclosions than un- 
treated controls. The formalin-treated eggs had the greatest reduction 
of eclosions. Formalin probably caused some dessication or otherwise 
reduced viability. The weaker concentrations of bleach also reduced 
hatch slightly, but the chorions of eggs exposed to the stronger washes 
showed discoloration and considerably reduced hatch, especially those 
soaked for 15 min. 

Although washes of bleach delayed egg hatching by a day, the 
washed eggs could be easily distributed into the rearing trays. Also, 
the weaker concentrations of bleach caused minimum reductions (2-4%) 



230 Indiana Academy of Science 

in hatch. On the basis of these results, we selected the weakest bleach 
concentration and 5-min soak as the appropriate means of removing 
eggs of the lesser peachtree borer from cotton oviposition pads. 



Literature Cited 

1. Cleveland, M. L., T. T. Y. Wong, and K. W. Lamansky. 1968. Rearing methods and 
biology of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes, in the laboratory. Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 61:809-814. 

2. Getzin, L. 1962. Mass rearing of virus-free cabbage loopers on an artificial diet. 
J. Insect Pathol. 4 :486-488. 

3. Henneberry, T. J. and A. N. Kishara. 1969. Cabbage loopers. In C. N. Smith (ed.), 
Insect colonization and mass production, pp. 461-478. Academic Press, New York. 
618 pp. 

4. Leppla, N. C, S. L. Carlyle, and T. C. Carlysle. 1974. Effects of surface steriliza- 
tion and automatic collection on cabbage looper eggs. J. Econ. Entomol. 67:33-36. 

5. Vail, P. V., T. J. Henneberry, A. N. Kishaba, and K. Y. Arkawa. 1968. Sodium 
hypochlorite and formalin as antiviral agents against nuclear-polyhedrosis virus in 
larvae of the cabbage looper. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 10:84-93. 



ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 

Chairman: Thaddeus J. Godish 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Howard Dunn 
Indiana State University at Evansville, Evansville, Indiana 47712 

Chloroform in the Atmosphere Around Water Treatment Plants — Its 
Effect on Trace Analysis for Chloroform in Water Samples. Howard E. 
Dunn, Jeffrey Adler, Bernard Denning, and Lana Rademacher, 
Chemistry Department, Indiana State University — Evansville, Evansville, 

Indiana. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has 

observed that when surface water supplies are purified for drinking 
purposes by the addition of chlorine a certain amount of chloroform is 
produced. Since chloroform has been determined to be a carcinogen, 
regulations have been proposed to limit its presence in drinking water. 
Several water utilities located along the Ohio River have been setting 
up analytical labs to measure the amount of chloroform and other trace 
toxic organic chemicals in their water. We have found chloroform to be 
present not only in drinking water but also in the atmosphere in and 
around two Indiana water treatment plants that use the standard chlori- 
nation method of purification. We examined the possibility of this at- 
mospheric contamination having an effect on the quantitative deter- 
mination of trace amounts of chloroform in water samples. 

Household Carbon Filters For Water Purification, Good or Bad? Howard 
E. Dunn, Bernard E. Denning, and Jeffrey Adler, Chemistry Depart- 
ment, Indiana State University — Evansville, Evansville, Indiana. In 

the past few years the United States Environmental Protection Agency 
has determined that almost all of the major drinking water supplies in 
the nation contain toxic and carcinogenic organic materials. Most water 
treatment plants are not equipped to remove these chemicals. In fact, 
when surface water supplies are chlorinated for the purpose of puri- 
fication a carcinogenic chemical (chloroform) is formed. 

The chloroform builds up in concentration as the water passes 
through the mains toward the ultimate consumer. As the public becomes 
increasingly aware of these problems, they have been purchasing the 
highly advertised carbon filters and attaching them to their home 
faucets. Environmental groups have claimed that the effectiveness 
of these filters has not been established. This study was undertaken 
to determine the effectiveness of one of the popular brands of carbon 
filters in removing chloroform from drinking water and to determine 
its useful life. 

The Environmental Assessment of New Technology. Patrick J. Sulli- 
van, Department of Natural Resources, Ball State University, Muncie, 
Indiana. This research describes the methodology which was devel- 
oped to identify and assess potential environmental impacts of advanced 
mining technology as it moves from a generic concept to a more 

231 



232 Indiana Academy of Science 

precise systems definition. Two levels of assessment are defined in 
terms of the design stage of the technology being evaluated. The first 
level of analysis is appropriate to a conceptual design. At this level it 
is assumed that each mining process has known and potential environ- 
mental impacts that are generic to each mining activity. By using this 
assumption, potential environmental impacts can be identified for new 
mining systems. When two or more systems have been assessed, they 
can be evaluated by comparing potential environmental impacts. At 
the preliminary stage of design, a system's performance can be assessed 
again with more precision. At this level of system definition, potential 
environmental impacts can be analyzed and their significance deter- 
mined in a manner to facilitate comparisons between systems. An impor- 
tant output of each level of analysis is suggestions calculated to help 
me designer mitigate potentially harmful impacts. 

Modification of the Stream Reaeration Coefficient-Temperature Relation- 
ship. Robert H. L. Howe, West Lafayette, Indiana. A modification 

of the stream reaeration coefficient-temperature relationship is proposed. 
Some long time investigation and experimental data are presented. In 
this proposed modification, the author concludes that the reaeration 
coefficient K 2 decreases as temperature rises and it increases as tem- 
perature drops, in order to conform with all gas laws and environ- 
mental and physical facts. Also, it is demonstrated that the reaeration 
coefficient-temperature relationship is governed more by the dissolved 
oxygen solubility or concentration than by the rate of diffusion at the 
particular temperature, all other physical conditions being same. 

A Study to Determine Effects of Elwood, Indiana, on the Water Quality 
of Big Duck Creek. Timothy J. Decker and Horst F. Siewert, Indiana 
State Board of Health and Department of Natural Resources, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana. Water quality of Big Duck Creek 

above and below Elwood was determined. Dissolved oxygen and suspended 
solid concentrations decreased as the water flowed through the city. 
The number of total coliform bacteria, the biochemical oxygen demand, 
and ammonia concentrations were higher below the city. Only minimal 
changes in pH were observed. The results of this study were compared to 
those of an investigation conducted in 1938. Although effluents from the 
sewage treatment plant and bypasses still contribute to some extent to 
the pollution of the river, the water quality has greatly improved over 
a forty year period. 

Effects of Low PH Levels on Body Weight of Crayfish. John Buck, and 
Horst F. Siewert, Department of Natural Resources, Ball State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, Indiana. This study consisted of two phases. In Phase 

I crayfish were initially exposed to water at a neutral pH. Then the 
acidity was gradually increased until all crayfish died. Between pH 2.5 
and 2.2 all animals expired. In Phase II crayfish were introduced into 
water with pH 7, 6, 5, 4, and 3 for 15 weeks. A positive correlation 
(r = .96) between pH and survival was observed. Weekly fluctuations 
in body weight of crayfish due to moulting were noted. These, however, 



Environmental Quality 233 

seemed not to be linked to specific acid concentration. A positive cor- 
relation between pH and cummulative body weight existed. At high pH 
levels larger weight gains occurred than at low pH concentrations. 

The Effect of Ozone on Hamster Tracheal Ring Explants. Dorothy 
Adalis and Richard Ringlespaugh, Department of Biology, Ball State 

University, Muncie, Indiana.— Preliminary studies were conducted to 

determine the effects of in vivo exposures to 0.5 ppm ozone for three 
hours times three days on hamster tracheas. Immediately following the 
exposure regimen, tracheas from sixteen randomly selected Syrian Golden 
Hamsters were aseptically excised, cut into rings 1 mm thick and placed 
in organ culture medium. Cilia beating frequency in beats per minute 
was determined by using an electronic stroboscope attached to an in- 
verted microscope. The mean beating frequency for the control rings 
was 1143.9 beats per minute and 950.4 beats per minute for the ozone 
treated rings. An analysis of variance indicated a significant decrease 
(P =z 0.01) in the ozone treated rings when compared with controls. 
Tracheal rings from control and exposed hamsters were fixed, sectioned 
at 4 fx, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A preliminary assess- 
ment of the histopathology in these sections indicated changes in the 
treated versus control rings. A decrease in the height of the ciliated 
epithelium, loss of cilia, and a disorganization of the cellular components 
were the major changes evident in ozone treated rings. Cloudy swelling 
and changes in the shape and position of the nucleii were also noted in 
the ozone treated rings. 

Normal ciliary beat frequency and mucus transport are needed to 
insure proper clearance of inhaled harmful particles from the respira- 
tory tract. If the normal ciliary activity is altered in animals exposed to 
ozone, an accumulation of both viable and non-viable harmful sub- 
stances can occur which may in turn jeopardize the health of the host. 
Another change that may inhibit the clearance mechanism of the host is 
the loss of cilia that occurred as a result of inhaling ozone. 

Field Investigations of Chloride Air Pollution Injury on Vegetation. 

Thad Godish, Department of Natural Resources, Ball State University 

Muncie, Indiana. Plant pathological surveys of alleged air pollution 

injury were conducted near industrial sources at three locations within 
the State of Indiana. Examination of injured plant leaves indicated 
that the typical symptom patterns of marginal and /or tip necrosis were 
caused by choloride pollution. Evaluation of process materials utilized 
indicated that chloride emissions were significant in each instance. At 
one survey location, hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid were 
the principal phytoxicants. Typical chloride injury was observed on 25 
species; hydrochloric acid mist injury was observed on one species. The 
principal phytoxicant in the two other survey locations was particulate 
sodium chloride. Symptom patterns on leaves of injured vegetation were 
similar for both gaseous and particulate chloride pollution. Because of 
the continuous exposure to particulate chloride, severe defoliation and 
killing of sensitive tree species occurred. The most severe injury 
occurred on the plant face directly downwind of the pollution source. 



234 Indiana Academy of Science 

The Impact of Air Pollutants on Crops in the Ohio River Basin. Richard 
W. Miller*, Orie L. Loucks, Thomas V. Armentano, Roland W. 
Usher (The Institute of Ecology, Butler University) and Larry Wong 

(Indiana University). As a part of the Ohio River Basin Energy 

Study (ORBES), The Institute of Ecology has attempted to estimate loss 
of yield of crops due to the effects of air pollutants from coal-fired 
electric power generating stations. The study has concentrated on the 
effects of sulfur dioxide, ozone and oxides of nitrogen from both currently 
operating plants and those planned and projected until the year 2000. The 
affected area includes the states of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, 
West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

The method used to estimate loss of yield has two components, 
determination of the area of impact around each power plant in the 
region and calculation of the loss of yield due to that impact. The area 
of impact was determined using American Electric Power monitoring 
data from several power plants to plot isopleths of S0 2 concentrations. 
The isopleths were generalized to form ellipses w T ith the long axis paral- 
lel to commonly prevailing summer winds, i.e. southwest to northeast. 
The size of the elliptical isopleths was correlated with the stack height 
and sulfur emission rate of the plants, and this relationship was used 
to estimate comparable ellipses around other plants in the region. 

Potential crop effects were calculated by developing an algorithm 
based on both field and laboratory experiments with various crops and 
pollutants. The loss of yield was correlated with pollutant concentration 
and this relationship was used to estimate crop losses within the im- 
pacted areas. Data will be summarized according to crop reporting dis- 
tricts, including total area of each crop affected by power plant emis- 
sions and potential loss of yield due to those emissions. 

Assessment of Air Pollution Injury to Eastern White Pine in Indiana. 

Roland W. Usher, The Institute of Ecology, Butler University. 

Eastern white pine is known to be sensitive to gaseous air pollutants such 
as sulfur dioxide and ozone. Therefore, nine stands of white pine were 
chosen in various localities of the southern half of Indiana to attempt 
to determine the present day injury caused by: 1) "normal" background 
concentrations of ozone and /or other air pollutants; 2) source emissions 
of sulfur dioxide (coal-fired power plants) in conjunction with low and 
high concentrations of ozone; and 3) the air pollution associated with 
a major urban center, Indianapolis. Symptoms of air pollution recorded 
include: 1) degree of "flecking" (none, very slight, slight, moderate, 
severe) ; 2) tip chlorosis and tip necrosis (number of needles per tree 
and length) ; and 3) retention of previous season's needles. The least 
amount of air pollution injury was found near Bloomington, with mod- 
erate amounts being found at Alamo, Lizton, Petersburg, Prairie Creek 
and Madison. The worst air pollution injury was associated with 
Indianapolis. Factors other than amount of air pollution enter into the 
degree of injury noted within a stand and, hence, influence the place- 
ment of areas into low, medium and high air pollution zones. For 
instance, the surrounding topography and vegetation influence the 



Environmental Quality 235 

amount of injury caused by air pollution. By virtue of their location 

the stands at Madison and Petersburg showed less injury from air 
pollution than expected. 



Air Monitoring and Health Data Needed in Southern Indiana 

Jack Barnes, Department of Geology, Indiana State University 
Evansville, Indiana 47712 

Howard Dunn, Department of Chemistry, Indiana State University, 

Evansville, Indiana 47712 

Graham Schuler, Physician, Welborn Clinic, Mt. Vernon, Indiana 

Purpose of Study 

The purpose of this study was multiple: 1) to determine the air- 
pollution-related diseases; 2) to determine the disease-related air pol- 
lutants; 3) to plot the geographic distribution of air-pollution-related 
diseases in Southern Indiana; 4) to plot the geographic distribution of 
disease-related air pollutants in southern Indiana; 5) to make recom- 
mendations for corrective measures where unusually high concentrations 
of air-pollution-related diseases or disease-related air pollutants are 
found. 

Literature Survey 

A World Library Search of 319,000 citations concerning diseases 
related to air pollutants was conducted through Dialog Service, a 
division of Lockheed Aircraft, Palo Alto, CA. This computer search 
was designed to reveal both positive and negative correlations between 
air pollutants and human disease. However, no scientific studies were 
found that refute the numerous studies indicating that air pollution 
is harmful to human health. Examination of research abstracts re- 
vealed a close relationship between air pollution levels and diseases of 
the circulatory and respiratory systems in humans. 

Several authors have found that alterations in human health were 
most likely attributed to exposure to sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, and 
acid sulfates. (2) Deaths from cardiovascular disease showed a close 
association with sulfate pollution. (9) At a National Symposium, Fair- 
child pointed out that numerous epidemiologic studies conducted in the 
United States, Great Britain and Japan have demonstrated that under 
certain conditions sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter are 
associated with increased occurrence of disease, usually respiratory or 
cardiovascular disease. Some studies have shown that health effects 
are more closely correlated with total suspended soluble sulfate than 
with sulfur dioxide alone. (4) 

Tzukamoto, Serizawa and Akita (15) found a close connection 
between the monthly morbidity and average concentration of sulfur 
dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the air. Further, the weekly average 
morbidity of cold symptoms showed a correlation to weekly average 
concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, even when the 
concentration of sulfur dioxide was less than 0.04 ppm (105 /zg/m 3 ) 
(average 24 hour), which is the Japanese National Standard. Another 
Japanese study conducted in the cities of Yokkaichi and Tsu confirmed 
that the morbidity of acute respiratory disease such as cold decreased 

236 



Environmental Quality 237 

with a decrease of air pollution. The study showed that in younger 
people, morbidity of asthma-type diseases decreased, showing the effect 
of decrease of air pollution. (7) 

Some scientists believe that air pollution may lead to the increase 
in cancer rates. Researchers at the University of California at Davis 
have recently established that fly ash and particulates from coal-fired 
power plants are mutagenic in the Ames Test and, thus, a likely 
carcinogen. (1) There is also the possibility that increased levels of 
nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere could lead to increased cancer rates. 
Nitrogen dioxide is the precursor of nitrates and may play a role in 
the atmospheric formation of nitrosamines, one of the most potent 
classes of carcinogens yet uncovered. Because control technology is in 
its infancy, scientists now predict that nitrogen dioxide levels will 
skyrocket in the next ten years. (1) The already increasing levels of 
nitrogen and sulfur oxides have led to acid rainfalls in the northeast. 
(12) 

Epidemiological studies are very difficult to conduct. There always 
seems to be one or more variables that are difficult to control. Ferris 
and his coworkers have made the wise suggestion that it is from 
children the most valuable information may come, since the true effects 
of air pollution should not, theoretically, be masked by other environ- 
mental factors such as occupational exposure and smoking. (5) 

It is of utmost importance that the results of these studies be 
taken seriously. Air pollution not only affects our health but also our 
economy. Most studies that are nationwide in scope calculate the annual 
damages of air pollution in the billions of dollars. (6) These vexing 
problems are further complicated by the coexistence of differing eco- 
nomic and moral values within our society. 

The literature search revealed that the diseases most often cor- 
related with air pollution are heart, cerebrovascular, arteries, emphy- 
sema, cancer and pneumonia. The air pollutants most often correlated 
with these types of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are sulfur 
dioxide, sulfuric acid, sulfates, suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides, 
certain hydrocarbons, radioactive substances, carbon monoxide, ozone 
and heavy metals. 

Pollution Studies Concerning Southern Indiana 

National studies conducted by the United States Environmental 
Protection Agency and Dr. Hugh Spencer, University of Louisville, were 
examined concerning the growing threat of air pollution (particularly 
sulfates) in the Eastern United States. This is of particular concern 
in the Ohio River Valley, where coal-fired power generation is a 
growing threat to human health. Results of these studies indicate the 
following: 

Visibility has decreased steadily in the Eastern United States 
during the past 25 years. (13) Sulfate levels in the Eastern United 
States have been steadily rising with increased coal use since 1953. 
Noticeable health effects to humans occur at sulfate levels as low as 
6-10 (iig/m 3 . In 1974 the airborne sulfate concentrations in Southwestern 



238 Indiana Academy of Science 

Indiana ranged from 10-14 ,ug/m 3 and in Southeastern Indiana they 
were above 15 fig/m s . Four studies have shown that at sulfate levels 
of 6-10 ng/m 3 (24 hour exposure) increased asthma attacks occur; at 
levels greater than 13 ng/m 3 (several years exposure) increased acute 
respiratory diseases in children occur. Sulfate levels in the Ohio River 
Valley (already the summer air pollution capital of the U.S. according 
to the U. S. E. P. A.) are projected by workers at Brookhaven Labora- 
tories to be 28 /ig/m 3 by 1990, if the present increase in coal use con- 
tinues as planned. (10) At sulfate levels above 25 fig/m s excessive 
deaths can be expected. 

Acid rains are increasing in frequency in the midwest and north- 
east United States as sulfur oxide (SO x ) and sulfate levels continue 
to rise throughout this region. The acidity of the rainfall in Southern 
Indiana has increased more than ten-fold over a period of sixteen years. 
(3) Some fish kills in lakes in the Adirondak Mountains of New York 
have been attributed by the U. S. E. P. A. to industrial activity in the 
Midwest. Increased sulfate levels, reduced visibility and acid rains all 
result from sulfur oxide emissions. 

The principal source of these emissions is coal combustion in 
power generation as indicated in Table 1. 

Table 1. Principal sources of sulfur oxides 1975 (3) 





% of Total 


Electric Utilities 


64 


Industrial Processes 


17 


Industrial Fuel 


15 


Other 


4 



Total 100 



Power plant locations in southern Indiana are indicated on Figure 1. 
This pattern of power plant distribution corresponds with high density 
sulfur dioxide concentrations indicated by scientists conducting research 
for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study. (14) County sulfur dioxide 
emissions as well as ranking within the state are indicated on Figures 
2 and 3. 

Mortality — Southern Indiana Counties 

Data concerning mortality rates per 100,000 population for all air- 
pollution-related diseases was taken from Indiana Vital Statistics 1971- 
1975 and plotted by county on a map of southern Indiana. Diseases of 
the heart, arteries, stroke, respiratory system and cancer have all been 
linked by various studies with air pollution. Counties indicating high 
concentrations of three or more air-pollution-related diseases during at 
least four out of the five years studied from 1971-1975 are indicated 
on Figure 4. It is interesting to note that verifiable air monitors are 
not located in some counties with relatively high sulfur dioxide emissions 
while other low emission counties such as Bartholomew and Monroe have 
air monitors in operation. Many of the diseased counties are also rela- 



Environmental Quality 



239 



POWER PLANTS 
SOUTHERN INDIANA 
1975 




(9)VS) ©(g) O POWER PLANT SITE 



C 1C ?0 MILES 

I .... 1 I 



tively rural and located downwind from high level industrial activity 
or coal-fired power plants. Prevailing winds within the area studied 
are from the southwest during summer and from the northwest dur- 
ing winter months. Results of this investigation concerning the geo- 
graphic distribution of pollution-related diseases 1971-1975 revealed the 
following. 

Heart Deaths. Southern Indiana counties indicating death rates 
considerably higher than the Indiana state average are: Clay, Parke,* 
Sullivan,* Vermillion,* Vigo, Greene,* Lawrence, Owen, Dearborn, Ohio, 
Ripley,* Switzerland,* Daviess,* Gibson,* Knox,* Martin, Pike,* Craw- 
ford,* Orange, Washington,* Posey, Spencer, Vandergurgh. Vermillion, 
Sullivan, Parke, Pike and Gibson counties indicate highest death rates 
due to heart disease. Heart death rates in some of these counties are 
80-95% above Indiana state averages 1971-1975. 

Stroke Deaths. Counties indicating particularly high rates of stroke 
deaths 1971-1975 are: Clay,* Parke,* Sullivan,* Vermillion,* Vigo, 



240 



Indiana Academy of Science 



AIR POLLUTION AND DISEASE 
SOUTHERN INDIANA 

MAJOR POINT SOURCES 
SULPHUR DIOXIDE 



NUMBER INDICATES EMISSION 
RANKING WITHIN THE STATE. 




V? 



C 10 20 MILES 
I ■ ■ < ' I I 



41 



100 000+ TONS/YEAR 



50 000 - 100 000 TONS/YEAR 



30 000 - 50 000 TONS/YEAR 



Greene, * Lawrence, Owen,* Dearborn, Decatur, Daviess, Knox,* Pike,* 
Crawford, Harrison, Orange, Perry, Posey, Spencer, Vanderburgh.* 
Highest stroke death rates occur in Sullivan and Clay counties. Stroke 
deaths in some of these counties are 100-245% above Indiana state rates 
1971-1975. 

Arterial Deaths. Counties indicating unusually high death rates 
due to arterial disease are : Clay, Parke,* Sullivan, Vermillion,* Vigo, 
Dearborn, Jackson, Jefferson, Ohio, Daviess,* Gibson,* Knox,* Pike,* 
Perry, Posey,* Spencer* and Vanderburgh.* Highest death rates are 
indicated in Parke, Sullivan, Vermillion, Jefferson, Ohio, Gibson, Knox, 
Pike, Spencer and Vanderburgh. Some of these counties are 50-100% 
above the state rates for deaths due to arterial disease 1971-1975. 



Environmental Quality 



241 



MAJOR POINT SOURCES SULFUR DIOXIDE 

INDIANA 
COUNTY RANKING 



EMISSIONS 
TONS/YEAR 



°JEFFERSON + 1 

°WARRICK 2 

LAKE + 3 

°DEARBORN 4 

°PIKE 5 

MARION + 6 

°VERMILLION 7 

PORTER 8 

°VIGO + 9 

°FLOYD + 10 

LAPORTE + 11 

°SULLIVAN 12 

°GIBSON 13 

°KNOX 14 
°VANDERBURGH + 
°MONROE + 
°DUBOIS + 
°BARTHOLOMEW + 
°CLARK + 
°PARKE + 



°Located within Southern Indiana Health Systems Agency area 
+ State or U. S. EPA ambient air monitors present 

Source : U. S. EPA Emission Inventory 1975 



267 798 


229 


258 


199 


67 6 


U7 890 


146 


034 


130 


664 


108 


738 


91 


472 


89 


573 


85 


869 


70 


697 


65 


367 


39 


494 


31 


451 


5 


418 


5 


019 


2 


784 




209 




91 








Fig. 3 

Emphysema Deaths. Counties indicating emphysema death rates 
considerably above the Indiana state rates are : Clay,* Vermillion,* 
Vigo,* Greene, Decatur, Ohio, Daviess,* Knox,* Pike, Floyd, Vander- 
burgh. Highest death rates from emphysema occurred in Clay, Ver- 
million, Ohio, Knox, Floyd and Vanderburgh Counties. Emphysema 
death rates in some of these counties are 60-200 ( A above the state rate 
for the period 1971-1975. 

Pneumonia Deaths. Counties indicating pneumonia death rates con- 
siderably above the stage averages are: Vermillion, Vigo,* Greene, 
Lawrence,* Decatur,* Jefferson,* Ohio, Switzerland,* Knox,* Craw- 
ford,* Orange,* Scott,* Perry, Spencer. Highest pneumonia death rates 
are found in Vermillion, Decatur, Switzerland, Orange, Perry and 



242 



Indiana Academy of Science 



AIR POLLUTION AND DISEASE 
SOUTHERN INDIANA 



HEART. ARTERIES. STROKE. 
EMPHYSEMA. PNEUMONIA. CANCER 

1971-1975 




20 MILES 
_l 



/A DEATH RATE MORE THAN 30% ABOVE 
^ STATE RATE 4 OUT OF 5 YEARS 
STUDIED IN 3 OR MORE DISEASES. 



Spencer counties. Pneumonia death rates in some of these counties are 
75-100% above the Indiana state rates 1971-1975. 

Cancer Deaths. Counties indicating cancer death rates (all types 
combined) considerably above the Indiana state rates are: Clay,* Parke, 
Sullivan, Vermillion,* Vigo, Greene, Owen, Brown, Jackson, Gibson, 
Knox, Pike, Crawford, Floyd, Orange, Vanderburgh. Highest cancer 
death rates are indicated in Clay, Vermillion, Gibson, Knox, Pike and 
Vanderburgh Counties. Cancer death rates in some of these counties are 
30-50% above the Indiana state rates 1971-1975. A similar pattern of 
diseased counties is also indicated by unusually high concentrations of 
cancer of connective tissue as revealed in the Atlas of Cancer Mortality. 
(11) According to that study, Vanderburgh County has a larynx cancer 



* Counties with asterisk have mortality rates more than 30% above Indiana State 
Rate, four out of five years studied. 



Environmental Quality 243 

mortality in the top 10 percentile of the country. Detailed information 
concerning cancer type, age, race, occupation, residence, and smoking 
habits were not available from the Indiana State Board of Health. 
Correlation of cancer type with particular pollutants is presently limited 
by lack of data. 

Adjustments: 

The authors realize that the air-pollution-correlated diseases (heart, 
arteries, stroke, emphysema, pneumonia and cancer), are also most often 
thought of as being the diseases of people over 45 years of age. It is 
for this reason that in Figure 4 we plotted only those counties that 
have death rates for these diseases that are 30% or higher than the 
Indiana state rate, for four out of five years studied in three or more 
diseases studied. The difference in the percent of the population over 
age 45 in the counties reported and the percent of the population over 
age 45 for the state is never more than 10. In this manner we believe 
that we have corrected for age where detailed mortality data was not 
available. Corrections for other variables such as occupation and smoking 
habits were limited by lack of data. However, death rates for air- 
pollution-related diseases are higher in southern Indiana than those 
found in northern Indiana. 

Conclusions: 

1. Numerous studies have concluded that air pollution causes or is 
linked with human disease. 

2. Diseases most commonly associated with air pollution are those of 
the respiratory and circulatory system. 

3. Air pollutants most commonly associated with human disease are 
sulfates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons par- 
ticulates and heavy metals. 

4. Studies have shown that the acidity of the rainfall in southern 
Indiana has increased by more than ten-fold between 1956 and 1972. 

5. Other studies have shown that in 1974 the sulfate concentrations 
in southern Indiana (western portion) ranged from 10-14 ,ug/m 3 
and in the eastern portion of southern Indiana to be greater than 
15 Mg/m. 8 At levels of 6-10 ^g/ 3 (24-hour exposure) four 
studies have shown increased asthma attacks and at levels 
greater than 13 ,ug/m H (several years exposure) four studies 
have shown increased acute respiratory diseases in children. The 
major source of airborne sulfates is from coal-fired power genera- 
tion. By 1990 computer studies have indicated that the sulfate levels 
in the Ohio River Valley should reach greater than 25 /tig/m 3 . At 
these levels (24-hour exposure) four studies show that increased 
mortality can be expected. 

6. State air monitoring data in Indiana is widely scattered and covers 
5-10 years of recent history. Prior to that time limited data is 
available. Many of the major air pollutants affecting human health 
are not consistently monitored at state monitors. Local air monitor- 
ing is frequently provided by industry, and is not verifiable by 
the state. 



244 Indiana Academy of Science 

7. Morbidity data is not collected on a consistent basis throughout 
southern Indiana. Attenpts to correlate air pollution levels with 
hospital admission and discharge data were halted by lack of 
specific data necessary in both the air quality and the health fields. 

8. Morbidity and mortality of children is thought to be the best monitor 
of air quality through clinic or hospital admission and discharge 
data. Most children are not exposed to extensive smoking or occu- 
pational health hazards, minimizing the statistical effects of these 
important variables in epidemiological studies. 

9. Cancer statistics are thought to be the most accurately diagnosed 
and reported. 

10. High rates of sulphur dioxide emissions are concentrated in several 
southern Indiana counties that are presently unmonitored by state 
or federal agencies. 

11. Coal-fired power generation is the principal source of sulfur dioxide. 

12. The uneven geographic distribution of death due to air-pollution- 
related diseases in southern Indiana counties indicates that these 
areas should be investigated in detail to determine whether air pol- 
lution is the cause of the excess deaths revealed by this study. 

Recommendations : 

1. Indiana health and air quality data should be made readily available 
to study groups. The limited amount of data, as well as the expense 
and difficulty in retrieving data, is stifling to detailed, long-range 
investigations. 

2. State-operated air monitors should be located in the counties most 
affected by air-pollution-related diseases and in counties already 
indicating high levels of disease-related air pollutants. 

3. Clinic and hospital admission data should be standardized, col- 
lected and correlated with air pollution levels in southern Indiana. 
This should be a continuing air-health monitoring program between 
health offices, physicians and hosiptals in southern Indiana. Data 
collected should include mortality and morbidity by zip code, occu- 
pation and smoking habits. This program should be designed to 
determine the impact of air pollution levels on morbidity and 
mortality. 

4. Current air pollution regulations should be vigorously enforced so 
that the health of southern Indiana residents can be protected. 



Literature Cited 

Boyle, Robert H. 1979. Malignant Neglect, Environmental Defense Fund. Alfred A. 
Knopf, New York, Publisher, p. 268. 

Coffin, David and Herbert E. Stokinger. 1977. "Biological Effects of Air Pol- 
lutants." Air Pollution, Vol. 2, 3rd Ed., Academic Press, Inc., New York. pp. 231- 
360. 

U. S. Department of Energy, March 1978, "Decision Series," U. S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, EPA-600/9-77-041. 



Environmental Quality 245 

4. Fairchild, Glen A. 1976. Relationship to Ambient Air Quality Criteria, ASME Pollu- 
tion Control Division, National Sympcsium, St. Louis, Missouri, 4th, pp. 45-57. 

5. Ferris, B. G., Jr., F. E. Speizer, Y. Bishop, and J. D. Spengler. 1977. "Air Pol- 
lutants and Health — An Epidemiologic Approach." Environmental Science and Tech- 
nology, Vol. 11, pp. 648-650. 

6. Herman, Stewart W. 1977. "The Health Costs of Air Pollution," A Survey of 
Studies Published 1967-1977. American Lung Association, New York, N.Y. 135 pp. 

7. Kitabatake, M., K. Yoshida, and M. Imai. Nov., 1975. "On The Decrease of Sulfur 
Oxides and Time Change of Respiratory Diseases in Yokkaichi Area." J. Japan Soc. 
Air Pollution, p. 495. 

8. Lave, Lester B. and Eugene P. Seskin. March-April 1979. "Epidemiology Casualty 
and Public Policy." American Scientist, Vol. 67, pp. 178-186. 

9. Lave, Lester B., Eugene P. Seskin, and Michael J. Chappie. 1977. "Disag- 
gregated Mortality Rates 1960 and 1961." Air Pollution and Human Health. The 
Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 53-76. 

10. MacCracken, M. July 1979. Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution 
Study— Map 3S— Progress Report For FY 1977 and 1978, DOE/EV-0040, p. 310. 

11. Mason, T. J., F. W. McKay, R. Hoover, W. J. Blot, and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr. 
1975. Atlas of Cancer Mortality For U. S. Counties 1950-1969. U. S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

12. Sawyer, James W. May 1977. "A Skeptical Evaluation of the Sulfate Problem." 
J. Metals, pp. 11-17. 

13. Spencer, H. Personal Communication, 1979. University of Louisville, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. 

14. Stukel, J. J. and B. R. Keenan. 1977. Ohio River Basin Energy Study— ORBES 
Phase I— EPA-600/7-77-12, Washington, D.C, p. 53. 

15. Tzukamoto, C. S., H. Akita, Serizawa, K. Hirabayashi. 1975. "Air Pollution and 
Infantile Symptoms of Cold," Part 2. J. Child Health, p. 262. 



Fractionating Particulate Studies in Indianapolis, Indiana II. 
Comparative Studies of Ambient Particulate Sampling Methods 

Richard L. Edmonds and Thad J. Godish 
Indiana State Board of Health and Department of Natural Resources 

Ball State University 

Introduction 

In a two-year comparative study of cascade impactor and hi-vol 
particulate sampling in Indianapolis, Indiana we observed significantly 
higher total suspended particulate (TSP) values on cascade impactor 
samples (1). Geometric means were twice those of the hi-vol and 
greatly exceeded the annual National Ambient Air Quality Standards 
(NAAQS) for particulates. In that study the hi-vol particulate sampling 
method was apparently less efficient in particle collection than the 
cascade impactor. Those results were significant in that the hi-vol is the 
USEPA reference method for the particulate air quality standard. 

Recently USEPA has taken preliminary steps to revise the NAAQS 
for particulates to include an inhalable particulate standard to more 
accurately assess the health consequences of ambient particulate concen- 
trations (2, 4). An inhalable particulate standard will require a refer- 
ence sampling method which fractionates particles into discrete aero- 
dynamic size ranges so that the inhalable (<15 micrometers) and 
respirable fractions (<2.5 micrometers) can be determined. Several 
fractionating sampling methods are currently available including cascade 
and virtual impactors. At the present time the virtual impactor is per- 
ceived to be the leading candidate for the inhalable particulate reference 
sampling method (4). The cascade and virtual impactors differ somewhat 
in design and particle fractionating ability. The virtual impactor sepa- 
rates particles into 2 fractions, those less than 2.5 micrometers and those 
between 2.5 and 15 micrometers. The cascade impactor separates par- 
ticles into 5 fractions with no definite upper cutoff limit. Because of 
the differences observed between hi-vol and cascade impactor values in a 
previous study and the projected use of virtual impactors as an inhalable 
particulate reference method concurrent hi-vol, cascade impactor and 
virtual impactor studies were carried out to compare the performance 
of these sampling methods under similar atmospheric conditions. 

Methods 

Concurrent hi-vol, cascade and virtual impactor sampling was con- 
ducted in downtown Indianapolis, Indiana during a two-week period. 
Particulate samples were collected for each instrument on 7 sampling 
days during late May and early June of 1979. Samples were collected 
for 24 hours. Filters from all instruments were collected within 5 min- 
utes of sample completion. All filters were dessicated in a conditioned 
environment for 24 hours for pre- and post-sampling weighing of filters. 

The cascade impactor (Anderson Model 2000) collected ambient 
particulates into five aerodynamic particle diameter size ranges. The 
effective lower cutoff diameters for the flow rate employed, 0.57 m 3 /min, 

246 



Environmental Quality 247 

were 5.5, 2.4, 1.75, and 0.93 micrometers for the four impactor stages; 
particles less than 0.93 micrometers were collected by a backup filter. 
The inhalable fraction <15 micrometers, was determined graphically 
using the method of Regan et al. (3). Perforated Gelman type A glass 
fiber filters were used in the first four stages; a Gelman type A, 20 x 25 
centimeter glass fiber filter was used as a backup. 

The virtual impactor (Sierra Series 244 Dichotomous Sampler) sep- 
arated particles into two aerodynamic size ranges <2.5 micrometers and 
2.5 to 15 micrometers. Thirty-seven millimeter glass fiber membrane 
filters were utilized to collect particles from both stages. The flow rate 
for the small particle fraction, <2.5 micrometers, was 0.1 m 3 /hr (CMH) 
and 0.9 CMH for the larger particle fraction, 2.5 to 15 micrometers. 

The hi-vol was operated at a flow rate of 1.13-1.70 m 3 /min using 
a Gelman type A, 20 x 25 centimeter glass fiber filter. 

A quality assurance check was conducted on all instruments before 
and after each sampling period. 

All samplers were located approximately 15 meters above ground 
level on top of the Indiana State Board of Health building in downtown 
Indianapolis. The area around the sampling site is characterized by 
commercial and residential buildings. Major industrial sources are 
located 0.7 kilometers to the west and 3 kilometers to the southeast. 

Differences between geometric means for TSP, inhalable and respir- 
able fractions were evaluated by a two-way analysis of variance, 
Duncan's multiple range test and a paired Student's t-test. An alpha 
level of 0.05 was accepted as significant. The degree of correlation 
between sampling methods was determined by simple linear regression 
analysis. 

Results 

The mass concentrations (/-ig/m 3 ) of total suspended particulates 
(TSP), inhalable (<15 micrometers) and respirable (<2.5 micrometers) 
particulate fractions sampled with concurrently operated hi-vol, virtual 
and cascade impactor sampling instruments were compared. Geometric 
means for these data are summarized in Table 1. Significant differences 
between sampling methods were observed. TSP values measured on the 
cascade impactor were significantly higher (71% higher) than hi-vol 
TSP and virtual impactor inhalable patriculate values (15% higher). 
The virtual impactor inhalable values were also significantly higher 

Table 1. Geometric means (ug/m' A ) and standard deviations for TSP, inhalable (<^15 

micrometers) and respirable (<C2.5 micrometers) fraction data for concurrent hi-vol, 

virtual and cascade impactor particulate sampling. 

Respirable 
Sampling Method TSP Inhalable Fraction Fraction 

hi-vol 88.66 ± 1.34 

virtual impactor! 131.87 ± 1.26 74.47 ± 1.51 

cascade impactor 151.41 ± 1.39 129.45* 87.10 ± 1.51 

* Calculated 



248 Indiana Academy of Science 

(49%) than hi-vol TSP. No significant differences between inhalable or 
respirable fractions were observed for virtual and cascade impactors. 
Correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the degree of 
association between sampling methods. These comparisons are sum- 
marized in Table 2. Since the geometric mean for the cascade impactor 
inhalable fraction was calculated, correlation coefficients between inhal- 
able fractions are not presented in Table 2. Differences between geo- 
metric means as seen in Table 1 are slight and a high correlation 
coefficient would have been expected. A high degree of correlation 
( + .94) between hi-vol TSP and cascade impactor TSP values was 
observed even though cascade impactor TSP values were significantly 
higher (71%). A high degree of correlation ( + .85) was also observed 
between virtual and cascade impactor respirable fractions. Little or no 
correlation was osberved between hi-vol TSP and virtual impactor 
inhalable particulates. This was also true of cascade impactor TSP and 
virtual impactor inhalable particulates. 

Table 2. Coefficient of correlation between particulate sampling methods. 



Correlation coefficient 



hi-vol TSP vs. virtual impactor inhalable + .26 

hi-vol TSP vs. cascade impactor TSP + .94 

virtual impactor inhalable vs. cascade impactor TSP + .31 

virtual impactor respirable vs. cascade impactor respirable + .85 



Discussion 

The large differences observed between cascade impactor and hi-vol 
TSP values are in agreement with our previous study. Results presented 
here provide some insight as to why these differences may exist. Several 
observations are important in explaining this result. These include: (1) 
the high degree of correlation between hi-vol and cascade impactor TSP 
measurements, (2) the apparent lack of correlation between cascade 
impactor TSP and virtual impactor inhalable particulates and (3) the 
equivalent inhalable particulate levels for cascade and virtual impactors. 

Differences between cascade impactor TSP and virtual impactor 
particulate values can be almost entirely explained by the collection 
ability of cascade impactors for particles with aerodynamic diameters 
greater than 15 micrometers. Graphical analysis of cascade impactor 
data indicates that 15% of particulate mass is in excess of 15 microm- 
eters, corresponding exactly with the difference in mass concentration 
between cascade impactor TSP and virtual impactor inhalable partic- 
ulates. It is therefore apparent that the low degree of correlation 
between cascade impactor TSP and virtual impactor inhalable particulate 
values are due to day to day fluctuations in particulates larger than 15 
micrometers. This is corroborated by the lower geometric standard devia- 
tions for virtual impactor inhalable fraction data. Since hi-vol and 
cascade impactors both have the capability to collect particulates in 
excess of 15 micrometers, it appears that the high correlation between 
hi-vol and cascade impactor TSP values are also due to the day to day 



Environmental Quality 249 

fluctuations in large particulates. From these obervations the authors 
are inclined to conclude that differences observed in hi-vol and cascade 
impactor TSP are due to differential abilities of these two methods 
to collect small particles, possibly those that are less than 1 micrometer. 
Less efficient collection of submicron particles may be due in part to the 
high flow rates used in hi-vol operation. Under higher flow rates or 
airstream velocity very small, presumably submicron particles would be 
expected to squeeze between filter fibers; the higher the flow rate the 
greater the loss of submicron particles. The higher collection efficiency 
of submicron particles on the cascade impactor may be further aug- 
mented by the catalytic oxidation of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides 
to sulfates and nitrates on collected submicron particles. 

Graphical analysis of cascade impactor data resulted in calculated 
inhalable particulate values equal to those measured by the virtual 
impactor method. This indicates that the cascade impactor can be 
used as an equivalent method for inhalable particulate measurement. 



Literature Cited 

1. Edmonds, R. L. and T. J. Godish. Fractionating particulate studies in Indianapolis, 
Indiana. Presented to the 72nd annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Associa- 
tion. Cincinnati, Ohio, June 24-29, 1979. 

2. Miller, F. J., D. E. Gardner, Judith Graham, R. E. Lee, Jr., W. E. Wilson, 
and J. D. Bachman. 1979. Size considerations for establishing a standard for inhalable 
particles. Jour. Air Poll. Control Assoc. 29:610-615. 

3. Regan, G. F., S. K. Goranson, and Linda Larson. 1979. Use of tape samplers as 
fine particulate monitors. Jour. Air Poll. Control Assoc. 29:1158-1160. 

4. USEPA. Development plan for particulate matter. Research Triangle Park. June 13, 
1979. 15 pp. 



Airborn Particulates Baseline of a Surface Coal Mine Expansion Area 

R. A. Llewellyn and M. J. Llewellyn 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 

Experiment Definition 

We recently concluded a year-long study to measure the existing 
baseline particulate concentrations in the atmosphere in an area sched- 
uled for coal surface mining operations. 

The area of interest was several thousand acres located about 10 
miles east of Terre Haute. A system of five high volume samplers was 
installed to cover the area as shown in Figure 1. One of the high vols, 
the one designated Mitchell on the map, was fitted with a cascade 
impactor to measure the size distribution of the suspended particulates 
collected. In addition, the high volume samplers were augmented by a 
pattern of six dustfall buckets to collect settleable particulates. In the 
approximate center of the area of interest an automated weather station 
was established to record precipitation, wind speed and direction, temper- 
ature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure. 

The project's high volume samplers were run for 24-hour intervals 
(midnight to midnight) every six days to coincide with the sampling 
schedule followed by the Vigo County Air Pollution Control Board air 
quality monitoring program. All five units were operated simultaneously. 
The standard filters used were maintained in a drying oven at 105 °C both 



CHINOOK 
AIR 



MINE EXPANSION 
QUALITY STUDY 




\ 



X Hi Vol Air Sampler 

® Hi Vol with Cascade Impactor . — ^STAUNTOlN 
A Dust Fall Bucket ' 

WS Weather Station 




A 




250 



Environmental Quality 



251 



before and following- use. All units were calibrated according to ASTM 
standards. 

The dustfall buckets for collecting settleable particulates were 
mounted, guarded, and collected according to ASTM standards. Samples 
were collected from the buckets every 30 days and analyzed as per the 
standards. 

Weather data collected during the study (1 June 1975 through 31 
May 1976) were for the most part typical of average value records 
maintained at Indiana State University. For this reason the experi- 
mental results are expected to be generally applicable to the study area 
over time. 

Data Displays 

Several data displays were utilized in interpreting the results. 
Examples of the most useful of these are shown for the high volume 
sampler at the Jeffers site in Figures 2, 3, and 4. Figure 2, Suspended 
Particulates Concentration (^g/m 8 ) vs. Time (days) is more or less 
typical of the corresponding graphs for the other sites. It shows generally 
higher levels during the summer and fall and lower levels during the 
winter. 

Figure 3 is a Concentration Histogram of the number of occurrences 
in intervals 10 ^g/m 8 . It indicates the most probable concentration during 
the year to be 40-50 /xg/m 8 at this site. 



160- 

^ 140 

E 

c 

a. 

-' 120 - 

2 
O 

t- 
<f 

ce 

t; ioo- 

o 

o 
o 

u 80 

< 

_l 
3 
O 

a 60- 
a. 

Q 

u 

Q 

a. 
in 

z> 

20 



FIGURE 2. 

SUSPENDED PARTICULATES 
SITE JEFFERS FARM 




252 



Indiana Academy of Science 



16- 



14- 



12- 



(/) 
UJ 
O 

< 

Z) 
O 
O 
O 



O 

CC 
LiJ 
CD 



10- 



8- 



6- 



4- 



2- 



FIGURE 3 . 

CONCENTRATION FREQUENCY 
SITE JEFFERS 






20 



40 



60 



80 



100 



120 



I 1 

140 150 > 150 



CONCENTRATION RANGE (yug/nr 



Figure 4 shows the Frequency Distribution Analysis which illus- 
trates the percent of concentration range occurrences smaller than a 
given concentration. At the Jeffers site; e.g., 90% of the measurements 
yielded concentrations less than 102 ^g/m 3 . The impactor frequency 
distribution analysis of samples collected at the Mitchell site, shown 
Figure 5, indicates that 75% of the suspended particulates to be smaller 
than 2.1 x 10~ 6 m. 

Results 

The results of the study are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. They 
indicate that suspended particulate concentrations in the test area did 
not exceed national and Indiana primary standards during the test 
year. However, the value of the annual geometric mean at one site (MF), 
when considered together with the direction of prevailing winds and 
the location of the expected mining activity suggests that the national 
primary standard may be exceeded, perhaps by a substantial margin, 
during mining operations. That particular site was also noteworthy in 
that the 24-hour primary and secondary standards were both exceeded 
several times during the test year. Federal regulations permit only 
one such occurrence annually. Careful monitoring and control will be 



Environmental Quality 



253 



FIGURE 



FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS 
SITE JEFFERS 



lOO-i 



90- 




140 150 >I50 



CONCENTRATION RANGE (jug/m 3 ) 



necessary if surface mining operations in this area are to be in com- 
pliance with existing standards. 

Table 1. Annual mean particulate concentrations. 



Hi Vol Site 



Annual Mean 
Concentration ng/m 3 



SHS 

MF 

Mitchell 

Card 

Jeffers 



49.40 
71.49 
31.40 
49.64 
52.85 



254 



Indiana Academy of Science 





' FIGURE 5. 


















\ 
\ 










SI 


SP 


-:nded parti 

SIZE Dl 


STR 


ATE 
IBU 


s 

TIC 


)N 




- 


































































































/ 


1 






























/ 
































1 

1 




























/ 


1 




























/ 


/ 
/* 













































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 

% SMALLER THAN INDICATED SIZE 



99.9 99 99 



Table 2. Number of times 24-hour standard was exceeded during year. 



Site 



Primary (260 ^g/m^) 



Secondary ( 150 ^g/m 8 ) 



SHS 

MF 

Mitchell 

Gard 

Jeffers 






A New Water Treatment System for the Removal of Chloroform and 
Other Volatile Organics from Drinking Water 

Howard E. Dunn, Indiana State University, Evansville 

Robert L. Koch II, Ashdee Division, George Koch Sons, Inc. 

Evansville, Indiana 

Background 

Chlorination is by far the most widely practiced method of water 
purification in the United States. It has been utilized since the turn 
of the century and has virtually eliminated the transmittal of once 
common and deadly water-born diseases. In recent years, however, 
studies have been made that implicate this method of water treat- 
ment as a contributor to the death rate due to certain types of cancer. 
It has been found that this method of water treatment leads to the 
production of chloroform, a known carcinogen. Organic chemical con- 
tamination of drinking waters is not new. Middleton and Rosen (5) 
reported organics in drinking water as early as 1956. The concern for 
organic chemical contamination of drinking water was brought to the 
public's eye when Robert Harris (4) published a paper entitled, "Is 
the Water Safe to Drink? Part 1: The Problem." This paper called 
attention to the data contained in a rather obscure United States 
Environmental Protection Agency Report (2). These reports prompted 
further study that finally led to the discovery of 86 specific organic 
chemicals in the New Orleans drinking water (3). Following the report 
that some chemical carcinogens had been found in some Louisiana 
drinking water supplies, several epidemiological studies were conducted 
(1) (8) (9). These studies concluded that those parishes that derive 
their drinking water from the Mississippi River have higher cancer 
rates. 

After some of the initial findings the EPA conducted a national 
survey of 80 water supplies, and found the universal problem of chloro- 
form contamination following purification by chlorination. Other halo- 
forms were formed as well, such as dichlorobromomethane, chlorodi- 
bromomethane and bromoform; all formed during the water purification 
process. The organic chemical usually found in highest concentration 
was chloroform. The National Cancer Institute completed a study on 
chloroform and found it to be carcinogenic (7). Using the standard 
methods for carcinogenic testing, they found a dose response relationship 
for epithelia tumors of the kidneys and renal pelvis in the rat, and 
hepatocellular carcinomas in mice. The latency period for the carcino- 
genic effects decreased as the dose increased. Other studies have also 
shown this effect; therefore, chloroform presents a potential carcinogenic 
risk to humans. The National Academy of Science (6) calculated the 
risk at the upper 95% confidence level. They estimate the risk at 
1.5 x 10~ 5 at an average two liters consumption of water, with 21 /xg/1 
[median concentration in the NORS study (11)] of chloroform for a 
lifetime. This corresponds to one excess cancer for every 66,666 persons 

255 



256 Indiana Academy of Science 

exposed for a lifetime. The National Academy of Sciences suggested 
that strict criteria be applied when limits for chloroform in drinking 
water are established. The EPA proposed that all cities of populations 
over 75,000 must have haloforms (chloroform and others) in concentra- 
tions of less than 100 fig /I. After public comment, the EPA changed 
their regulation to include all cities of over 10,000 people. 

Experimental 

Table 1 shows the amount of chloroform and other haloforms that 
were found in selected Indiana cities (10). It should be noticed that the 
raw water supply frequently did not contain chloroform and other halo- 
forms, but the finished water contained chloroform in all cases. Thus, 
the water purification systems are making chloroform. Not only is 
chloroform produced during the treatment process, but it also continues 
to build up in concentration as it passes through the distribution system 
( Figure 1 ) . 

Table 1. Raiv and finished water analysis for selected Indiana cities. 





Indiana 




CHCls 


Br 


CHCk 


Brs 


CHC1 


BraCH 


Cities 




R 


F 


R 


F 


R 


F 


R 


F 


Bedford 




5 


84 


nf 


12 


nf 


.8 


nf 


.8 


Bloomington 




nf 


19 


nf 


5 


nf 


.5 


nf 


<.3 


Evansville 




nf 


29 


nf 


12 


nf 


1.7 


nf 


1 


Fort Wayne 




4 


29 


nf 


.7 


nf 


.4 


nf 


1 


Gary 




nf 


7 


nf 


5 


nf 


1 


nf 


<5 


Hammond 




nf 


4 


nf 


<5 


nf 


<.5 


nf 


<5 


Indianapolis 




nf 


19 


nf 


6 


nf 


.5 


nf 


.6 


Kokomo 




9 


30 


nf 


11 


nf 


1.4 


nf 


.3 


Lafayette 




nf 


5 


nf 


1 


nf 


.3 


nf 


.6 


Mt. Vernon 




nf 


18 


nf 


9 


nf 


1.2 


nf 


.9 


Muncie 




nf 


31 


nf 


17 


nf 


1 


nf 


.5 


R = Raw Water 








F = 


= Finished 


Water 






nf = <1 


microgram 


per liter 

















A water sample was collected from a municipal water plant approxi- 
mately one hour after the chlorine had been added. The sample was 
stored in a baked-out bottle in order to simulate the time it would spend 
in distribution system. The water sample was analyzed periodically for 
chloroform. Marbles were added to replace the volume removed by 
taking an aliquot. This allowed the bottle to remain liquid-full so that 
there would be no evaporation loss due to head space. It can be seen 
by examination of Figure 1 that the chloroform concentration increased 
with elapsed time. About 50% of the maximum chloroform concentration 
was attained after 2 x /z hours, 70% after 5% hours, 80% after 10 hours, 
and 90% after 21 hours. We believe that the chloroform problem is 
greater than the EPA 80-city survey suggests. The concentrations in the 
distribution system would in all probability be higher than at the water 
treatment plant. 

If the chloroform is allowed to build up to its maximum concentra- 



Environmental Quality 



257 




£10 



10 



20 



30 



40 50 

TIME (HOURS) 



tion and then subjected to "aeration," the chloroform concentration is 
substantially reduced. A water sample was collected from a municipal 
water plant and allowed to stand in a baked-out capped bottle for 
24 hours. A 1500 ml portion of this sample was analyzed and then 
nitrogen was passed through it at a rate of 15 ft 3 /hour for 20 minutes. 
The "aerated" sample was found to contain 94% less chloroform, 91 ( /( 
less dichlorobromoethane, and 97% less chlorodibromomethane. This 
method is also very effective in the removal of methylene chloride, 
carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, bromoform, and other volatile 
organics from drinking water. 

Since we determined that the increase in chloroform concentration 
during holding of the municipal water sample terminated due to the 
depletion of chlorine, we did another determination keeping the chlorine 
concentration relatively constant during the holding period. It can be 
seen by examination of Figure 2 that there is a relatively rapid forma- 
tion of chloroform during the initial hours of holding, and then a decline 
in rate at later times. This would seem to indicate that there is more 
than one kind of reactive precursor. If the sample is "aerated" and 
then rechlorinated, chloroform again begins to form, except at a slower 
rate (Figure 2). 



258 



Indiana Academy of Science 




30 LO 

TIME (HOURS) 



If a water treatment plant were to be operated under these condi- 
tions one could expect to drink about 50% less chloroform than would 
be produced by a conventional process. By regulating the pH, tempera- 
ture of the water during chlorination, and holding times, one could 
achieve a range of reductions in formation of chloroform. 

A flow diagram of a proposed municipal water treatment is shown 
in Figure 3. 



CHLORINATION 














C II TC. 


miki^ 






rLUUUULHI IUI1 




r IL.I t miiu 




















1 








< 






' 










POST 
CHLORINATION 




HOLDING 






AERATION 




1 
| 










1 


MC 


IDIFIFn 


PROCES 


>S 




L 











Only very minor modifications of existing conventional water treatment 
plants would be necessary. The only two additional items would be a 
holding tank and an aeration unit. Both of these items are readily com- 
mercially available and the technology is well developed. The holding 
tank would be designed at a suffiicent size so that the requisite number 



Environmental Quality 259 

of hours needed for chloroform formation would pass as the water 
continually flowed through the reservoir. 

There are several other water purification methods presently being 
investigated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. 
They are all aimed at reducing the amount of chloroform and other 
organic chemicals presently found in our drinking water supplies. Some 
of these methods employ other disinfectants such as ozone and chlorine 
dioxide. Both of these methods suffer from the fact that they do not 
produce a residual protection for bacteria contamination after the water 
leaves the treatment plant. Both chemicals are effective disinfectants but 
have short half lives. Carbon filtration after conventional chlorination 
is also being examined. Preliminary results indicate that even though 
this method shows promise, it suffers from the fact that the chemical 
contaminants leech through after a few weeks, and the carbon has to 
be physically removed and replaced. The spent carbon then must be 
reactivated, which requires a great deal of energy. Continual replace- 
ment with new carbon would probably be too expensive. 

Aeration does not suffer from any of the above deficiencies. It 
would require only minor modification of our present water treatment 
systems, and would not require any sophisticated equipment or a 
change in the chemical disinfectant that has been so effective over the 
past several decades. 



Literature Cited 

1. DeRouen, T. A. and J. E. Diem, "The New Orleans Drinking Water Controversy: A 
Statistical Perspective." Am. J. Public Health, 65:1060 (1975). 

2. EPA Region VI, Analytical Report — Neiv Orleans Water Supply Study, EPA- 
906/9-75-003, Surveillance and Analysis Division, Dallas, Texas (1975). 

3. EPA Region VI, Industrial Pollution of the Lower Mississippi River In Louisiana, 
Survey and Analysis Division, Dallas, Texas (1972). 

4. Harris, R. H. and E. M. Breecher, "Is the Water Safe to Drink? Part 1: The Prob- 
lem," Consumer Report 39 (6) pp. 436-443 (June 1974). 

5. Middleton, F. M. and A. A. Rosen, "Organic Contaminants Affecting the Quality 
of Water," Public Health Reports. 71 (11) pp. 1125-1133 (1956). 

6. National Academy of Science, "Drinking Water and Health," Federal Register 42 
(132) 35764-35779 (July 11, 1977). 

7. National Cancer Institute, Report on the Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Chloroform 
(1976). 

8. Page, T., R. H. Harris, and S. S. Epstein, "Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality in 
Louisiana," Science 193:55 (1976). 

9. Page, T. A. and R. H. Harris, "The Implication of Cancer-Causing Substances in 
Mississippi River Water." A Report By the Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, 
D.C. 1974. 

10. Report to Congress, "Preliminary Assessment of Suspected Carcinogens in Drinking 
Water," U.S.E.P.A. Compiled by Office of Toxic Substances, Pages V-l through V-4, 
December 1975. 

11. Symons, J. M., T. A. Bellar, J. K. Carswell, J. DeMarco, K. L. Kropp, G. G. 
Robeck, D. R. Seeger, C. J. Slocum, B. L. Smith, and A. A. Stevens, "National 
Organics Reconnaissance Survey for Halogenated Organics," JAWWA 67(11) 634- 
647 (1975). 



Nitrification in the Wabash River 

Darrell W. Nelson 
Agronomy Department, Purdue University- 
Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate by specific auto- 
trophic bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp.) occurs in 
soil, water, and sewage when aerobic conditions are present. The con- 
version of one mole of ammonium to one mole of nitrate involves con- 
sumption of two moles of oxygen. In recent years considerable attention 
has been devoted to the effects of nitrification on the dissolved oxygen 
status of moderately polluted streams and rivers. Of most interest are 
nitrification rates in rivers downstream from municipal and industrial 
discharges containing substantial concentrations of ammonium, particu- 
larly during periods of low river flow. Nitrogeneous oxygen demand 
(NOD) in a stream would be most significant under conditions of 
high water temperatures (>20°), low flow, long residence time, and 
high substrate (ammonium) concentrations. As Tuffy et al. (1974) have 
stated, "nitrification occurring at a level significant enough so that 
it must be included in a dissolved oxygen or water quality model, does 
not occur along the entire length of a polluted river, but does occur in 
identifiable zones. 

Many of the models used to predict the dissolved oxygen status of 
a stream incorporate a NOD term. When dissolved oxygen models are 
appiled to many Indiana rivers, the oxygen uptake associated with 
ammonium oxidation appears to be a very significant factor in the 
overall oxygen balance in a river. Furthermore, high predicted NOD 
values in turn restrict the allowable discharge of carbonaceous oxygen 
demanding substances. Although models predict that NOD is an im- 
portant component in the dissolved oxygen status of Wabash River, 
little is known about actual nitrification in water or sediments. There- 
fore, the objective of the work reported here was to determine the 
populations of Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. associated with 
water, periphyton and bottom sediments in two segments of the middle 
Wabash River and to interpret the population data in terms of nitrifica- 
tion potential. 

Materials and Methods 

Three sampling trips were conducted (during June, July and Sep- 
tember, 1977) on each segment of the River studied. Table 1 presents 
locations where samples were taken. Water samples were collected 
15 cm below the surface using sterile 250 ml glass bottles. Samples of 
bottom sediments were collected by sucking the upper 1 cm of sediment 
into sterile 500 ml filtering flasks. Periphyton samples (~ 1 g dry 
weight) were taken by scrapping the slimy layer (present at or just 
below the water level) of rocks, logs, and plants located near shore into 
100 ml of sterile water contained in glass jars. Samples were taken 
from the center and both sides of the river at each sampling station. 

260 



Environmental Quality 261 

Table 1. Locations of sampling sites for water, periphyton, and bottom sediments on the 

Wabash River. 



Site 


Approximate 




No. 


mile point 


Descriptive location 


1 


313 


Mascouten Park, W. Lafayette 


2 


309% 


200 yards above Lilly outfall, Lafayette 


3 


309 


100 yards below Lilly outfall, Lafayette 


4 


308 


900 yards below Lilly outfall, Lafayette 


5 


307 


Fort Quiatenon 


6 


303 


Granville Bridge 


7 


300 


4 H Center 


8 


298 


Black Rock 


9 


240 


Montezuma 


10 


238 


Cottages 


11 


237 


Big Bend 


12 


236% 


100 yards below Lilly outfall, Clinton 


13 


236 


900 yards below Lilly outfall, Clinton 


14 


235 


1 mile below Lilly outfall 


15 


230 


Clinton RR Bridge 



All samples were placed on ice and stored at 4°C until analyses could 
be carried out (normally within 24 hours). 

Sediment and periphyton slurries were homogenized by a high speed 
blender using a sterile blade. Duplicate samples were taken from homog- 
enized slurries. One set of samples was dried at 105 °C for 24 hours, 
weighed, and the solids content calculated. Water samples and the 
other set of homogenized slurries were serially diluted in sterile dilution 
blanks (0 to 10 -4 and 10 _1 to 10~ r> dilutions for water samples and 
slurries, respectively). The populations of nitrifying bacteria were then 
determined by the MPN methods as described by Matulewich (1974), 
except that 5 replicate tubes per dilution were used. All values are 
averages of duplicate determinations. Abundance of nitrifying bacteria 
associated with sediment and periphyton is expressed as viable cells 
per mg of oven-dry solids, whereas bacterial populations in the water 
column are expressed as cells per ml. 

Results 

Table 2 presents data on the seasonal average nitrifier population 
in Wabash River taken near Lafayette. The high standard deviation 
results from averaging data collected throughout the summer and fall. 
In most cases, the numbers of nitrifying bacteria were low and the 
population of Nitrosomonas exceeded the Nitrobacter concentration by 
five to ten fold. There were indications of increased Nitrosomonas 
populations downstream from the Lafayette sewage treatment plant 
and Eli Lilly Company outfalls; however, the data are not conclusive. 
There was a strong tendency for the Nitrosomonas population to increase 
as the summer period progressed. However, this observation may be 
an artifact of the sampling scheme because samples collected late in 
the season may have been influenced by more recent runoff from agri- 
cultural land and would have been enriched with nitrifiers relative 
to samples collected in June. 



262 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 2. Nitrifying bacteria in Wabash River-water near Lafayette, Indiana. 



Sampling site No. /Location 



Nitrosomonas spp.* 



Nitrobacter spp.* 



river mile 
313 

309% 

309 

308 

307 

303 

300 

298 





Organisms/ml - 




3 ± 1 




3 ± 2 


19 ± 18 




2 ± 1 


51 ± 90 




4 ± 3 


46 ± 51 




4 ± 2 


69 ± 138 




2 ± 1 


31 ± 49 




5 ± 4 


23 ± 21 




3 ± 1 


57 + 92 




2 ± 2 



* Average and standard deviation for all samples analyzed. 

Nitrifying bacterial populations in water samples collected from 
the Clinton segment of the Wabash River are given in Table 3. The 
data obtained from the Clinton area were similar to that of the 
Lafayette segment confirming that the water phase contains low 
Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter populations. This finding suggests that 
nitrifying bacteria are present in low concentration throughout the 
middle Wabash River. There was no apparent trend toward increased 
population of nitrifying bacteria downstream from the Lilly Laboratory 
at Clinton. Populations of Nitrobacter spp. were uniformly low at all 
sampling periods and samples collected in September did not differ 
appreciably from those taken in June and July. 

Table 3. Nitrifying bacteria in Wabash River water near Clinton, Indiana. 



Sampling site No. /Location 



Nitrosomonas spp.* 



Nitrobacter spp.* 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



river mile 

240 

238 

237 

236% 

236 

235 

230 





Organisms/ml - 




16 ± 11 




3 ± 2 


28 ± 26 




2 ± 1 


18 ± 12 




2 ± 1 


51 ± 98 




3 ± 2 


27 ± 19 




5 ± 4 


20 ± 16 




2 ± 1 


17 ± 13 




1 ± 1 



* Average and standard deviation for all samples analyzed. 



Lafayette segment sediment samples collected from the water- 
bottom interface had substantial concentrations of nitrifying bacteria 
(Table 4). The population size was equal to or exceed the numbers 
found in agricultural soils, which suggests that sediments may be 
active sites of nitrification. Samples collected downstream from known 
ammonium discharges tended to have higher populations of Nitrosomonas 
than those upstream of the discharges. Samples collected in September 
had very high densities of Nitrosomonas spp. (<— < lO-Vmg). Sediment 
samples collected from the Clinton segment contained lower populations 
of nitrifying bacteria than samples collected near Lafayette (Table 5). 
There was a slight tendency for increased N Itrosomonas populations in 



Environmental Quality 



263 



sediment samples collected downstream from the Lilly discharge (June 
and July samples) as compared to upstream samples. On the average, 
samples collected in September contained higher populations of nitrify- 
ing bacteria than samples collected earlier in the summer. 



Table 4. Nitrifying bacteria in bottom sediments near Lafayette, Indiana. 



Sampling site No./Location 



Niti^osomonas spp.* 



Nitrobacter spp.* 


sedimer 

47 


it ■ 

± 51 


117 


± 94 


59 


± 49 


120 


± 51 


137 


± 70 


86 


± 94 


29 


± 21 


20 


± 9 



river mile 


Or 


313 


334 ± 481 


309% 


2753 ± 5747 


309 


2047 ± 1740 


308 


3498 ± 6711 


307 


2502 ± 3581 


303 


705 ± 898 


300 


893 ± 1184 


298 


1798 ± 3036 



* Average and standard deviation for all samples analyzed. 

On the average there were 1435 ± 2170 and 380 ± 436 Nitrosomonas 
spp. cells per mg of periphyton for samples in the Lafayette and Clinton 
segments, respectively. In addition, there were 139 ± and 163 and 
93 ± 42 Nitrobacter spp. cells per mg of periphyton in samples col- 
lected at Lafayette and Clinton, respectively. Although significant 
nitrifying bacterial populations are associated with periphyton, the 
low amount of periphyton present (it was difficult to even obtain 
enough periphyton for samples at many stations) in the middle Wabash 
precludes this river component from a significant role in nitrification. 

Table 5. Nitrifying bacteria in bottom sediments near Clinton, Indiana. 



Sampling site 


No./Location 




river mile 


9 


240 


10 


238 


11 


237 


12 


236 y 2 


13 


236 


14 


235 


15 


230 



Nitrosomonas spp.* 



Nitrobacter spp.* 



Organisms/mg sediment 

581 ± 1010 16 ± 10 

155 ± 114 21 ± 6 

137 ± 145 45 ± 36 

282 ± 261 13 ± 6 

342 ± 287 66 ± 75 

302 ±280 4 ± 1 

419 ± 369 14 ± 6 



* Average and standard deviation for all samples analyzed. 



Discussion 

The nitrification potential of the Wabash River is very low because of 
the low populations of nitrifying bacteria. The overall average popula- 
tion density of nitrifiers in the Wabash River was 38 Nitrosomonas 
spp. per ml and 2.8 Nitrobacter spp. per ml (NS/NB ratio was 13.6). 
Matulewich (1974) reported that the Passaic River in New Jersey con- 
tained an average of 476 and 32 Nitrosomovas and Nitrobacter per ml 
(NS/NB ratio was 15). Tuffy et al. (1974) found that 1300 Nitro- 



264 Indiana Academy of Science 

somonas per ml of Mine Brook water, a tributary of the Raritan River 
in New Jersey. Further study on the Passaic River (Finstein et al. 
1977) suggested that Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter cell densities were 
775 and 84 per ml, respectively. The low Nitrosomonas populations in 
the Wabash River suggests that nitrification in the water phase is 
insignificant. This fact is pointed out by the finding of Tuffy et al. 
(1974) indicating that at least 1CH Nitrosomonas cells per ml are re- 
quired before nitrification becomes rapid enough to exert a measureable 
oxygen demand. 

Kinetic data calculations may be used to estimate ammonium oxida- 
tion potential of Nitrosomonas in Wabash River water. McLaren (1971) 
has shown that the nitrification rate can be described mathematically 
by the relationship in Equation 1 : 

d(NH 4 ) „ 

dt = Cm M 

where C is the rate constant for ammonium oxidation (under ideal 
conditions it is about 7 x 10~ 6 fig N per cell per day — Knowles et al., 
1965) and m is the population of Nitrosomonas ; for example 10 2 cells /ml. 

d(NH 4 + ) 



dt 
d(NH 4 ) 



dt 



= (7xlO-6 M g N/cell/day) (10 2 cells/ml) 
= 7 x 10 4 fig N/ml/day 



+ 
Since it requires about 3.22 fig of 2 per fig of NH 4 -N oxidized, the 

oxygen consumption rate would be about 2.25 x 10 3 fig 0.,/ml/day. If 
the Wabash River contained 10 4 Nitrosomonas cells per ml the oxygen 
consumption rate would theoretically be about 0.225 fig 0.,/ml/day 
(0.225 mg Oo/l/day), a measurable oxygen demand in BOD tests. How- 
ever, the average Nitrosomonas population in the Wabash River is only 
32 calls/ml. This finding suggests that the low nitrifying bacteria 
population in Wabash River water eliminates nitrification as a signi- 

+ 
ficant sink for added NH 4 . 

Averaging the numbers of nitrifying bacteria in all sediment 
samples collected gave 1009 Nitrosomonas and 32 Nitrobacter cells per 
mg of sediment (NS/NB ratio was 31). Matulewich (1974) reported that 
the Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter populations in the Passaic River 
averaged 462 and 17 cells per mg of mud-water interface sediment, 
respectively. An average of 3370 Nitrosomonas cells per mg of sedi- 
ment was observed in Mine Brook, whereas the Passaic River sediment 
contained 264 Nitrosomonas cells/mg (Tuffy et al., 1974). In further 
studies of the Passaic River, Finstein (1977) reported that surface 
sediments contained an average of 3400 Nitrosomonas and 460 Nitro- 
bacter cells per mg (NS/NB ratio = 7.4). 

The upper layer of bottom sediments in the Wabash River supports 
an active nitrifying population. The problem to be rationalized is how 



Environmental Quality 265 

much nitrification actually occurs in the sediment phase or at the 
sediment-water interface. Crude estimates of benethic nitrification under 
ideal conditions can be arrived at if many assumptions are made. 

Assumptions 

1. About 10% of the river bottom area supports an active nitrify- 
ing bacteria (most of the surface is sand and gravel having 
limited nitrifying bacteria). 

2. The average river width is 200 m and the average depth is 1 m 
(a segment of the river 1 m long would contain 200 m 3 of 
water). 

+ 

3. The average concentration of NH 4 -N in the water column is 0.2 

Mg/ml (aim segment of the river would contain 40,000 mg of 

NH 4 -N). 

+ 

4. Only the NH 4 -N in the lower 10 cm of the water column can in- 
teract with the sediment. 

5. The bulk density of sediment is 1.25 g/cm 3 . 

6. The average Nitrosojnonas population of bottom sediment is 
10<Vg. 

Case I. The bottom 10 cm of the water column and the upper 4 cm of 

sediment behave as a slurry. 

+ 
The rate of reaction is not dependent upon diffusion of NH 4 -N 

to the nitrifiers and diffusion of 2 from the overlying water. 
Chen et at. (1972) found that under ideal conditions the maxi- 

+ 
num rate of NH 4 -N oxidation in aerated, stirred sediment 

+ 
slurries was 25/mg NH 4 -N/l/day. Therefore, using the as- 
sumptions above the maximum nitrification rate in a 1 m 
segment of the river bottom surface can be calculated as: 

200 m x 1 m x 0.1 = 20 m 2 of bottom surface with nitrifiers 
20 m 2 x 0.14 m depth = 2.8 m 3 of sediment slurry 

= 2.800 1 of sediment slurry 

2,800 1 of slurry x 25 /xg NH 4 -N/l/day = 70 mg NH 4 -N/day 
+ 
(1.8% of NH 4 -N in the slurry could be nitrified). 

+ 
Calculated oxygen demand would be: 70 mg NH 4 -N x 3.22 mg 

2 /mg NH 4 -N 
= 225.4 mg 2 consumed in 1 m segment 
= 225.4 mg O 2 /2800 of slurry = 0.008 mg 2 /l of slurry /day. 

Case II. Nitrification occurs at the water-sediment interface and the 
nitrifying bacteria involved are present in the upper 1 cm 
of sediment. 

Nitrification in a 1 m segment of the river may be calculated 
under ideal conditions as: 



266 Indiana Academy of Science 

200 m x 1 m x 0.1 = 20 m 2 of bottom sediment with nitrifiers. 

(20 m 2 ) (10 4 cm 2 /m 2 ) (1 cm deep) = 20 x 10 4 cm 3 of sediment 

with nitrifiers. 

(20 x 10 4 cm 3 ) (1.25 g sediment/cm 3 sediment) = 25 x 10 4 g 

sediment with nitrifiers. 

(25 x 10 4 g) (10 G nitrifying bacteria/g = 25 x 10 10 nitrifying 

bacteria. 

(25 x 10!0 bacteria) (7.15 x 10" 9 mg NH 4 -N/cell/day) 

= 1,790 mg NH 4 -N/day nitrified. 
+ 
About 4,000 mg NH 4 -N are present in the lower 10 cm of the 

+ 
water column (40,000 mg NH 4 -N are present in the 1 m deep 

+ 
water column). Therefore, about 45% of the NH 4 -N in bottom 

10 cm of water could be nitrified under ideal conditions. If 
this were the case, the 2 demand in the bottom 10 cm of 

water would be: (1790 mg NH 4 -N) x (3.22 mg 2 /mg NH 4 -N) 

= 5764 mg 2 consumed per day/2 x 10 4 1 of water. 

= 0.29 mg 2 consumed per liter of water per day. 

+ 
If all NH 4 -N in water had a chance to interact with sediment, 

+ 
under ideal conditions only 1790 mg NH 4 -N could be nitrified. 

+ 
Therefore, only about 4.5% of NH 4 -N in the water column 

would be nitrified under ideal conditions. In this case, the 2 
demand in the water would be: 

(1790 mg NH 4 -N nitrified per day) (3.22 mg 0,/mg NH 4 -N) 
r= 5764 mg 2 consumed per day / 2 x 10 5 1 of water. 
= 0.029 mg 2 consumed per liter of water per day. 

Analysis using Case I suggests that benthic nitrification exerts 
little 2 demand on overlying water, whereas Case II analysis indicates 
that a small but measureable o demand may occur near the bottom 
as a result of nitrification at the sediment: water interface under ideal 
conditions. The actual nitrification rate and oxygen demand are likely 
something between the two extremes illustrated by Cases I and II. 
Therefore, it seems unlikely that under normal conditions benthic 
nitrification exerts a significant 2 demand on the Wabash River al- 
though in some localized areas, the O., demand may be measureable. 
Support for this conclusion is given by a series of studies (data not 
reported) conducted in which water was passed over the surface of 

+ 
Wabash River bottom sediment cores and NH 4 uptake and NO ;! release 

+ 
were measured. Although NH 4 -N was assimilated by benthic hetro- 

trophic bacteria, no N0 2 -N or NO ;5 -N was liberated, suggesting that 

+ 
nitrification was not a significant sink for NH 4 -N in the Wabash River 

bottom sediments. 



Environmental Quality 267 

The findings of this study suggest that nitrification rates in the 
Wabash River are low and that NOD is not a significant factor in the 
oxygen status of the River. These findings are somewhat difficult to 
rationalize with other recent studies (Tuffey et al., 1974 and Feinstein 
and Matulewich, 1977), which suggest significant nitrification potential 
in shallow streams having rocky bottoms covered with bacterial slimes. 
However, the Wabash River differs greatly from the conditions observed 
in the above listed studies and it seems likely that the Wabash River 
is a relatively poor habitat for nitrifying bacteria. Ammonium disap- 
pearance in the Wabash River may likely be explained as a combination 
of several biological and chemical processes: (i) nitrification, (ii) 
uptake by aquatic biomass, (iii) ammonia stripping, (iv) absorption by 
cation exchange sites on sediment and suspended particles, and (v) 
assimilation by benthic heterotrophic bacteria. 

Acknowledgements 

A contribution of the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana Jour. Paper No. 7882. This 
study was supported in part by a grant from Eli Lilly and Company, 
Indianapolis. Appreciation is expressed to Ron Kolzak for assistance in 
sampling and in laboratory analysis. 



Literature Cited 

1. Chen, R. L., D. R. Keeney, and J. G. Konbad. 1972. Nitrification in lake sediments. 
J. Environ. Qual. 1:151-154. 

2. Feinstein, M. S., J. Cirello, P. F. Strom, M. L. Morris, R. A. Rapaport, and S. 
Goetz. 1977. Evaluation of nitrification in the water column of the Passaic River. 
Rutgers Water Resources Institute Report. 41 pp. 

3. Finstein, M. S. and V. A. Matulewich. 1974. Distribution of autotrophic nitrifying 
bacteria in a polluted stream. Rutgers Water Resources Institute Report. 51 pp. 

4. Finstein, M. S. and V. A. Matulewich. 1977. Nitrification potential of river environ- 
ments. Rutgers Water Research Institute. 23 pp. 

5. Knowles, G., A. L. Downing, and M. J. Barrett. 1965. Determination of kinetic 
constants for nitrifying bacteria in mixed culture with an electronic computer. J. Gen- 
Microbiol. 38:263-278. 

6. Matulewich, V. A. 1974. Distribution of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria in the Passaic 
River. M.S. Thesis. Rutgers University. 181 pp. 

7. McLaren, A. D. 1971. Kinetics of nitrification in soil: Growth of the nitrifiers. Soil 
Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 35:91-95. 

8. Tuffey, T. J., J. V. Hunter, and V. A. Matulewich. 1974. Zones of nitrification. 
Water Res. Bull. 10:555-564. 

9. Tuffey, T. J., J. V. Hunter, W. Whipple, and S. L. Yu. 1974. Instream aeration 
and parameters and stream and eslvarine nitrification. Rutgers Water Resources Insti- 
tute Report. 59 pp. 



The Effect of Photoperiodic Pretreatments on Symptom 
Development in Plants Exposed to Ozone 

Thad Godish, Department of Natural Resources 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Introduction 

Plant response to ozone is dependent on the physiological con- 
dition of plants during exposure. This physiological condition depends 
upon pre-exposure environmental growth factors which include tempera- 
ture, light intensity, soil moisture, relative humidity and nutrition 
(2, 3, 6, 7). It also depends on biological rhythms which are endogenous 
or cued by external environmental factors such as photoperiod. The 
role of photoperiod in cueing the flowering response in many plant 
species has been well documented. Less well known are changes in 
other physiological processes which may result prior to or in the 
absence of the flowering response. It was the object of this study to 
determine whether photoperiodic pretreatments induced physiological 
changes which affected sensitivity and symptom expression in plants 
subsequently exposed to ozone. 

Materials and Methods 

Seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivar Rutgers 
and peas (Pisum sativum) cultivar Alaska were planted in 10 cm 
diameter plastic pots containing a soil medium of loam, peat and 
perlite (1:1:1) supplemented with a 12:12:12 water soluble fertilizer. 
These seedlings were grown in an environmental chamber with a 
27/17°C day /night temperature regime. Relative humidity was un- 
controlled, ranging from 60 to 80% during the light period and 80 to 
100% during the dark period. A light intensity of 8.93 x 10 4 ergs cnrr 2 
sec ! at the plant surface was provided by cool white fluorescent and 
incandescent lamps. Tomato plants were grown to the second nine- 
foliate stage prior to being exposed. They were refertilized with a 12:- 
12:12 granular fertilizer mix 2 weeks after transplanting. Pea plants 
were grown to the six-leaf stage prior to being exposed. Because of 
the short growth time to reach this stage of development, pea plants 
were not refertilized prior to exposure. 

Five photoperiodic pretreatment regimes were employed. These 
included 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 hours of light. In each case the themo- 
period corresponded to the photoperiodic regime. 

Plants of similar physiological age were used for exposures. 
Physiological age was determined by leaf and leaflet expansion in tomato 
and by the number of fully mature leaves in peas. 

Plants of the appropriate physiological age were exposed to 35 
pphm (v/v) 0., for 4 hrs., from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. in 10 cubic 
feet volume plexiglass chambers. In tomato exposures, four plants of a 
given photoperiodic pretreatment were exposed at a given time. The 
number of plants exposed was limited by chamber area and volume. 

268 



Environmental Quality 269 

Each exposure was repeated so that a total of eight plants from a 
photoperiodic pretreatment were exposed to ozone. Since individual 
pea plants are smaller in size, 3 seeds were planted per pot. Depending 
on germination percentage, as many as 29 pea plants were exposed to 
ozone at one time. For peas only one ozone exposure was conducted for a 
given photoperiodic pretreatment. 

Air flow through the chambers was approximately 15 cubic feet 
per minute. During exposures, chamber temperature was maintained 
at 27±l c C and a relative humidity of 70 ±2%. Light intensity of 
3.56 x 10 4 ergs cm" 2 sec -1 was provided by cool white fluorescent and 
incandescent lamps above the exposure chamber. Ozone was metered 
to the exposure chamber from an Alron high voltage ozone generator. 
Ozone concentrations were monitored during exposure by a Mast oxidant 
meter calibrated with the Potassium Iodide-Boric Acid Method (4). 

After exposure plants were returned to the environmental chamber. 
Symptom development was evaluated 96 hours after exposure. Symptom 
severity was determined by the % leaf area exhibiting flecking, mottling 
and bifacial necrosis. Data were evaluated for significant differences 
using the Completely Randomized Design Analysis of Variance and 
Duncan's Multiple Range Test. An alpha level of .05 was accepted as 
significant. 

Results 

In both tomato and pea cultivars significant differences in ozone- 
induced symptoms were observed in plants receiving different photo- 
periodic pretreatments. The effect of these pretreatments on symptom 
severity on tomato and pea plants are summarized in Table 1. Several 
important conclusions can be drawn from these data. For tomato plants 
the 12 hr. photoperiodic pretreatment resulted in greater leaf injury 
than any other treatment. The 8-hour photoperiodic pretreatment, on the 
other hand, resulted in the least leaf area injured. For pea plants the 
most extensive injury was observed with the 14-hour photoperiodic 
pretreatment. Plants were least sensitive to 8 and 10 hour photoperiodic 
pretreatments. These observations are significant at the .05 alpha level. 

In addition to differences in symptom severity observed on tomato 
plants, differences in symptom expression were apparent. For the 12-hour 
photoperiod the dominant symptom type was bifacial necrosis. Necrotic 

Table 1. Response of tomato cv. Rutgers and pea cv. Alaska to ozone following 
photoperiodic pretreatments. 



Photoperiod (His.) 



10 
12 
14 
16 

Treatment means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 
5% level. 



% Leaf Area Injured 




Tomato 


Pea 


<1.0 c 


7.6 c 


18.2 a 


3.7 c 


34.5 b 


21.1 a 


12.5 a 


40.4 b 


10.0 a 


16.9 a 



270 Indiana Academy of Science 

areas tended to be continguous along the midrib and interveinal leaflet 
areas. For the 10, 14, and 16-hour photoperiods the dominant symptoms 
were flecking and mottling with occasional small pinpoint bifacial lesions. 
An interesting symptom expression was manifested in tomato plants 
pretreated with a 16-hour photoperiod. Light, diffuse chlorotic islands 
were observed. These chlorotic islands were located in the interveinal 
areas where flecking and mottling were normally observed. This ap- 
parent loss of chlorophyll was not included in the % leaf area injured 
since the experimental design was based on symptom severity due to 
flecking, mottling, and bifacial necrotic injury. 

Flecking, mottling and bifacial necrosis were also observed on 
pea plants exposed to ozone. Although bifacial necrosis was more ex- 
tensive on plants pretreated with a 14-hr. photoperiod, differences in 
qualitative symptom expressions similar to those observed on tomato 
were not apparent. 

Discussion 

Results presented in this report on the effects of photoperiodic 
pretreatments on ozone sensitivity of plants are significantly different 
from the lone previous report on this subject. Juhren et al (5) studied 
the effects of photoperiodic pretreatments on sensitivity of pinto beans 
exposed to oxidants (presumably ozone). They reported that pinto 
bean plants were most sensitive to oxidants under short photoperiods 
(8 hours) and least sensitive to long photoperiods (16 hours). In 
studies of tomato and peas presented in this report, minimum sensi- 
tivity for tomato was observed under the 8 hour pretreatment; for 
peas minimum sensitivity was observed for the 8 and 10 hour pre- 
treatments. Maximum sensitivity for tomato was observed for the 
12-hour photoperiodic pretreatment; peas showed maximum sensitivity 
under the 14-hour photoperiod. The apparent contradiction between the 
results of the two studies can be readily explained by differences in 
experimental methods. In this study care was taken to expose plants 
of the same physiological age, since sensitivity to ozone is known to 
be strongly influenced by the developmental stage (7). Because of 
differences in the total quantity of light received under different photo- 
periods, plants of the same chrcnological age will differ significantly 
in the degree of growth and development. This was true in the studies 
of Juhren et al. It is apparent that the results that they reported for 
photoperiodic pretreatments could not be separated from differences 
in sensitivity which may have resulted from differences in development. 

Differences in sensitivity of tomato and pea plants under various 
photoperiodic pretreatments may be explained in part by differences in 
soluble carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) levels prior to 
exposure. Dugger et al (1) have reported that both low and high soluble 
plant carbohydrate levels were associated with decreased ozone sensi- 
tivity. Intermediate soluble carbohydrate levels are optimum for ozone 
sensitivity. Although soluble carbohydrate levels were not measured 
in this study, results reported by Dugger et al indicate that soluble 
carbohydrate levels would be lowest under short photoperiods and build 
up with increasing photoperiodic length. Under these circumstances 



Environmental Quality 271 

the low ozone sensitivity observed for tomato and pea plants under 
short photoperiods and maximum sensitivity at intermediate photo- 
periodic lengths correlate well with observations relative to soluble 
carbohydrate levels. 

In this study photoperiod could not be programmed independently 
of the thermoperiod. Consequently results reported for photoperiodic 
pretreatments have not excluded possible changes caused by thermo- 
period. This possibility is of theoretical interest, although in nature 
photoperiod and thermoperiod are not independent of each other. 



Literature Cited 

1. Dugger, W. M., Jr., O. C. Taylor, E. Cardiff, and C. R. Thompson. 1962. Relation- 
ship between carbohydrate content and susceptibility of pinto bean plants to ozone 
damage. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 81:304-315. 

2. Dunning, J. A. and W. W. Heck. 1973. Response of pinto bean and tobacco to ozone 
as conditioned by light intensity and/or humidity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7:824-826. 

3. Dunning, J. A., W. W. Heck, and D. T. Tingey. 1974. Foliar sensitivity of pinto bean 
and soybean to ozone as affected by temperature, potassium nutrition and ozone dose. 
Water, Air and Soil Poll. 3:305-313. 

4. Flamm, D. L. 1977. Analysis of ozone at low concentrations with boric acid buffered 
KI. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11:978-983. 

5. Juhren, M., W. Noble, and F. W. Went. 1957. The standardization of Poa annua 
as an indicator of smog concentrations I. Effects of temperature, photoperiod and light 
intensity during growth of test plants. Plant Physiol. 32 :576-586. 

6. Leone, Ida A., Eileen Brennan, and R. R. Daines. 1966. Effect of nitrogen on the 
response of tobacco to ozone in the atmosphere. J. Air. Poll. Control Assoc. 16 :191- 
196. 

7. Ting, I. P. and W. M. Dugger, Jr. 1968. Factors affecting ozone sensitivity and sus- 
ceptibility of cotton plants. J. Air Poll. Conti'ol Assoc. 18:810-813. 



GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY 

Chairman: John H. Cleveland 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Chairman-Elect: Kenneth R. Brehob 
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

ABSTRACTS 

Concerning Jet Stream Induced Vibrations in the Earth and Atmosphere. 

Gerald J. Shea, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Microbarometric and microseismic waves are minute fluctuations in 
the earth and atmosphere detectable by conventional and specially de- 
signed instruments of high sensitivity. Using magnifications of 50,000, 
a particular vibration restricted to local origin has been studied for a 
period of 30 years. Occurring repeatedly in the fall of the year and 
covering a brief span of three to four days, its amplitudes reach peak 
heights and decay to zero. 

Records of these waves appear to be associated with the jet stream 
and thus are deeply involved with meteorological phenomenon. Since 
weather changes occur following their appearance, it is possible to 
use them for short range forecasting. It is also possible with more in- 
tense research to devise a system which could lead to the development 
of a key for long range weather forecasting. 

Bedrock topographic map of Indiana. Henry H. Gray and Patricia G. 

Davis, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana. A concept 

of the configuration of the bedrock surface, whether that surface is 
drift-buried or exposed, is essential to the construction of a bedrock 
geologic map. We are compiling a bedrock topographic map as prerequi- 
site to preparation of a new bedrock geologic map of Indiana at 
1:500,000 scale. 

In the deeply drift-covered northern half of the state there are 
few bedrock outcrops, and bedrock topography must be inferred from 
geophysical and well data. Addition of a few new data can radically 
alter an interpretation, but several hundred datum points per county 
ordinarily provide adequate basis for interpretation at the planned 
scale. 

In south-central Indiana, surface topography approimates the bed- 
rock topography except in deeply filled major valleys. In other parts 
of southern Indiana, however, present topography complexly intersects 
the buried bedrock surface, which produces a multicyclic surface that 
is difficult to interpret. One approach is to modify a preliminary "blind" 
interpretation of the bedrock surface by carving out of it the valleys 
called for by present topography. Ordinarily, bedrock exposures are 
abundant in these recently carved-out areas. 

In places the buried bedrock surface itself appears multicyclic, and 
fascinating topographic features, such as escarpments, hanging valleys, 

272 



Geography and Geology 273 

entrenched meanders, entrenched braid cores, and valley-in-valley, be- 
come apparent where data are adequate. 

Relationships between the Roger and Porter Cave Systems and Glacial 
Lake Quincy, Indiana, USA. Kevin L. Strunk, Department of Geology, 

Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Glacial Lake Quincy existed in parts of Owen, Putnam, and Morgan 
counties, Indiana, during Illinoian and Sangamon times. In the eastern 
section of the lake, the Indian Creek and Butler Creek cols carried 
water south to the ancestral White River. Lying along the long axis 
of these cols are the Roger and Porter cave systems, respectively. 

Drainage of Glacial Lake Quincy through the Roger and Porter 
cave systems has been discussed previously by Addington (1927) and 
Thornbury (1939, 1950). Addington favored such drainage, especially in 
the Porter System, while Thornbury argued for surface drainage en- 
tirely. Drainage through the cave systems would explain geomorphic 
relationships in the area. 

To evaluate the relationships, surface features and the caves were 
mapped. Also, sediment sections associated with the cave systems were 
sampled and particle size, statistical, and heavy mineral analyses were 
conducted. A carbon-14 date of 97 yr. B.P. from the Roger System 
sediments established these not to be Illinoian age. The sediments have 
been correlated with the first clearcutting of the forests and the ac- 
companying erosion of the top soil. 

A model for the lake-cave systems relationship is here proposed. 
Following formation of the lake, surficial drainage was initiated through 
both cols. Gradually, the water was captured via subterranean stream 
piracy into primitive phreatic cave passages. Eventually, most drainage 
passed through the systems, significantly enlarging the cave systems. 

Design and Application of an Automated Fluorescence Filter Spectro- 
graph for Underground Water Tracing. Stephen D. Maegerlein, Wil- 
liams, Indiana. An inexpensive fluorescent dye detector has been 

designed for recording both time and dye concentration as well as dif- 
ferentiating between dyes used for ground water tracing. The auto- 
mated fluorescence filter spectograph (AFFS) is a waterproofed, bat- 
tery-powered, automated time-lapse movie camera controlled by a 
series of timing circuits which also synchronize other unit components. 
The unit includes a water sediment precipitator and filter, centrifugal 
water pump, Pyrex flow cell, electronic flash with ultraviolet primary 
band pass filter, optically coupled light emitting diode time display 
mounted in the spectrograph slit, and secondary light filters in front of 
the film frame for distinguishing between dyes. A filtered water sample 
is analyzed every 10 minutes by recording the blue, green and orange 
fluorescences plus the time on high speed black and white movie film. 
The film is sensitive to the fluorescence of a few parts per billion of 
dye. Standard solutions of fluorescent dye are analyzed by the AFFS 
to calibrate the film before placing the unit in the water resurgence. 
The AFFS will operate underwater for 7 days on a fully charged bat- 
tery pack and measure the fluorescence of over 1000 water samples. 



274 Indiana Academy of Science 

A microphotometer is used to measure film percent transmission after 
the film is developed. Calibration curves are prepared for determination 
of fluorescent dye concentrations. 

Fifty Years of Aerial Surveys of Flood Plains. Robert D. Miles, P.E. 
Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West La- 
fayette, Indiana. The Corps of Engineers contracted in 1929 for 

aerial photographic mosaics and topographic maps (1/12,000) of the 
Wabash River from Terre Haute to Logansport and along East Fork 
of White River from Shoals to Sparksville. In 1930 and 1931 additional 
contracts were made for aerial surveys along West Fork White River 
and Eel River. A single-lens glass plate camera with a 7.07-in. focal 
length lens was used to obtain the aerial photography in a 7 x 9-inch 
format for a strip two miles wide along the river. The aerial mosaics 
and topographic maps were prepared at a scale of 1/12,000 from aerial 
photographs obtained in June and July. This was the first topographic 
survey for the United States Government that used photogrammetric 
methods to replace the plane-table method. 

These historical aerial mosaics are located at Purdue University. 
They recently were examined and compared with more recent photog- 
raphy to determine landuse changes, evidence of stream bank erosion, 
channel change or information on the dynamic character of river sys- 
tems. Slides will be used to illustrate the changes. 

Air Temperature Fluctuation in North Dakota During the Eclipse of 26 
February 1979. William R. Gommel and Dianne L. Reuter, Department 
of Earth Sciences, Indiana Central University, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Using a sling psychrometer (U.S. Army Signal Corps ML-224) 

midway between Bowbells and Northgate, North Dakota, a reduction 
in air temperature of 1°C was observed in the 15-minute interval from 
11 minutes before totality onset (-5.2°C at 10:28 CST or 16:28 GMT) 
to one minute after the end of totality (-6.2 °C at 10:43 CST or 16:43 
GMT). Wet-bulb temperature fell from -5.9 °C to -6.8 °C during the same 
time interval indicating a small increase in relative humidity from 
approximately 82% to 84%. By the end of the eclipse at fourth 
contact (11:54 CST), air temperature had increased to -3.8°C. 

Duration of totality was 2 minutes and 46 seconds from lOh. 38m. 
37s. CST to lOh. 41m. 23s. CST when the sun was 25° above the horizon. 
Clouds were 0.3 to 0.4 thin cirrus throughout the eclipse, and horizontal 
visibilities were more than 10 miles. Surface wind was calm to light 
and variable and did not seem to increase perceptibly as observed by 
the principal author during the Norwegian and African eclipses of 
30 June 1954 and 1973, respectively. The ground was completely covered 
with snow, but shadow bands (apparently an interference of light 
phenomenon) were not as distinct as during the African eclipse of 
30 June 1973. 

Under similar total eclipse conditions but with higher sun angles 
(e.g., in central Indiana), air temperature fluctuations should be some- 
what larger than those observed during this eclipse in North Dakota 
near the Canadian border. 



Faulting in Posey and Gibson Counties, Indiana 

Curtis H. Ault, Dan M. Sullivan, and George F. Tanner 
Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Introduction and History of Study 

In the fall of 1977 we began our investigation of the Wabash Valley 
Fault System to help characterize the tectonic processes in southwestern 
Indiana. It was part of a project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission for geologists and geophysicists from various universities 
and geological surveys to study the tectonics, seismicity, and structure 
of the area within a 200-mile radius of New Madrid, Missouri. 

Since the early 1900's more than 6,000 petroleum test wells and 
other tests have been drilled in Posey County and southern Gibson 
County, which contain nearly all known faults of the Wabash Valley 
Fault System in Indiana. Detailed subsurface structural mapping by 
petroleum companies was conducted from the 1930's and 1940's until 
the late 1960's, when oil activity declined. But these studies have been 
proprietary, and the companies have released little or no structural data. 
Further, oil companies have usually focused attention on the reservoir 
rocks near the faults rather than on the complexity of the faults 
themselves. 

Part of the Ridgway Fault of the Wabash Valley Fault System in 
Illinois was early described by Cady in 1919 (4). As drilling for 
petroleum and mining for coal progressed in Illinois, the fault system 
was further defined in county reports and maps and other fault studies 
(Stonehouse and Wilson (11) for example). The most recent mapping of 
the faults in Illinois was completed by Bristol and Treworgy in 1979 (2). 

Faults of the Wabash Valley Fault System that extend into Ken- 
tucky have most recently been mapped in detail by geologists of the 
U.S. Geological Survey (7, 8). 

Available Indiana studies of the fault system include a 1940 study 
by Patton (9), which shows a small part of the faulting near Griffin 
Consolidated Field, and a study by Butler in 1967 (3) in Posey County, 
which was based on about one control point per square mile except in 
a few areas near the faults where additional data were used. The 
faults are shown on a regional geologic map published by Gray, Wayne, 
and Weir in 1970 on a scale of 1/250,000 (5). 

Our study is the first using nearly all available geophysical and 
other data to construct detailed maps and to closely locate and character- 
ize the faulting. Two maps of Posey County and southern Gibson 
County, on a scale of 2 inches to the mile, will be published by the 
Indiana Geological Survey in 1980 (13, 14). These maps will show 
faults, well control, and depths on two horizons, the top of the Spring- 
field Coal Member (V) of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian) 
and the top of the Cypress Formation (Mississippian) . They are the 
basis for the description of the faults in this report and should be 

275 



276 



Indiana Academy of Science 



referred to for detailed fault interpretations. A report on the economic 
implications of faulting in southwestern Indiana is a companion study 
to this report (12). 

Tectonic Setting 

The Wabash Valley Fault System is entirely within the Illinois 
Basin, a dominant tectonic feature bounded on its northeast side in 
Indiana by the Cincinnati and Kankakee Arches. Faults of the system, 
some extending more than 30 miles along the Wabash Valley in both 
Indiana and Ililnois, are confined to Posey and Gibson Counties in 
southwestern Indiana. The entire Wabash Valley Fault System, which 
includes extensions of Indiana faults and additional parallel and sub- 
parallel faults in northwestern Kentucky and southeastern Illinois, 
trends north-northeastward from the more extensive and more struc- 
turally complex Cottage Grove and Rough Creek Fault Zones in southern 
Illinois and northwestern Kentucky (Fig. 1). 



MO. 




ARK 



100 Miles 



Figure 1. Fault systems near New Madrid, Missouri. 



The Cottage Grove and Rough Creek Fault Zones are part of the 
38th Parallel Lineament, a band of structural features which trend 
generally east-westward across the eastern United States along the 
38th parallel. The most seismically active area in eastern North America 
is the New Madrid Fault Zone, which is on a trend with the Wabash 
Valley Fault System south of the Cottage Grove and Rough Creek 
Fault Zones. 

Braile and others (1) reported a magnetic and gravity anomaly 
in the southwest corner of Indiana, roughly on strike with the New 
Madrid Fault Zone, but they did not observe a direct connection between 
the two structural areas. Recently completed geologic mapping of 
northwestern Kentucky by the U.S. Geological Survey shows that faults 



Geography and Geology 277 

of the Wabash Valley Fault System die out as they approach the Rough 
Creek Fault Zone, and a study of the system in Illinois by Bristol and 
Treworgy (2) found no evidence that the Wabash Valley faults intersect 
the east-westward-trending faults in southern Illinois. 

Some geologists believe much of the present structure within the 
Illinois Basin was influenced by structures developed by the end of 
Precambrian time. Seismic data partly supported by subsurface studies 
indicate that Paleozoic structures, such as the Rough Creek Fault Zone 
in Kentucky and the LaSalle Anticline in eastern Illinois, are underlain 
by basement ridges and scarps. In 1965 Rudman and others (10), on 
the basis of seismic studies, projected a Precambrian scarp or ridge 
from the LaSalle Anticline southward across the southwest corner of 
Indiana and postulated such a ridge as the primary control in the devel- 
oping structure during late Paleozoic time. More recently, Braile and 
others (1) suggested that continental rifting is significant in the 
tectonism of southwestern Indiana. 

Method of Study 

Faults of the Wabash Valley Fault System were mapped by using 
subsurface information from petroleum, coal, stratigraphic, and other 
drill tests to a maximum of one control point for every 10 acres in most 
areas and by using all available information near the faults. The faults 
were detected by structure mapping and by well-to-well correlation of 
geophysical logs, mostly electric logs, to ascertain rock sections missing 
because of faulting. More than 200 wells drilled through normal faults 
have been recorded in the area of study (13, 14). No repeated rock 
sections due to reverse faulting have been found. 

Although only maps showing faults on the Springfield Coal Mem- 
ber (V) and the Cypress Formation are included in this report (Figs. 
2 and 3), structural data have also been recorded for the West Franklin 
Limestone Member of the Shelburn Formation (Pennsylvanian) , the 
base of the Menard Formation (Mississippian) , and the top of the 
Renault Formation (Mississippian). Data from the latter three struc- 
tural markers have been used in locating and interpreting the faulting 
shown in Figures 2 and 3, which are simplifications of the detailed 
large-scale mapping by Tanner, Stellavato, and Mackey (13, 14). 

Detailed interpretation of the geophysical logs, essential for the close 
correlation necessary for determining rock sections missing because of 
faulting, was aided by examination of rock cores of Pennsylvanian age 
from reference wells drilled by the Indiana Geological Survey, by exami- 
nation of lithologic strip logs of drilling samples, and by use of coal-test 
(core-hole) data. 

Correlations of electric logs usually uncover only those faults with 
more than 20 feet of vertical displacement, although there undoubtedly 
are faults with less displacement in the fault zones. The larger faults 
are readily mapped in areas of dense drilling, but they were traced as 
far as possible by abrupt changes in elevation on marker beds in areas 
where only three or four wells had been drilled per section and no 
wells which cut the faults had been drilled. 



278 



Indiana Academy of Science 




10 Km 



Figure 2. Map of Posey County and southern Gibson County showing faulting on the 
Springfield Coal Member (V) of the Petersburg Formation (modified from Tanner, 

Stellavato, and Mac key (13)). 



Geography and Geology 



279 




EXPLANATION 
Fault 
[Reference well 



5 Miles 



R.I4W. 



10 Km 



Figure 3. Map of Posey County and southern Gibson County showing faulting on the 
Cypress Formation (modified from Tanner, Stellavato, and Mackey (14)). 



280 Indiana Academy of Science 

Only a small amount of structural data came from wells drilled in 
rocks below 3,000 feet. As most of the petroleum wells have been drilled 
to test the Cypress Formation or deeper rocks, subsurface control is 
nearly as complete for the Cypress as for the Springfield Coal Member 
some 1,800 feet shallower. Our confidence in the accuracy of the mapping 
for both horizons is high. 

Numerous cross sections were constructed for correlating fault 
planes from well to well, determining angles of fault dip, and resolving 
the complexity of compound faulting. Accurate dip angles were cal- 
culated where single fault planes could be correlated from well to well 
from shallow to deeper horizons. But in some complex zones, we were 
unable to follow single fault planes between wells. 

Attempting to locate faulting by seismic refraction in northern 
Posey County was unsuccessful because of the lack of shallow reflector 
beds in which displacement by faulting could be recognized. 

Limited surface fieldwork in areas of known faulting found no 
surface expression of faulting. Eventually some faulting may be detected 
on the surface, but undoubtedly it will be minor. 

Fault Descriptions 

Faults of the Wabash Valley Fault System in Indiana trend N. 15° 
E. to N. 50° E. as single fault planes or as well-defined compound 
faults in zones usually less than half a mile wide but as much as 1V 2 
miles wide. The faults bound blocks tilted as much as 6° and horst and 
graben blocks as much as 5 miles wide. The faults are normal type, and 
strata may be downthrown either eastward or westward. 

The fault planes dip at angles ranging from 60° to 80°, and com- 
pound faults may consist of as many as five individual fault planes, 
each with more than 20 feet of vertical displacement. Rock slices be- 
tween individual fault planes of compound faults include narrow horst 
and graben structures and downslipped slices among individual en 
echelon faults (Fig. 4). The number of individual fault planes in a 
zone decreases with depth from rocks of Pennsylvanian age to rocks 
of Mississippian age, and our cross sections show that most shallow 
faults are splinters of deeper faults, although some faults may have dis- 
placements dissipated in softer strata. 

Growth faulting was not detected; thickening or thinning of strati- 
graphic units due to differential sedimentation on opposite sides of 
faults was not found, nor was evidence found indicating differential 
erosion across faults at the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. 
As far as could be determined, all faults in deeper rocks cut all shallower 
rocks but did not cut unconsolidated surface materials. All known fault- 
ing is therefore post-Pennsylvanian and pre-Pleistocene in age. 

The following described Heusler, Parker, Caborn, Owensville, Hovey 
Lake, and Wabash Island Faults are newly named. The first four are 
wholly within Indiana. The Hovey Lake and Wabash Island Faults have 
their maximum vertical displacement in southern Indiana but extend 
southward into Kentucky, where their displacement decreases. The Inman 



Geography and Geology 



281 



East, Pitcher Lake, New Harmony, Ribeyre Island, and Maunie Faults 
are extensions of faults in Illinois whose names have been adopted for 
formal use in Indiana. 



West 



East 





W. 
Ls. 


FrankHnf 




West 


F^lir^J^i, 


/ / West Franklin 


Seo level — 


It Ls. Mbr. 


, 


_H^ 
Co< 


^rMbTTj 




Herrin 
"SpfTng 


CoajMbr^___ J 

TJeidToSl-- // 

Mbr.(V) // 


/ Herrin Coal Mbr. 




j Springfield Coal 


- 
500- 


f Mbr. (V) 






T 










1000 - 










/// 




th in Feet 








| 






Q. - 

° 1500 - 








[Base 


Menard 


Fm. 1 


/ Base 


Menard Formation 








2000 - 










A— Base 
___Jz-J Menard 
/ Fm. 








I Top 


Cypress 


Fm. 


\ / Top 


Cypress Formation _ 




J Top 


Renault 


Fm. 


— W T °P 


Renault Formation 


2500 - 

























1 mile 



Figure 4. Cross section of compound faulting of the New Harmony Fault (sees. S3 and 

2h, T. 5 S., R. U W.). 



282 Indiana Academy of Science 

Heusler Fault 

The Heusler Fault trends N. 30° E. from sec. 28, T. 7 S., R. 12 W., 
about IV2 miles to sec. 30, T. 6 S., R. 11 W., at the Posey-Vanderburgh 
county line (Figs. 2 and 3). It dips northwestward and borders the west 
side of the Heusler Consolidated and Crunk East Fields. It was named 
for Heusler, 1V 2 miles east of the fault in sec. 12, T. 7 S., R. 12 W. Two 
petroleum tests that cut the fault have been designated reference wells: 
the Moco Drilling Co. No. 1 George P. Martin and the Mayhew Oil Co., 
Inc., No. 3 Irma Short and Paul Sanders (Table 1). 

Two accessory faults have been mapped in rocks of Pennsylvanian 
age, both less than half a mile long. One dips southeastward in sec. 2, 
T. 7 S., R. 12 W., and the other dips northwestward in sec. 25, T. 6 S., 
R. 12 W., and sec. 30, T. 6 S., R. 11 W. The Heusler Fault dips 60° 
between two wells cut by the fault in sec. 35, T. 6 S., R. 12 W. Maximum 
observed vertical displacement (missing stratigraphic section) is 140 
feet in the No. 3 Irma Short and Paul Sanders. 

Parker Fault 

The Parker Fault trends N. 35° E. for about 3 miles from sec. 22, 
T. 6 S., R. 12 W., to sec. 2, T. 6 S., R. 12 W. (Figs. 2 and 3). It borders 
the east edge of the Parker Consolidated Field and was named for 
Parkers Settlement, 1.5 miles north of the fault at the junction of 
State Road 66 and St. Wendel Road. Two petroleum tests in sec. 15, 
T. 6 S., R. 12 W., the B. M. Heath No. 1 Herman A. Boeke and the G. L. 
Reasor No. 2 Olus Justus, cut the fault and have been designated ref- 
erence wells (Table 1). A dip on the fault plane of 66° to the south- 
east has been calculated between the two reference wells. Maximum ob- 
served vertical displacement is 60 feet. No accessory faulting has been 
detected. 

Caborn Fault 

The compound Caborn Fault trends about N. 30° E. for 9 miles 
from sec. 1, T. 7 S., R. 13 W., to sec. 33, T. 5 S., R. 12 W. Its southwest- 
ern limit is uncertain, and it can be mapped as far as sec. 14, T. 7 S., 
R. 13 W., in rocks of Pennsylvanian age (Figs. 2 and 3). It borders 
on or is near the southeast edge of the Caborn Consolidated Field for 
much of its length. It was named for Caborn, which is less than 1 mile 
southeast of the fault on both sides of the line between sees. 29 and 30, 
T. 6 S., R. 12 W. Two petroleum tests near Caborn that cut the fault, 
the W. Duncan No. 1 J. Seifert and the Ooeth Drilling No. 1 Tennison, 
have been designated reference wells (Table 1). 

The Caborn Fault includes individual faults that are discontinuous. 
Three parallel faults in the Springfield Coal Member in sees. 19 and 
20, T. 6 S., R. 12 W., have been mapped, and two parallel faults on the 
Cypress Formation near the north and south ends of the fault have 
also been mapped. Dips on the fault planes are difficult to determine 
because of multiple faulting, but they average near 80°. The fault planes 
dip southeastward except for the accessory fault in sec. 19, T. 6 S., 
R. 12 W., which dips northwestward. Maximum vertical displacement 
determined for the fault is 140 feet in the No. 1 J. Seifert (Table 1). 



Geography and Geology 



283 



0> 


-p 


£ 


> 


01 


0) 


u 




a 


"oJ _ 


s 




to 


c *- 


-5 


03 


+j 


X 


3 


ft 


h 


01 



&H 



CT5 CM O 

O t- lO 

CO to 00 . — ■ 

— _J _T _T "5 

CO I , | O 

tr> J, ' J. oa 

I I 

'-' o o oo ~ 

L0 2 rj ~ 



t- \a — 



o o o o — O O 



ol 

EN 


_ 
t- 




ih 

i—i 


>c 


oo 




CO 


Eg 


ca 


4-> 

ca 


(4 


+9 

ca 


r3 



O O O o o o 

<T> CO CO rf C- 00 



£ £ £ £ 



«r co 



oq g 

£ s 

co fc 






C3 



ca CO 

1-3 

hh ca 
co Ph 











„ 




u 







be 


U 




s 


i , 










£3 


o 








s 


Q 


01 


CS 


o 


-G 


I 


5 


>. 


ft 


o 


ca 


O 


S 


§ 



g W g 

fc s * 

s i ^ 
£ a U 


re co 


w S 


CO > 


co v+ 


CO CO £ 


co Z 



5H 



CD ^ 



CO 



pH O >-5 



o o o 



g- £ 








aj aj 


■„ 


S* 


c 


4J 




01 


01 




3 


CO CO 

3 3 


^ 


,M 





ca 


0> 0> 


5 

fin 


ca 
Ph 


ca 
O 



o o> 



o o 
5? fc 



o 

u 

c 



33 Q 

Q t 

-p ~-i 

a; ca 

O O 



ca +-> ca ca 

ca 
ooooo oo 

10T-H05CX>OOt~CX> 



w 

CO 



s •? 1 S 

0) X! S 
rH »3 CJ 



w 



sg 



1— 1 
CO 


co w 

00 1 


J 
u 


cc 


_L <=> 


fe 


o 


M W 


_ 


co 




o 


CO 




CO 
H 


rt ' 1 - 


hJ 


Iz; 


CO 


•t 




o 

o 


CO 


to ^ 


rH 





J5 

a 


p. 


6 


3 




g ^ 


a; 


0i 


'3 


c 

01 


bt. 


bt 


ca 


3 


S S 


iC 


-^ 


d 


6 


fe Z 



c 


V 


P 


X 

3 


X 





* 


X 






IS 


ca 

0i 


co 




^ 


5 


lO 




CM 


oi 


C 


C 


Z 


z 



CD i-H 



^ ,^ 







CO 

H 








fc 


CO 


fe 








CO 








o 


X 


CO 






CO 




co 




^ 

^ 


CO 




CO 




I 


1-1 


CO 


J 


I-H 
I 


CO 


CO 


3* 


CO 


CO 


1 


fc 


* 


fe 


l.O 


to 


^ 


^ 


H 


CO 


o 


CO 


»c 


co 



T3 


T3 




3 


3 




ca 


ca 


+j 








CO 


to 


ca 






-3 


X 


W 


to 


0) 


c 

ca 

£ 


ca 


ca 


4= 


x 


ca 


ca 


£ 


* 


c 
— 



M 





o 




















O 




















be 


<« 


















c 


bt 


















'c 


c 






l, 












§ 


J3 






0) 

s 








6 

o 


X 

01 

1 


4 

5 
bt 

3 
M 


Q 
£ 

Oi 

m 

w 


bt 
3. 

o 
3 

C 




o 

01 


o 

pq 

>. 




'S 

to 

P, 


5 


bt 

IS 

01 

« 


ca 


c 


Ph 


ca 


5 


0) 

X 


01 

o 


ca 
>. 


■=. 


U 


p 


d 




O 


HI 


O 


i-s 


X 










>. 


>, 


>I 




o> 


c 


c 


c 




^ 


5 








to 

ca 




£ 


£ 


£ 


w 










ca 


ca 


ca 


c 


5 


n 


w 


n 


ca 


x 








£ 

3 


o 


^ 


^ 


^ 


-*-> 


0> 


01 


0) 


Ph 


z 


z 


& 



284 Indiana Academy of Science 

Owensville Fault 

The Owensville Fault trends N. 20° E. from sec. 14, T. 4 S., R. 12 
W., in the northeast corner of Posey County, about 10 miles into sec. 
31, T. 2 S., R. 11 W., in Gibson County (Figs. 2 and 3). It is bordered 
on the east by the Owensville Consolidated Field and was named for 
Owensville, centered in sec. 6, T. 3 S., R. 11 W., immediately west of the 
fault. A short parallel fault half a mile east of the main fault in sees. 
6 and 7, T. 3 S., R. 11 W., has been recognized in the Springfield Coal 
Member. 

The fault is presumed to be normal type and to dip northwestward, 
but since no petroleum tests have been drilled through the fault, the 
fault type, whether normal or reverse, has not been substantiated. No 
reference wells for the fault have been designated. 

Hovey Lake Fault 

The compound Hovey Lake Fault extends from Union County, Ken- 
tucky, into Indiana in sec. 35, T. 8 S., R. 14 W. (8). The northwestward- 
dipping fault trends generally N. 25° E. from sec. 35 about 17 miles 
into sec. 24, T. 6 S., R. 13 W. (Figs 2 and 3). Five of the 17 miles are 
immediately south of Mt. Vernon, Indiana, in Township Q-20 (Carter 
coordinates) of Union and Henderson Counties, Kentucky (7). The fault 
marks the eastern boundary of the Mount Vernon Graben (described 
below) and was named for Hovey Lake, which is immediately west of 
the fault in sees. 13, 14, 23, and 24, T. 8 S., R. 14 W. The Calvert 
Drilling Co. No. 1 Harlem & Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. Comm. 
and the Carter Oil Co. No. 1 M. E. Dixon were drilled through the fault 
and have been designated reference wells (Table 1). 

The No. 1 M. E. Dixon was drilled through four separate fault 
planes of the compound Hovey Lake Fault (Table 1). Because of the 
close horizontal distances between the fault planes, the Hovey Lake 
Fault is depicted as only two traces near the No. 1 M. E. Dixon in 
Figure 2. In sec. 34, T. 6 S., R. 13 W., where one northwestward-dipping 
fault of the Hovey Lake Fault dies out, an adjacent parallel-fault plane 
dips southeastward and continues 2% miles northeastward. A short ac- 
cessory fault has been mapped in rocks of Pennsylvanian age in sees. 
23 and 24, T. 6 S., R. 13 W., at the northeast end of the Hovey Lake 
Fault. Fault-plane dips are 70° or greater. Maximum observed vertical 
displacement in wells that have been drilled through the fault is 310 
feet in the No. 1 M. E. Dixon. 

Mt. Vernon Graben 

The Mt. Vernon Graben, here named for Mt. Vernon, Indiana, is a 
fault block, 2 to 2V 2 miles wide, extending from the center of T. 6 S., 
R. 13 W., southwestward through the center of T. 8 S., R. 14 W., into 
Union County, Kentucky (Figs. 2 and 3). It is bounded on the east by 
the Hovey Lake Fault and on the west by the Wabash Island Fault 
(described below). It is downthrown to about 310 feet at the Hovey 
Lake Fault and to about 270 feet at the Wabash Island Fault in T. 8 S., 
R. 14 W. But it shows decreasing displacement toward its northeasterly 



Geography and Geology 285 

end and southwestward into Kentucky. The Spencer Consolidated Field 
produces from a domal structure which has been mapped in the graben 
in the northeast quarter of T. 8 S., R. 14 W., in rocks of Pennsylvanian 
and Mississippian age. 

Wabash Island Fault 

The compound Wabash Island Fault extends from Union County, 
Kentucky, into Indiana in sec. 28, T. 8 S., R. 14 W., trending about 
N. 27° E. for 15 miles to sec. 16, T. 6 S. R. 13 W. (Figs. 2 and 3). It 
parallels the east side of the College Consolidated and Mt. Vernon Con- 
solidated Fields, is the eastern boundary of a westward-tilted fault block, 
which is 2 to 5 miles wide, and is the western boundary of the Mt. 
Vernon Graben. The fault was named for Wabash Island, at the con- 
fluence of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers in Kentucky. Two petroleum 
tests that cut the fault, the Yingling Oil & Mining Co. No. 5 Maggie 
Murphy and the Carl Miles No. 1 Lynn M. Strack, have been designated 
reference wells (Table 1). 

The Wabash Island Fault is a compound fault with at least three 
fault planes in rocks of Mississippian age in T. 8 S., R. 14 W. The west- 
ernmost plane dips southeastward and has as much as 370 feet of 
vertical displacement. The two fault planes to the east dip northwest- 
ward and southeastward and form narrow horst and graben structures 
with as much as 150 feet of vetrical displacement. North of T. 8 S., 
the Wabash Island Fault is mapped on the Cypress Formation as a 
single fault plane except for a small accessory fault in sees. 24 and 25, 
T. 7 S., R. 14 W., and an accessory fault in the northeast corner of 
T. 7 S., R. 14 W., the northwest corner of T. 7 S., R. 13 W., and the 
southwest corner of T. 6 S., R. 13 W. 

The Wabash Island Fault as mapped on the Springfield Coal Mem- 
ber of the Petersburg Formation is more complex. There are as many 
as four fault planes in zones as much as 4,000 feet wide in places along 
its length. The faults are parallel, but our data suggest that some are 
interconnected with cross faults and some anastomose with each other 
(Fig. 2). Bristol and Treworgy (2) reported cross faults between over- 
lapping parallel faults in Illinois. 

Because of the multiple fault planes, dips on the faults are difficult 
to calculate and substantiate. Our data indicate that some of the fault 
planes have about 65° dips. 

Inman East Fault 

The compound Inman East Fault extends from Gallatin County, 
Illinois (2), into southwestern Posey County in sec. 22, T. 8 S., R. 15 W., 
and trends about N. 35° E. for 12 miles into sec. 34, T. 6 S., R. 14 W. 
(Figs. 2 and 3). The Springfield Coal Member is displaced by at least 
four fault planes in sees. 14, 15, and 22, T. 8 S., R. 15 W., but only 
one fault has been mapped in this area on the Cypress Formation. 
Several accessory faults forming narrow horst and graben structures 
have been mapped on both the Springfield Coal Member and the Cypress 
Formation in the southwest corner of T. 7 S., R. 14 W., the southeast 



286 Indiana Academy of Science 

corner of T. 7 S., R. 15 W., and the northeast corner of T. 8 S., R. 15 W. 
The Inman East Fault borders the east side of the Inman East, West 
Hovey, and Black Chapel South Fields. Two petroleum tests drilled 
through the fault, the C. E. Brehm Drilling & Producing No. 1 Eugene 
M. Fuhrer and the Carter Oil Co. No. 25-W Skiles Unit, have been 
designated reference wells (Table 1). Dips where determined on parts 
of the fault are about 60°. Maximum observed vertical displacement on 
the fault is 330 feet in the No. 25-W Skiles Unit. 

Pitcher Lake Fault 

The short Pitcher Lake Fault trends N. 20° E. from White County, 
Illinois (2), into Indiana in sec. 18, T. 7 S., R. 14 W., to sec. 8, T. 7 S., 
R. 14 W. (Figs. 2 and 3). It dips northwestward between 62° and 80° and 
borders parts of the Welborn Consolidated and Black Chapel South 
Fields. Observed vertical displacement is 50 feet in the designated ref- 
erence well, the Harry B. Mortimer No. 2-A Greathouse Heirs 
(Table 1). 

New Harmony Fault 

The New Harmony Fault is the longest and has the most displace- 
ment of any fault in the Wabash Valley Fault System in Indiana. It is 
compound and trends about N. 25° E. for nearly 30 miles along the 
Wabash Valley from White County, Illinois (2), into Posey County, 
Indiana, in sec. 13, T. 7 S., R. 15 W., to sec. 28, T. 2 S., R. 13 W., Gibson 
County, where it enters Wabash County, Illinois (Figs. 2 and 3). The 
fault, which has about 450 feet of vertical displacement in the reference 
well, the Joe Resnik No. 1 K. D. Owen (Table 1), has been called the 
Mt. Carmel-New Harmony Fault in Illinois. The name of this fault in 
Indiana is confined to the New Harmony Fault, since the name Mt. 
Carmel as already been used for a major fault in south-central Indiana. 
Part of the New Harmony Fault was called the Maunie Fault on a 
regional geologic map by Gray, Wayne, and Wier (5) but has been con- 
firmed as the New Harmony Fault by Bristol and Treworgy (2) and by 
our study. 

The New Harmony Fault borders parts of the Welborn Consolidated, 
Welborn North Consolidated, Springfield Consolidated, Black River 
Consolidated, Mumford Hills, and Griffin Consolidated Fields. Dips of 
about 65° northwestward have been measured on the major fault planes, 
but some dips may range higher. 

The New Harmony Fault and the Ribeyre Island Fault (described 
below) are a complex zone, \ x k miles wide, with at least five fault 
planes as mapped in the western half of T. 6 S., R. 14 W., in rocks of 
Pennsylvanian age. In the same area, only three fault planes of the 
New Harmony Fault have been mapped on the Cypress Formation. As 
many as five parallel-fault planes, all dipping northwestward, have been 
mapped in sec. 6, T. 4 S., R. 13 W., at the Posey-Gibson county line. 
The New Harmony Fault continues as a single fault plane on the 
Cypress Formation north of this area into Illinois but is more complex 
on the Springfield Coal Member, where two fault planes or more have 
been mapped. 



Geography and Geology 287 

Two petroleum test wells, besides the No. 1 K. D. Owen mentioned 
above, have been designated reference wells : the Cherry & Kidd No. 3 
Gyger and the Ryan Oil Co. No. 1 Mary Alice Kelley (Table 1). 

Ribeyre Island Fault 

The Ribeyre Island Fault, described in Illinois by Bristol and 
Treworgy (2), is conjectural in Indiana in the eastern part of T. 4 S., 
R. 14 W., on the basis of elevation differences of as much as 150 feet 
per half a mile on rocks of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian age (Figs. 
2 and 3). On the basis of sparse data, the fault mapped on the Cypress 
Formation trends about N. 15° E. from White County, Illinois, into 
Indiana in sec. 15, T. 5 S., R. 14 W., to sec. 31, T. 3 S., R. 13 W. The 
elevation differences are less apparent on the Springfield Coal Member 
for the northern part of the fault, but the fault has been mapped only 
to sec. 12, T. 4 S., R. 14 W., on that horizon. Since no well has been 
drilled through this fault in Indiana, no reference well has been 
designated. 

Maunie Fault 

The Maunie Fault, in sec. 6, T. 6 S., R. 14 W., and sees. 31 and 32, 
T. 5 S., R. 14 W., trends about N. 50° E. in Indiana (Figs. 2 and 3) 
but trends N. 27° E. northward where it enters White County, Illinois 
(2). The fault dips northwestward probably between 65° and 80°, 
although the amount of dip has not been measured directly. The Gulf 
Refining Co. No. 1 Albert Aldrich, the designated reference well (Table 
1), shows 50 feet of vertical displacement on the fault. 

Deep Faulting 

Few wells have been drilled beneath rocks of Late Mississippian 
age in Posey and Gibson Counties, the deepest part of the Illinois Basin 
in Indiana. Precambrian structures are concealed by about 13,000 feet 
of overlying strata, of which only the upper 2,000 to 3,000 feet have 
been extensively drilled. Even so, from the scarce data available, the 
New Harmony and Wabash Island Faults can be recognized in deeper 
strata, such as the Salem Limestone (Mississippian), the New Albany 
Shale (Devonian and Mississippian), and the Trenton Limestone 
(Ordovician) (Fig. 5). Depth to the Trenton surface is about 7,000 
feet. 

Although not shown on Figure 5 because of sparse drilling data, two 
lines of evidence lead us to believe that other major faults mapped on 
shallower horizons are also present at depth. Similar displacements at 
depth along single fault planes indicate deeper faulting, and the de- 
crease in complexity of the faulting with depth from rocks of Pennsyl- 
vanian to Mississippian age appears to be due primarily to splintering 
of deeper faulting and not to dissipation of fault displacements into 
surrounding faulted rocks. 

Knowledge of the location of faults in basement rocks not only is 
important in exploring for petroleum and mineral resources at depth but 
also is necessary in identifying major structural elements in the base- 



288 



Indiana Academy of Science 




A. TOP OF SALEM LIMESTONE 
CONTOUR INTERVAL 100 FEET 



B. TOP OF NEW ALBANY SHALE 
CONTOUR INTERVAL 100 FEET 





By \ 


O 
-4908 


\ 
\ 
\ 


-4007 
1 TO .°rf 








C 
-S049 


\ 
\ 
\ 


\ 
\ 

\ 
1 


' 


\ 


-5800 
1 f 


wr^\ 


i 
\ 


\ 




\ 
\ 




-3980 




7-6123 


POSEY 


GIBS 
VANDEF 


ON 

Tjurgh 

\ 


\ 

\ 

\ 






\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 




\ 
\ 
\ 




\ 

\ 
\ 




X 


i 


\ 
\ 


\ 
\ 


\ 


\ 
\ 
\ 


& -6339 




\ \. 




RIOW 


R9W 


s( 




RI?W 




HOW N 



C. TOP OF TRENTON LIMESTONE 
CONTOUR INTERVAL 500 FEET 



EXPLANATION 



DATUM POINT 

i i i i 

FAULT 
HACHURES ON DOWNTHROWN SIDE 



10 

h ' l/l i ' ' I 
10 20 




NDEX MAP 



Figure 5. Map of southwestern Indiana showing structure on tops of the Salem Lime- 
stone, the New Albany Shale, and the Trenton Limestone (from Hasenmueller and 

Bassett (6)). 



ment and tectonics which have affected them. If fault dips observed in 
shallow rocks are similar to dips on the faults at depth, some faults may 
migrate horizontally more than a mile when they are projected to the 
basement. Migration of the Wabash Island and Hovey Lake Faults 
suggests that they may be part of one major fault zone in basement 
rocks. The Pitcher Lake, New Harmony, Maunie, and Ribeyre Island 
Faults may also be part of one major fault zone. Migration of the 
Caborn, Heusler, and Parker Faults appears to be insufficient to be one 
fault zone, but these faults may still be closely related at basement 
depths. 



Geography and Geology 289 

Literature Cited 

1. Braile, L. W. and others. 1978. An integrated geophysical and geological study of the 
tectonic framework of the 38th Parallel Lineament in the vicinity of its intersection 
with the extension of the New Madrid Fault Zone. West Lafayette, Indiana. Purdue 
Univ. 67 p. 

2. Bristol, H. M. and J. D. Treworgy. 1979. The Wabash Valley Fault System in south- 
eastern Illinois. Illinois Geol. Surv. Circ. 509. 19 p. 

3. Butler, R. E. 1967. Comparative subsurface structure of Pennsylvanian and Upper 
Mississippian rocks in Posey County, Indiana (unpublished A.M. Thesis). Blooming- 
ton, Indiana Univ. 25 p. 

4. Cady, G. H. 1919. Coal resources of District V (Saline and Gallatin Counties). 
Illinois Geol. Surv. Illinois Coop. Mining Series Bull. 19. 25 p. 

5. Gray, H. H., W. J. Wayne, and C. E. Wier. 1970. Geologic map of the 1° x 2° Vin- 
cennes Quadrangle and parts of adjoining quadrangles, Indiana and Illinois, showing 
bedrock and unconsolidated sediments. Indiana Geol. Surv. Regional Geol. Map 3. 

6. Hasenmueller, N. R. and J. L. Bassett. In prep. Map of Indiana showing structure 
on top of Trenton Limestone (Ordovician) . U.S. Dept. Energy METC/EGSP Series 
No. 813. 

7. Johnson, W. D., Jr. 1974. Geologic map of parts of the West Franklin, Caborn, and 

Mt. Vernon Quadrangles, Henderson and Union Counties, Kentucky. U.S. Geol. Surv. 
Geol. Quad. Map CQ-1152. 

8. and R. L. Norris. 1976. Geologic map and parts of the Uniontown and 

Wabash Quadrangles, Union and Henderson Counties, Kentucky. U.S. Geol. Surv. 
Quad. Map CQ-1291. 

9. Patton, J. B. 1940. Geology of Griffin oilfield, Indiana (unpublished A.M. Thesis). 
Bloomington, Indiana Univ. 37 p. 

10. Rudman, A. J. and others. 1965. Geology of basement in Midwestern United States. 
Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull. Vol. 49, no. 7:894-904. 

11. Stonehouse, H. B. and G. M. Wilson. 1955. Faults and other structures in southern 
Illinois. Illinois Geol. Surv. Circ. 195. 4 p. 

12. Sullivan, D. M., C. H. Ault, and J. N. Stellavato. 19 — . The Wabash Valley Fault 
System in Indiana and its economic implications. Kentucky Geol. Surv. Series X Spec. 
Pub. — . 

13. Tanner, G. F., J. N. Stellavato, and J. C. Mackey. 1980. Map of Posey County 
and southern Gibson County, Indiana, showing structure on the Springfield Coal 
Member (V) of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Indiana Geol. Surv. 
Misc. Map — . 

14. , , and . 1980. Map of Posey County and southern 

Gibson County, Indiana, showing structure on the Cypress Formation (Mississippian). 
Indiana Geol. Surv. Misc. Map — . 



The Use of Slope Distributions in Defining Physiographic Regions 

in Southern Indiana 

Diane M. Symber 
Department of Geology, Indiana University, Bloomington 

Introduction 

This paper reports an attempt at quantitatively characterizing the 
physiographic units of southern Indiana on the basis of their slope 
distributions. The data were derived from USDA soil survey maps and 
were analyzed using the distance function. 

The original objective of this study was to use the distribution of 
slope of the land to define the boundaries between different physiographic 
units in Indiana. It was thought that each province would have its own 
characteristic slope distribution and that at the boundaries there would 
be a definitive break in the distributions to indicate the change from 
one province to another. As the study progressed, the objective was 
modified to that of evaluating the application of statistical techniques 
to slope data to see if this was a feasible method of quantitatively char- 
acterizing physiographic units and placing boundaries between them. 

The study area consisted of Spencer, Perry, Crawford, Harrison, 
Floyd, and Clark counties in southern Indiana. Most of the southern 
physiographic regions of Indiana, from the Wabash Lowland west to 
the Scottsburg Lowland, are represented in this area. The Crawford 
Upland comprises the largest proportion of land in these counties and 
is the only province represented in all of the transects. 

Previous Work 

The first attempt to subdivide Indiana on a physiographic basis 
was that of C. R. Dryer, who divided southern Indiana into a series of 
lowlands and uplands "bounded by relatively steep slopes or escarpments 
formed by the outcropping edges of the harder strata." (2) C. A. Malott 
found fault with several of Dryer's subdivisions and proposed his own 
scheme of physiographic regions (4) which is the definitive one used 
to this day, with minor modifications in northern Indiana by W. J. 
Wayne (9). 

Malott divided southern Indiana into seven units which trend 
roughly north-south along the regional strike of the bedrock ( Fig. 1 ) . 
From east to west these units are: Dearborn Upland, Muscatatuck 
Regional Slope, Scottsburg Lowland, Norman Upland, Mitchell Plain, 
Crawford Upland, and Wabash Lowland. The devisions were made on 
the basis of unity of topographic condition, which Malott defined as the 
area's "state or condition with respect to relief, altitude, and the form, 
size, and relationship of the physical features present" (4). He states 
that this can be presented adequately only by a detailed topographic 
map. The differences in topographic condition between the physiographic 
provinces of southern Indiana are lithologically controlled, being influ- 
enced by the differential resistance of the sandstones, shales, and lime- 

290 



Geography and Geology 



291 



stones present, so that the physiographic units roughly parallel the 
lithologic units. 

Although Malott's work was based on a thorough knowledge of the 
landscape and topographic forms in Indiana, some of the boundary lines 
between units were rather arbitrarily drawn. The attempted quantitative 
characterization of these provinces in this study is in part a check to 
see if these boundaries were accurately placed. 



EXPLANATION 



Northern Lake and Moraine Region 

1 Calumet Locustnne Plain 

2 Valparaiso Moraino' Area 

3 Kankakee Outmost) and Lacustrine Plain 

4 Steuben Morainai Lake Area 
b Maumee Lacustrine Plain 



7 £ * 

Muscatatuck Regional Slope 




Scale 2,000.000 



5 10 20 JO 40 Miles 



KENT 



FIGURE 1. Map of Indiana showing physiographic units (after Malott, 1922; and 

Wayne, 1953). 



292 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Some attempts at quantitative topographic analysis have been 
reported. Chapman (1) constructed "statistical slope orientation (SSO)" 
diagrams by plotting and contouring slope direction and angle of inclina- 
tion on an equal area projection. Elements of topography not easily dis- 
cernible by other methods were revealed through SSO diagrams. A 
suggested application was the differentiation of physiographic units. 

Lewis (3) used thirteen variables to measure surficial properties 
of landforms in Indiana, then applied principal components analysis to 
find the principal morphometric elements contributing to variance be- 
tween stream basins. Using this approach allows numerical comparisons 
between regions and better complements process-oriented geomorphic 
studies. 

Waldrip and Roberts (8), using data provided by the Conservation 
Needs Inventory, generated computerized slope maps of Indiana. These 
maps show that the physiographic units previously delimited by Malott 
are not uniform spatial units but show internal variation in landforms 
and topography. 

Method 

U.S. Department of Agriculture soil survey maps (6) of Spencer, 
Perry, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd and Clark counties were used to 
derive slope data for the area studied. Six east-west transect lines at 
five-mile intervals were chosen (Fig. 2). These were analyzed by denot- 
ing the percentage of land in each of seven slope classes for every 
sampling unit along the transect. The slope classes are: A (0-2%), B 
(2-6%), C (6-12%), D (12-18%), E (18-25%), F (25-35%), G (>35%). 




Figure 2. Map showing location of transects. Tl . . . T6 refers to the transect numbers. 



Geography and Geology 293 

The transects were of different lengths ranging from 33 to 50 miles, 
as dictated by the availability of published soil surveys. The size of 
the sampling unit also varied, being either a quarter or a third of a 
mile, depending on the scale of the soil map used. 

The initial step in the data analysis was to calculate and plot 
along each transect average slope and percent of land with greater 
than C (12%) slope. The graphs were made with both raw values 
and running averages of five consecutive sampling units. Using running 
averages reduced much of the "noise" evident in the raw data and 
produced smoother, clearer graphs. 

Knowing the location of established physiographic regions such as 
the Crawford Upland and Mitchell Plain, examination of these graphs 
showed a fairly good qualitative correlation with, for example, high 
slope values for uplands and lower values for lowlands, although there 
is a large amount of scatter. The graphs for percent greater than C 
slope (Fig. 3) show a more pronounced break between physiographic 
units than do those of average slope. 

A more rigorous analysis using a statistic known as the distance 
function was then undertaken. The distance function computes the 
similarity of samples to a chosen representative sample (the center), 
using the equation 



where : 



d = y (A-A') 2 + • • • + (G-G') 2 



A . . . G = values (in percent) for each of the slope classes 
in the representative sample 

A' . . . G' = slope values in the sample to be compared. 

When the sample is identical to the center, d r= 0. Larger values of d 
indicate greater differences between the sample and the center. As applied 
here, the points within a given physiographic region would be expected 
to have low d values when compared with the center of the region, while 
those points outside the unit should have higher d values. 

Values A through G for a typical slope distribution of the Crawford 
Upland were computed as follows. A segment representative of the 
Crawford Upland was selected from transect 4 (Fig. 2) and the per- 
centages in the slope classes for the 20 sampling units in this area were 
averaged to derive a center of (5, 6, 18, 37, 11, 23, 0). Comparison was 
made between this center and the slope distribution for each sampling 
unit along every transect using the distance function. The values of d 
plotted along each transect are shown in Figure 4. 

Results and Interpretation 

Physiographic regions in southern Indiana, especially the Crawford 
Upland, are diverse with respect to topographic forms and slopes. The 
distance function shows this rather clearly (Fig. 4). Although the d 
values for the Crawford Upland are generally under some threshold 
(about 50 for the southern three transects and 40 for the northern 
three), there are wide variations. Outside the Crawford Upland are 



294 



Indiana Academy of Science 



100-jT6 




5W 4W 



3W 



2W I R1W I R1E I 2E 



3E 4E 



5E 



Figure 3. Percent of land along each transect with slopes greater than C (12%). Dashed 

vertical lines mark physiographic unit boundaries. CU = Crawford Upland, WL = 

Wabash Lowland, MP = Mitchell Plain, NU = Norman Upland. 



some areas in which the slope distributions are sufficiently similar to 
the selected central area that the value of d is fairly low. 

The Crawford Upland, covering- an area of about 2900 square miles, 
is the most diverse southern Indiana physiographic unit in terms of 
different landforms and relief. The topography of this deeply dissected 



Geography and Geology 



295 



100iT6 



10ChT5 



100-1 




100-iT4 



0-h 1 L_t 

100iT2 WL 



o- 




CU 



100-|T1 WL 



CU 




I 5W I 4W I 3W | 2W | R1W | R1E | 2E | 3E | 4E J 5E 

Figure 4. Distance function (d) values along each transect. Heavy bar in transect 4 
marks the central area used for comparison. 



upland is the result of differential erosion of the alternating sandstone, 
shale and limestone of the Chesterian Series (upper Mississippian) and 
the sandstone and shale of the Mansfield Formation (lower Pennsyl- 
vanian). (5) 

The eastern boundary of the Crawford Upland is drawn along the 
base of the Chester Escarpment. The face of this cuesta scarp is very 



296 Indiana Academy of Science 

irregular. There are many outliers of clastic rock on the Mitchell Plain, 
and karst valley reentrants from the Mitchell Plain extend into the 
upland. In general, though, the boundary is marked by a significant 
change in topographic form and a great increase in altitude and relief. 
(5) On its western edge, the Crawford Upland grades transitionally 
into the Wabash Lowland. The relief is decreased and the valleys are 
more deeply aggraded. Malott drew the boundary line somewhat arbi- 
trarily along this belt. (4) 

The behavior of the distance values (Fig. 4) around the Crawford 
Upland boundaries is inconsistent, reflecting the nature of the estab- 
lished boundaries as discussed above. For two of the northern transects 
(4 and 6) there is a well defined break at the eastern edge of the 
Crawford Upland, but for transects 3 and 5 no such clear break is 
seen. The western edge, which is seen only on transects 1, 2, and 3, 
nowhere shows a definite break in d values. This is somewhat surprising 
in the case of transect 1 because a sharp drop in the percentage of 
slopes greater than C was evident a short distance to the west of the 
established boundary. A sharp rise in d was expected to correspond 
with this. 

In order to relate the results of this analysis more directly to 
the land itself, USGS topographic maps (7) of the transect areas were 
examined. One transect showing a clear break in distance values at a 
boundary and one with an indistinct break were chosen for further 
study. 

The distance function graph (Fig. 4) of transect 4 shows the east- 
ern boundary of the Crawford Upland as a distinct break from lower 
to higher distance values. The area around this boundary in the Corydon 
West and De Pauw Quadrangles (Fig. 5) was examined. 

In the western part of the map around the transect line, the 
topography consists of steep ridges and narrow valleys, with a few 
intermittent streams. East of there, the topography changes to ridges 
with gentler slopes, and farther east the land is much less steep and 
contains many depressions, which are sinkholes, and ponds, all of 
which are indicative of the Mitchell Plain. In this case, the transition 
from Crawford Upland to Mitchell Plain is sharp, with topography sig- 
nificantly changing within the distance of one to two miles. 

In contrast, the western boundary of the Crawford Upland at 
transect 1 is gradational. Malott placed this boundary at the Anderson 
River, but the percent greater than C slopes data (Fig. 3) from this 
study show a clear break four miles west of the river. The distance 
function (Fig. 4), however, did not confirm this, instead showing two 
peaks before leveling off at a higher value in the Wabash Lowland. 

The Fulda Quadrangle map (Fig. 6) covers the area where the 
transition from Crawford Upland to Wabash Lowland takes place in 
transect 1. There is some rugged terrain west of the Anderson River, 
with some flatter land directly adjacent to the river. West of Evanston, 
there is a more open landscape with flatter land. There are a few 
isolated steep "island" hills (which are characteristic of the Wabash 
Lowland) and ridges, but in general a noticeable change in topography 



Geography and Geology 



297 




Figure 5. Section of Corydon West and De Pauw Quadrangle maps (7-1/2 minute 
series) along transect J,. Transect location indicated by heavy black line running 

east-west. 



298 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 6. Section of Fulda Quadrangle map (7-1/2 minute series) along Transect 1. 
Transect location indicated by heavy black line running east-west. 



Geography and Geology 299 

is seen to the west. The clear break in slopes shown by the percent 
greater than C slope graphs is located where this change in topography 
begins. The transitional nature of the boundary indicated by the dis- 
tance function is less easily explained by the topographic map. 

In light of the irregularity of the eastern boundary and the 
transitional nature of the western boundary, it is clear why the dis- 
tance function cannot everywhere make a clear differentiation between 
the Crawford Upland and the adjacent physiographic units, and why 
it is difficult to precisely place a border line. This suggests that no 
single parameter may be adequate to define the boundaries of the physio- 
graphic regions of southern Indiana. 

Conclusions 

An evaluation of the analysis of slope distribution by the distance 
function as a means of defining physiographic units shows that although 
the distance function by itself canont be used to place a boundary 
between units, it is helpful in pinpointing areas that are problematic and 
may warrant further analysis by other methods. 

Further study on this problem may result in the formulation of 
a quantitative method to characterize regional physiographic units such 
as those in southern Indiana. More comprehensive statistical methods 
like factor analysis or cluster analysis may prove to be more effective 
in achieving this end. The development of such a quantitative method 
is important so that the delimitation of regional physiographic units 
is rigorous and not subjective or arbitrary. 

Acknowledgments 

This study was done while the author was an employee of the 
Indiana Geological Survey. Dr. Henry Gray proposed the project, guided 
my work, and made many constructive suggestions. Dr. Robert Blakely, 
geophysics section, suggested the use of the distance function and wrote 
computer programs for the data analysis. 

Literature Cited 

1. Chapman, C. A. 1952. A new quantitative method of topographic analysis. Amer. 
Jour. Sci. 250:428-452. 

2. Dryer, C. R. 1908. General geography of Indiana, p. 17-27 in C. R. Dryer (ed.) 
Studies in Indiana Geography, The Inland Publishing Co., Terre Haute, Ind. 

3. Lewis, L. A. 1968. Analysis of surficial landform properties: the regionalization of 
Indiana into units of morphometric similarity. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 78:317-328. 

4. Malott, C. A. 1922. The physiography of Indiana, p. 50-256 in W. B. Burford (ed.) 
Handbook of Indiana Geology. Indiana Dep. Consei-v., Publ. 21, Pt. 2, 1120 p. 

5. Schneider, A. F. 1966. Physiography, p. 40-56 in A. A. Lindsey (ed. ) Natural 
Features of Indiana, Indiana Acad. Sci. Sesquicentennial Vol. Indianapolis, Ind. 600 p. 

6. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service. 1973-75. 
Soil Survey (Crawford, Floyd and Clark, Harrison, Perry, Spencer Counties, Indiana). 

7. U.S. Geological Survey, Topographic maps, 7 ] />-minute series (Corydon West, De Pauw, 
Fulda Quadrangles, Indiana). 

8. Waldrip, D. B. and M. C. Roberts. 1972. The distribution of slopes in Indiana. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci. 81 :251-257. 

9. Wayne, W. J. 1966. Ice and land, p. 21-39 in A. A. Lindsey (ed.) Natural Features 
of Indiana, Indiana Acad. Sci. Sesquicentennial Vol. Indianapolis, Ind. 600 p. 



Engineering and Environmental Geology for Land Use Planning in 

Hamilton County, Indiana 

Gregory A. Brodie, Tennessee Valley Authority 
Nuclear Raw Materials Branch, Chattanooga, Tennessee 

Terry R. West, Purdue University, Department of Geosciences 
West Lafayette, Indiana 

Introduction 

Many natural aspects of the land must be considered when develop- 
ing detailed maps for application to land use planning. These include 
soils, topography, geology, drainage, ground water and present land use. 
A detailed study of Hamilton County, Indiana provides planners with 
an overview presented in map, table and text format (4). The materials 
can be used singly or in combination for various land use evaluations. 
Reported here is a summary of that study indicating the procedures 
involved and the primary results obtained. 

Hamilton County is located in central Indiana north of Indianapolis, 
and is bordered by Boone, Clinton, Hancock, Madison, Marion and Tipton 
Counties. Its population is about 60,000, and the area is undergoing rapid 
expansionary development. This growth has produced an immediate 
need for a study such as this on the geology and existing processes 
likely to be of import to proper land use planning. 

Methodology 

A review of literature concerned with urban planning, land use 
and engineering and enivronmental geology was undertaken to deter- 
mine the most important aspects needed for consideration in land use 
planning. 

Mapped general information topics included generalized topography, 
bedrock geology and topography, drainage channels and watershed 
boundaries. Map topics useful for land use planning include surficial 
geology, seismicity, glacial drift thickness, soils associations and series, 
ground water characteristics, and present land use. Specialized land use 
maps were prepared and included septic tank absorption field suitability, 
sanitary landfill site suitability, and materials resources. 

All maps were initially prepared on a 1:63,360 scale base map of 
Hamilton County to provide for sufficient detail. For presentation, these 
were reduced to 1:225,000 scale. 

Numerous sources of information were consulted, compiled and modi- 
fied in the preparation of the topical maps. USGS 7 Vo -minute topo- 
graphic quadrangles provided information for the maps of topography, 
drainage channels and watershed boundaries, and present land use. 
Present land use was modified using air photos of the Soil Conservation 
Service (SCS). 

Bedrock geology and topography were obtained and modified from : 
1. USGS l°x2° geologic quadrangle maps (5,10,16,17); 2. unpublished 

300 



Geography and Geology 301 

field maps of the Indiana Geological Survey (IGS) in Bloomington, 
Indiana; 3. ground-water well logs on open file at the Indiana De- 
partment of Natural Resources, Division of Water (DNR) ; 4. seismic 
survey data of the IGS; and 5. a published map of bedrock topography 
of northern Indiana (6). 

Surficial geology was modified from the USGS l°x2° geologic 
quadrangles using field maps of the IGS. Glacial drift thicknesses were 
modified from a published map (15) using water well logs at the DNR. 
Landsat I satellite imagery of Hamilton County was included and 
discussed relative to buried preglacial valleys underlying poorly drained 
soils. A fence diagram correlating glacial deposits throughout the 
county was prepared from water well logs. 

A general soils map (12) was included with a table of the engi- 
neering characteristics of the soil series in the county. 

Water well records were used in preparing the ground water map. 

Sanitary-landfill, site-suitability was prepared using previously 
prepared maps of this study and guidelines developed from several 
sources (2,3,13). Septic tank absorption field suitability was pre- 
pared using the detailed soil maps of the SCS (12). Materials resources 
were determined from previously prepared maps of this study and 
several IGS publications (1, 7, 8, 9, 14). 

Results 

The maps, tables and text of the complete report (4) can be used 
for various phases of land use planning in Hamilton County. The in- 
formation is generalized and should only act as a starting point for 
planning, rather than as a replacement for specific onsite investigations. 

Presently, the county has 80% of its acreage in farmland. A map 
of present land use (Figure 1) locates urban areas, pipelines, trans- 
portation systems and other cultural features. Developing industries 
and residential developments are best located where easy access to the 
area exists. This information is valuable in determining where future 
growth may occur by observing present and past trends of expansion. 

A map of the general soil associations of Hamilton County (12) 
provides an overview of the soil types, textures, parent materials and 
drainage characteristics and slopes. Because of the importance of 
soils information to most aspects of land use, a more detailed map or 
analysis of specific sites is warranted (12). 

Figure 2 shows areas of the county suitable for proper operation 
of septic tank absorption fields, which correlate well with the well- 
drained soil series. Most of the county has poorly drained soils, thus 
this map can be utilized to predict areas where wetness may be a 
problem for engineering operations. 

Figure 3 shows the surficial geology of the county, which, except 
for a few small bedrock outcrops, is due entirely to Pleistocene glacial 
deposition. Six separate geologic units have been identified at the sur- 
face, and several others exist in the subsurface. A few of these units 
are of economic significance, particularly as a source for sand and 



302 



Indiana Academy of Science 




R4E. R.St. 

Figure 1. Present land use in Hamilton County. 



J 



Figure 1. Present land use in Hamilton County. 
Airports 
Cemeteries 
Gravel Pits 



w Rock Quarries 

Railroads 

Interstate Highways 
State, U.S. Highways 
Pipelines, Oil, Gas and Products 
Forests, Woodlands 
Urbanized or Residential 
[ | Undeveloped or Agricultural 

Information taken from USGS topographic quadrangles, SCS soil survey 
of Hamilton County (Hosteter, 1978), Burger, Keller and Wayne 
(1966) and recent aerial photos (1971) 



Geography and Geology 



303 




Figure 2. Septic tank absorption field suitability. 




Figure b. Septic tank absorption field suitability. 

Areas covered with soils with good permeabilities consid- 
ered suitable for proper function of septic systems 

Map modified from Hosteter (1978). 

Cross-hatched area same as back. 



gravel aggregates. Glacial outwash deposits, Qgv, and recent alluvial 
deposits, Qsa, provide the best sources for sand and gravel. Esker and 
kame deposits, Qgk, may provide locally significant amounts of ag- 
gregate material. Paludal muck, Qgm is a source of some peat, marl, 
muck and clay, but the unit is better as an indicator for underlying 
sand and gravel deposits. Bog and swamp deposits, Qmp, provide peat 
and other organic materials. Glacial till, Qt, is the principal deposit 
covering the county which may locally provide aggregates, clay and 
organic materials, but is generally considered to have low economic 
value. 



304 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 3. Surficial geology of Hamilton County, Indiana. 



Figure 3. Surficial geology of Hamilton County, Indiana. 






Martinsville 
Formation 



Qsa — Alluvial silt, sand and gravel along 

Qgm — Paludal muck or clay overlying sand 
and gravel 
present floodplains 

Qmp — Paludal muck overlying peat or marl 



H 



Atherton 
Formation 



Qgv — Outwash sand and gravel 



Trafalgar 
Formation 



Qt— Glacial till 



Qgk — Sand and gravel in kames and eskers 






S — Limstone bedrock 



w 



Geography and Geology 



305 





Figure 4. Mineral resources of Hamilton County. 

Figure 4. Mineral resources of Hamilton County. 
Sand and Gravel Potential Deposits 

Rock, Areas Where Shallow Bedrock Exists (Less Than 
50 Feet) 

Peat, Marl and Muck 



Several areas in the county are underlain by shallow limestone 
bedrock or sand and gravel deposits which are of economic significance. 
Figure 4 shows the material resources available in the county. Rock 
sources are considered valuable where limestone bedrock is within 50 
feet of the surface. 

Developments for industry or residential purposes require a good 
supply of water. Two surface water reservoirs owned by the Indi- 
anapolis Water Company, Morse and Geist Reservoirs, are present in 



306 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 5. Ground water availability and static water levels. 



Figure 5. Ground water availability and static water levels 

Contour Interval 20 feet 

Areas where wells tap rock aquifers and some sand and 
gravel aquifers 



Areas where wells tap sand and gravel aquifers, and 
some rock aquifers 



Boundary of Principal Pleistocene Aquifer 

Data sources were water well logs on open file at 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 
Division of Water at Indianapolis, Indiana. 



Geography and Geology 307 

Hamilton County. Although used as water supplies the principal source 
of water is ground water, which represents a vast, untapped resource 
in this area. Ground water availability in Hamilton County has been 
detailed in an atlas by the Department of Natural Resources, Division 
of Water in Indianapolis (17). Figure 5 shows general availability of 
ground water as well as the contoured elevations of the static water 
levels in wells throughout the county. The major source of water is the 
Principal Pleistocene Aquifer, composed of glacial outwash and al- 
luvial sands and gravels. From this map and topographic information 
depths to static water levels can be determined, enabling one to predict 
lift requirements of well pumps and to interpret general ground water 
flow which occurs perpendicular to the water-level contours. Flow di- 
rections are important in siting water supply wells, which should be 
upgradient to sources of contamination such as sanitary landfills or 
septic tank absorption fields. Sanitary landfills should not be located 
such that regional ground water flow is through the fill material. 

As Hamilton County becomes more urbanized, there will be a great 
need for properly planned sites for solid waste disposal. Presently, sani- 
tary landfills are the accepted method of dealing with the majority of 
municipal and many industrial wastes. Figure 6 shows areas of the 
county where certain limitations exist for siting sanitary landfills. 
Several limiting parameters are used for designating site suitability 
including: 1. high permeability of existing surface or near-surface 
geologic materials; 2. extent of floodplain; 3. existence of limestone 
bedrock within 50 feet of the base of the completed fill ; and 4. presence 
of aquifers within 50 feet of the base of the fill. 

Conclusions 

A brief overview has been presented to aid in the general land 
use planning of Hamilton County, Indiana. Using the extensive in- 
ventory of the county (4), planners can make more appropriate de- 
cisions related to land use. Before any final determinations are made, 
detailed onsite investigations should be carried out. However, the in- 
formation in this report provides a suitable starting point for analysis 
and consideration of geologic and other physical factors important for 
proper land use. 



308 



Indiana Academy of Science 




IJ 



J 1 7\\ \\N i — ^/i ! r / y — x 

4E. 

Figure 6. Santiary landfill site suitability. 

Figure 6. Sanitary landfill site suitability. 

Areas where severe limitations exist due to sand and 
gravel at surface, extreme permeability of materials, 
flooding, shallow aquifers or lack of adequate cover 
materials. 



Areas where moderate to severe limitations arise from 
shallow (less than 50 feet) limestone bedrock. 



Areas where moderate to severe limitations arise from 
buried, shallow sand and gravel (less than 30 feet). 



Areas where slight to moderate limitations arise. Mostly 
till and impermeable soils cover these locations. 



Geography and Geology 309 

Literature Cited 

1. Austin, G. S., 1975, Clay and shale resources of Indiana, Ind. Geol. Surv. Bull. 
42-L, 42 p. 

2. Bell, John, 1979, Class notes, Solid waste collection and disposal, Civil Engineering 
Course CE557, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, Indiana. 

3. Bleuer, N. K., 1970, Geologic considerations in planning solid-waste disposal sites 
in Indiana, Ind. Geol. Surv. Spec. Rept. 5, 7 p. 

4. Brodie, Gregory, A., 1979, Engineering and environmental geology for land use 
planning in Hamilton County, Indiaa, M.S. Thesis, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, 
Indiana, 135 p. 

5. Burger, A. M., Jane Forsyth, W. S. Nicoll and W. J. Wayne, 1971, Geological 
map of the 1x2 Muncie quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing bedrock and un- 
consolidated deposits, Ind. Geol. Surv., scale 1 :250,000. 

6. Burger, A. M., S. J. Keller and W. J. Wayne, 1966, Map showing bedrock 
topography of northern Indiana, Misc. map 12, Ind. Geol. Surv., scale 1:500,000. 

7. Carr, D. D., R. R. French and C. H. Ault, 1971, Crushed stone aggregate re- 
sources of Indiana, Ind. Geol. Surv. Bull. 42-H, 38 p. 

8. Carr, D. D. and W. M. Webb, 1970, Sand and gravel resources of Indiana, Ind. 
Geol. Surv., 31 p. 

9. Gray, H. H., 1973, Properties and uses of geologic materials in Indiana, Reg. Geol. 
Map Series, Supplementary chart 1, Ind. Geol. Surv. 

10. Gray, H. H., Jane L. Forsyth, Alan F. Schneider and A. M. Gooding, 1972, 
Geologic map of the 1x2 Cincinnati quadrangle, Indiana and Ohio, showing bedrock 
and unconsolidated deposits, Ind. Geol. Surv. Reg. Map 7, scale 1:250,000. 

11. Herring, W. C, 1971, Water resources of Hamilton County, Indiana, with an 
emphasis on ground water availability, Ind. Dept. of Nat. Resources, Div. of Water, 
Indianapolis, Indiana, 1 sheet. 

12. Hosteter, W. D., 1978, Soil survey of Hamilton County, Indiana, USDA, SCS in 
cooperation with the Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station, 87 p. 

13. Hughes, G. M., 1972, Hydrogeologic considerations in the siting and design of 
landfills, Env. Geol. Notes 51, Geol. Surv., Urbana, 111., 154 p. 

14. Wayne, W. J., 1971, Marl Resources of Indiana, Ind. Geol. Surv. Bull. 42-G, 16 p. 

15. Wayne, W. J., 1956, Thickness of drift and bedrock physiography of Indiana 
north of the Wisconsin glacial boundary, Rept. Progress 7, Ind. Geol. Surv., 70 p. 

16. Wayne, W. J., G. H. Johnson and S. J. Keller, 1966, Geologic map of the 1x2 
Danville quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated 
deposits, Ind. Geol. Surv. Reg. Map 2, scale 1 :250,000. 

17. Wier, C. E. and H. H. Gray, 1361, Geologic map of the 1x2 Indianapolis quad- 
range, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits, Ind. Geol. 
Surv. Reg. Map 1, scale 1:250,000. 



Environmental Geology of Fountain, Parke, and Vermillion 
Counties, Indiana 

Roger F. Boneham, Department of Geology- 
Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana 46901 

Introduction 

This is one of a series of environmental studies of Indiana counties 
which I have undertaken in the past few years. An adjacent region 
was described last year (1). The object of this paper is to provide county 
planners and others involved in zoning decisions with the data necessary 
to make sound decisions on future growth patterns in the counties. 
Data necessary for such a study is available in the form of soil surveys 
by the federal government and water well data on file with the Division 
of Water, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 

The soil surveys used for this report (2, 3, 4) were necessary in 
that the soil type has a direct bearing upon the intended land usage. 
Modern soil surveys are used for many more purposes than the strictly 
agricultural uses of the past. Each soil type has specific parameters 
which must be taken into account when different uses are proposed for 
an area which has originally been agricultural. As an example, Genesee 
soil develops in an area which is subjected to periodic flooding. This 
may be a minor factor in farm land but it would be a major factor if 
a subdivision were to be proposed for the area. 

The water well records of a county are just as valuable in this 
type of investigation as the soil survey. The well data is useful in that 
it records the type of material at depth. Also it records the pressure 
surface of the ground water and, in some cases, depth to bedrock. 

Setting 

These three counties are along the western boundary of the 
state. The physiography of the area is of generally medium relief. 
There are fairly wide river valleys and rolling upland areas. Some of 
the soils are prairie-type soils and the tall grass prairie covered 
portions of this area when the land was originally settled. The re- 
mainder was in hardwood forest of the oak-maple-hickory association 
(2,3,4). 

The relief in the region is generally less than 200 feet. The most 
rugged topography may be found along Sugar Creek in Parke County. 
Turkey Run State Park has cliffs along the river that are quite steep. 
The entire area has been glaciated. The major portion has Wisconsin 
age material on the surface (7, 8). In the southeastern corner of Parke 
County there is an area of Illinoian age material (8). 

The area is along the eastern edge of the Illinois Basin. Bedrock 
is mainly Pennsylvanian shales and sandstones with some valuable coal 
seams throughout the section. In the northeastern portion there are 
some Mississippian age shales and limestones. Coal mining has been 

310 



Geography and Geology 311 

a minor activity for some years in this area. Presently Vermillion 
County has mining actively going on. The price of coal is high enough 
so that other mining ventures — particularly strip mining — is likely to 
begin in the near future. Weir (8) has estimated the recoverable coal 
reserves in this area as approximately 400 million tons, most of 
which occur in Vermillion County. 

Figure 1 illustrates the bedrock topography of the area. Three 
pre-glacial bedrock valleys cross this area (5). The largest is the Dan- 
ville Valley, which enters in the vicinity of Shades State Park and 
travels westerly to the present valley of the Wabash River then turns 
northwesterly and leaves the area near its northwest corner. A second 
pre-glacial valley follows the present valley of the Wabash River in a 
southerly direction. The Montclair Valley enters the area in its south- 
eastern corner and travels south westward to a junction with the pre- 
glacial Wabash Valley a few miles south of the county boundary in 
Vigo County. The circular depressions indicate sinkholes in the bed- 
rock. These are not evident from topographic maps having been filled 
in with glacial material. 

Figure 2 shows the elevation above sea level of the ground water 
pressure surface. The ground water flow is toward the Wabash River 
then south along the river valley. Water wells generally appear ade- 
quate for domestic use. The average six-inch diameter well has a 
flow rate of 15 gallons per minute. Generally flow rates are higher in 
the Wabash Valley sands and gravels than in most other sites. Bed- 
rock wells yield lower flow rates than those in the unconsolidated glacial 
material. Industries seeking locations for new factories should consider 
locations near the Wabash River if they use large quantities of water. 

Figure 3 shows the flood plains in the area. There are certain soils 
which only develop on areas which are flooded with some regularity. 
In this area these soil types are: Allison, Armiesburg, Eel, Genesee, 
Huntsville, Landes, Shoals, Sloan, Tawas, Wallkill, and Zipp. No 
permanent structures should be built on any of these soils. Their best 
use is probably as wetlands for wildlife reserves. Compatable with 
this use would be selective logging of the mature trees. Some com- 
munities may wish to establish parks along portions of these areas. 
Occasional spring flooding would not interfer with this use. Some of 
these sites have been cleared and are farmed. This is another acceptable 
use for flood plains. 

Figure 4 is a map of the soil types with good to fair drainage and 
soils with poor drainage. This map is an aid to planners who must 
judge whether large subdivisions should be allowed to use septic sys- 
tems or should be connected to a centralized waste treatment facility. 
The internal drainage of a soil is a function of the fine grained ma- 
terial present. The greater the percentage of fine grained material 
(clay) the slower the drainage of water through the soil. 

The slope of a soil is important if it is higher than 12 per cent. 
Sewage traveling through steep sloping soil will drain too fast to 
allow for complete breakdown of the organic matter by the soil bac- 



312 



Indiana Academy of Science 




■f/i/\i/. 



Figure 1. Bedrock surface elevation, in feet, above sealevel. 



Geography and Geology 



313 




Figure 2. Elevation, in feet above sealcvel, of ground water pressure surface. 



314 



Indiana Academy of Science 




i *'• 



Figure 3. Flood-prone areas, in black, of the counties. 



Geography and Geology 



315 




FIGURE 4. Suitability of soils for septic tank fields. Black areas are poor and white 

areas are fair to good. 



316 Indiana Academy of Science 

teria. As a general rule septic systems should not be built on 12% or 
higher slopes. 

A third type of land that is not recommended for subdivisions are 
those areas in which bedrock is very close to the surface. Construction 
costs are high where bedrock knobs must be leveled. Also, the problem 
of aquifer contamination is greatly increased when septic systems are 
close to porous bedrock. Underground utilities are difficult to place 
in some areas without blasting trenches. Soil types which develop over 
shallow bedrock should be avoided. 

These soil types which have fair to good drainage characteristics 
are: 

Alford, Ayrshire, Birkbeck, Camden, Carrington, Celina, Chel- 
sea <12% slopes, Cincinnati, Crane, Crosby, Dana, Elston, 
Fincastle, Fox <12% slopes, Iva, Ockley <12% slopes, Parke 
<12% slopes, Parr, Princeton <12% slopes, Raub, Reesville, 
Rush, Russell <12% slopes, Sidell, Sleeth, Sunbury, Tip- 
pecanoe, Toronto, Warsaw, Wea, Whitaker, Wingate, and 
Xenia. 

The soils with poor drainage are: 

Bonpas, Brookston, Clyde, Conover, Delmar, Helt, Linwood, 
Ragsdale, Romney, Washtenaw, Westland, and Whitson. Soils 
with steep slopes are: Chelsea >12% slopes, Fox >12% 
slopes, Hennepin, Hickory, Negley, Ockley >12 f / f slopes, Parke 
>12% slopes, Princeton >12% slopes, Rodman and Russell 
>12% slopes. Soils that develop over shallow bedrock are: 
High Gap, Lordstown, Muskingum, and Shadeland. 

Figure 5 shows the thickness of glacial drift in the area. Generally 
the thickness of unconsolidated material is sufficient in most areas so 
that shallow bedrock will not be a problem for most construction 
projects. Shallow bedrock is usually found along the cliffs of some 
rivers. Such places are not good building sites for the most part due 
to the steepness of the slopes. 

Figure 6 is a map of potential sanitary landfill sites. There are 
a number of potential sites in the area. Sanitary landfills must be 
located in soils that have high clay content. The low permiability of 
such soils retards the movement of leachates from the buried trash. The 
best sites have fifty feet of clay measured from the surface. Acceptable 
sites have thirty feet of clay measured from the surface. 

These are only suggested sites. A detailed drilling program under 
the supervision of a person familiar with the State Board of Health 
Regulations governing sanitary landfills would be needed to evaluate a 
specific site. 



Geography and Geology 



317 




Figure 5. Thickness, in feet, of glacial drift. 



318 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 6. Potential sanitary landfill sites. Black areas have 50 feet of clay and striped 

areas have 30 feet of clay. 



Geography and Geology 319 

Literature Cited 

1. Boneham, R. F. 1979. Environmental Geology of Vigo, Clay, and Sullivan Counties, 
Indiana. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 88:242-249. 

2. Buckhannan, W. H., J. S. James, A. T. Wiancko, and S. D. Conner. 1934. 
Soil Survey of Vermillion County, Indiana. U. S. Dep. Agr. Series 1930, No. 20. 
39 p. 

3. Deal, J., K. K. Kuffman, C. Guernsey, and R. H. Sturm. 1966. Soil Survey of 
Fountain County, Indiana. U. S. Dep. Agr. Series 1961, No. 40. 122 p. 

4. Ulrich, H. P., A. L. Zachery, T. E. Barnes, P. T. Veale, G. H. Robinson, A. P. 
Bell, and J. Combes. 1967. Soil Survey of Parke County, Indiana. U. S. Dap. Agr. 
Series 1949, No. 12. 95 p. 

5. Wayne, W. J. 1956. Thickness of drift and bedrock physiography of Indiana 
north of the Wisconsin glacial boundary. Indiana Geol. Surv. Rept. Prog. 7. 70 p. 

6. , G. H. Johnson, and S. J. Keller. 1966, Geologic map of the 1° x 2° 

Danville quadrangle, Indiana and Illinois, showing bedrock and unconsolidated 
deposits. Indiana Geol. Surv. Reg. Geol. Map 2, Danville Sheet. 

7. Wier, C. E. 1973, Coal resources of Indiana. Indiana Geol. Surv. Bull. 42-1. 40 p. 

8. , and H. H. Gray. 1961. Geologic map of the Indianapolis 1° x 2° quad- 
rangle, Indiana and Illinois showing bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Indiana 
Geol. Surv. Reg. Geol. Map, Indianapolis Sheet. 



The Spatial Distribution of Perceived 
Air Quality in Terre Haute, Indiana 

Stephan J. Stadler (Michigan State Univ.) 

and 
John E. Oliver (Indiana State Univ.) 

Introduction 

A number of researchers have studied possible relationships be- 
tween air pollution and urban socioeconomic residential patterns. Such 
studies have not, however, considered air pollution in a perceptual 
framework. Yet, if air pollution affects urban residential patterns, 
residents' perceptions of air pollution must somehow be involved. The 
object of this paper is to present a methodology by which to spatially 
model air pollution in an urban area such that the model incorporates 
a human perceptual applicability. The study area is Terre Haute, Indi- 
ana, a city that has experienced problems attaining regulatory air 
pollution levels in recent years. 

As part of a study assessing spatial effects of air pollution in 
Terre Haute, it was necessary to quantify air pollution for locations 
throughout the city. Two difficulties were inherent to this quantifica- 
tion: (1) Terre Haute does not have a closely-spaced network of air 
pollution sites and (2) air pollution is actually myriad substances in 
all three states of matter. 

In relation to the latter point, people in Terre Haute perceive air 
pollution as an entity, and not as a series of unit pollutant components. 
This has been shown in random interviews with residents (Good, 1978) 
and agrees with the results of interviews conducted in other cities. 
Additionally, work has shown that the residents identify "air pollu- 
tion" almost exclusively with "industrial air pollution". Therefore, in 
this study it was deemed appropriate to use a single composite value 
to represent the presence of air pollution at any site using as a base 
the emissions inventory of Terre Haute's industries. Development of 
such a value requires mathematical modeling of atmospheric dispersion 
employing the emissions data to derive city wide concentration of indi- 
vidual pollutants. This permitted derivation of a total pollution value 
for each industry to use as input to a dispersion model. 

A Perceptual Pollution Index 

Surrogates — usually sulfur dioxide or particulate matter — have been 
used to describe intracity pollution patterns. In studying Terre Haute's 
industrial emission, it was apparent that use of a single pollutant 
as a surrogate neglected the relative importance of some industries 
as pollution sources. If, for example, sulfur dioxide had been selected 
as a single, surrogate pollutant — ostensibly representative of total 
air pollution — several "dirty", particulate-emitting industries would 
contribute little to the patterns of air pollution. So, incorporation of 
all five of the pollutants that are part of the inventory was appropriate. 

320 



Geography and Geology 321 

Indices have long been used in pollution research. Babcock (1970) 
combined major primary pollutants and oxidant into a total pollution 
value. This scheme is of note because it weighted pollutants by relative 
toxicities rather than mass concentrations. Babcock's weighting were 
based on (then) proposed California air quality standards. Unfortu- 
nately, commonly available dispersion models do not consider oxidant- 
producing synergisms. Walther (1972) used Babcock's work to assess 
the relative effects of emissions sources. He followed Babcock's reasoning 
in rating primary pollutants according to the USEPAs National Am- 
bient Air Quality Standards. Tables 1 and 2, respectively, give the 
Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards and the weighting 
of Babcock and Walther. 

Table 1. Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards 1971 

Pollutant Time Scale Standard 

Carbon Monoxide 1-HR* 40.000 

8-HR* 10.000 

Hydrocarbons 3-HR* .160 
Nitrogen Oxides Annual Arith. 

Mean .100 

Particulate Matter 24-HR* .150 

Annual Geom. Mean .060 

Sulfur Oxides 3-HR* 1.300 

24-HR* .365 

Annual Arith. 

Mean .080 

* Not to be exceeded more than once per year 

24-HR Standards for SO x and PM have since been deleted 

Table 2. Weighting of Pollutants Based on Standards 

Pollutant 

Carbon Monoxide 
Hydrocarbons 
Nitrogen Oxides 
Particulate Matter 
Sulfur Oxides 

1 From Babcock (1970) 

2 From Walther (1972). Carbon monoxide is used as the reference pollutant and tolerance 
factors divided into 5600 to obtain effect factors. 

The present study used Walthers Effect Factors to create a pol- 
lution index. The five major primary pollutants for each Terre Haute 
industry were weighted according to the Secondary Standards and then 
summed into an index value. Secondary Standards are based on the 
best scientific evidence as to the effects of specific pollutants upon the 
public welfare. Theoretically, the greater the index value, the greater 
the pollution burden perceived by the public. 

The National Ambient Air Quality Standards are not based on 
odor; but Odor is an important part of the public's perception of air 



Tolerance Factor 1 


Effect Factor- 


5600 


1.0 


45 


125.0 


250 


22.4 


150 


37.3 


260 


21.5 



322 Indiana Academy of Science 

pollution. Flesh and others (1974) conducted a national survey of the 
public and derived a list of odorous industries. This list was used to 
determine which of Terre Haute's industrial sources were odorous. If an 
industry was classified as odorous, its index value was doubled. The 
resulting- value was considered a crude approximation of the public's 
perceptions of relative pollution concentrations. The value derived from 
the summation was termed the Perceptional Pollution Index value. The 
general form of the equation is given in Table 3 and an example of its 
use to derive a Perceptual Pollution Index for a single industry is pre- 
sented in Table 4. 

Table 3. Perceptual Pollution Index Equation 

PPI = ((HC X 125) + (NO x X 22.4) + (PM X 37.3) + (SO x X 21.5) + CO) + O.F. 

WHERE PPI is the Perceptual Pollution Index number 

HC are Hydrocarbons 

NO x are Nitrogen Oxides 

PM is particulate matter 

SO x are Sulfur Oxides 

CO is Carbon Monoxide 
AND O.F. is the odor factor 2 for odorous sources 

1 for nonodorous sources 



Table 4. Example of Index for a Single Source 

Malleable Iron Foundry (Classified as an odorous source; O.F. = 2) Data from Vigo 
County Emissions Inventory: 

Pollutant Emission Rates (GM/SEC) 

Hydrocarbons .232 

Nitrogen Oxides 3.248 

Particulate Matter .812 

Sulfur Oxides . 5.394 

Carbon Monoxide .464 

Derivation of PPI 

( ( ( .232 X 125) + (3.248 X 22.4) + ( .812 X 37.3) + (5.394 X 21.5) + .464) X 2) = 215.037 

Mapping the Values 

A Perceptual Pollution Index value was calculated for each of 
Terre Haute's industrial sources. These values were used as emission 
rates in Busse and Zimmerman's Climatological Dispersion Model 
(1973). In this way, Perceptional Pollution Index values were calculated 
for each city block in Terre Haute. Using meteorological data from five 
years, the inputs to the climatological dispersion model were amended 
for different sets of atmospheric and temporal parameters. Selected 
results are given in Figures 1, 2 and 3. Figure 1 shows the distribution 
of Perceptional Pollution Index values for annual conditions in the 
sections of Terre Haute on the floor of the Wabash Valley. This con- 
striction of study area was made necessary by the fact that simple 
dispersion modeling is unable to consider significant topographic vari- 



Geography and Geology 



323 




VALUE RANGES 
< 2,945 



2,945 - 5,167 
5,168 - 10,306 
> 10,306 



Figure 1. Perceptual Pollution Index values for annual conditions in Tcrre Haute, Ind. 

ations. The map, at this scale, does not show the intricacies of the 
block-by-block patterns derived. It should be noted that Perceptional 
Pollution Index values represented on the map are on the order of 10 (! 
times less concentrated than the values used as input. For the annual 
case, the actual values range from less than 100 to greater than 19000. 
This range is amenable to correlation with other variables because the 
index values noticeably vary over horizontal distances on the order of a 
city block. Maps 2 and 3 indicate striking changes in the pattern of 
values for south wind and east wind conditions. 



324 



Indiana Academy of Science 



n 




Km. 



Figure 2. Perceptual Pollution Index values for south wind conditions in Terre 

Haute, Ind. 



These three maps may be taken as a measure of the perceived 
air quality. Clearly, air pollution would be most readily observed when 
meteorological conditions are conducive to higher pollution levels (e.g. 
as in Figure 2). What is noteworthy, however, are the gradients that 
occur. Despite the relatively high industrial pollution effluent, perceived 
air quality varies over a relatively short distance from the source. If 
air pollution does influence socioeconomic conditions, then areas of 
perceived pollution as indicated in the maps, should be indicative of 
the relationship. Such a thesis is currently being tested. 



Geography and Geology 



:>>25 




VALUE RANGES 
< 2,945 

I I 2,945 - 5,167 

5,168 - 10,306 
> 10,306 



Figure 3. Perceptual Pollution Index values for east wind conditions in 

Haute, hid. 



Tcrre 



Conclusion 

The authors realize that the Perceptional Pollution Index is only 
a first approximation of the complexities of reality. However, it is de- 
sirable to have a complete knowledge of the effects of urban air pol- 
lution. This methodology offers the promise of allowing comparison of a 
total air pollution value with socioeconomic variables. Only then can air 
pollution control strategies be administered with consistent success. 
The authors would like to thank the Indiana Academy of Science for 
financial support for this project. 



326 Indiana Academy of Science 

References Cited 

1. Babcock, Lyndon R. "A Combined Pollutant Index for Measurement of Total Air 
Pollution". Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 20 (October 1970): 
653-659. 

2. Busse, Adrian D; and Zimmerman, John R. User's Guide for the Climatological 
Dispersion Model. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency. 

3. Flesh, David R; Burns, James C; and Turk, Amos C. "An Evaluation of Com- 
munity Problems Caused by Industrial Odors" in Human Responses to Environ- 
mental Odors, pp. 33-44. Edited by Amos C. Turk; James W. Johnston, Jr.; and 
David G. Moulton. New York: Academic Press, 1974. 

4. Good, James K. "A Comparison of Perceived and Desired Urban Environmental 
Quality", Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana State University, 1978. 

5. Walther, Eric G. "A Rating of the Major Air Pollutants and Their Sources by 
Effects". Journal of the Air Polution Control Association 22 (May 1971): 35-42. 



HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

Chairman: William W. Bloom 
Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 

Chairman-Elect: Patrick H. Steele 
Cambridge City, Indiana 47327 

Biology at Valparaiso University. William W. Bloom, Valparaiso Uni- 
versity. This paper traces the history of instruction in biology at 

Valparaiso University beginning with the founding of the school as 
the Valparaiso Male and Female College in 1859 by the Northwestern 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Classes were suspended 
in 1869 due to the Civil War. Major changes occurred during the 
period following 1873 when it became known as the Northern Indiana 
Normal School after it was purchased and reorganized as a proprietary 
school by H. B. Brown. While still a proprietary school the administra- 
tion ventured into instruction in pharmacy, medicine and dentistry, 
with professional schools in Chicago, and a four-year venture into a 
Department of Agriculture. These grandiose ventures no doubt weakened 
the school educationally and financially. When the property of the 
foundering school was bought by the Valparaiso University Associ- 
ation, a group of Lutherans, the biology offerings were reduced to a 
manageable size and the process of building a competent faculty began. 
The university now offers a strong but limited program in the biological 
sciences and provides service courses for the College of Nursing and 
other departments in the College of Arts and Sciences. 

The need for an incorporation of science history into the history of 
the development of western civilization. Everett F. Morris, Purdue Uni- 
versity Calumet. That there is no one approach to the study of 

history is quite evident to all. An almost exhaustive variety of ap- 
proaches to the past confronts us. None of these offers a monopoly on 
truth and none offers assurance of greater understanding than the 
others. Textbooks as well as courses taught on the development of 
western civilization are dominated by political, diplomatic, biographical 
and military approaches. For any of the important events and ideas 
of the past related to science to be included is a rarity. How can our 
students possibly gain an understanding of the development of western 
civilization when the ideas and accomplishments of Newton, Harvey, 
Leeuwenhoek, Galileo, Pasteur, Bernard, and Einstein, to name but a 
few, are omitted? An eclectic approach to the history of the ''develop- 
ment of western civilization" is essential. 



327 



The Development of American Odonatology 

B. Elwood Montgomery 

Professor Emeritus of Entomology 

Purdue University 

The first reference to dragonflies from America which has been 
found is in a letter from James Petiver to the collector, Hugh Jones, 
in Maryland, dated October 6, 1698, acknowledging receipt of a shipment 
of insects including Libella. Jones had come to this country as the 
personal chaplin to a newly appointed governor of Maryland, but his 
selection for this position was due more to his potential as a collector 
of natural history specimens then to any ecclesiastical qualities he may 
have had. 

Petiver and Henry Compton, the Bishop of London, were members 
of the Temple Coffee House botanical "club." Members of this club had 
been the recipients of many natural history specimens sent by John 
Banister from Virginia. When Banister was killed in an accident in 
1692 they were very eager to find someone to continue the collecting in 
America. Such an opportunity appeared when Francis Nicholson, him- 
self a dilettante in natural history was appointed governor of Mary- 
land in 1694 and was in need of a chaplin. Edward Lhuyd of Oxford, a 
friend of Petiver recommended Jones, who although he had "little skill" 
in botany, had "some little smattering in other parts of Nat. History" 
and could be made "a fit man to succeed Mr. Banister." He was still 
an undergraduate and was hardly prepared for holy orders, but his 
promise as a collector caused any deficiency in ministerial qualities to 
be overlooked. He was ordained and appointed a representative of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel on recommendation of the 
Bishop, daily treated and complimented by Petiver, well supplied with 
directions and apparatus for collecting by the members of the "club," 
and dispatched to Maryland in the spring of 1696. Although several 
shipments of insects and other organisms were sent to Petiver and 
others, the latter wrote Jones repeatedly asking for more. Jones was 
unhappy in the New World, became seriously ill in 1700 and died in 
January, 1701/1702. 

The endeavors of the members of the "botanical club" to obtain 
material from America was typical of the natural history of this country 
for a long period and in Odonatology this "colonial" condition of the art 
continued for at least a century and a half. It reached a climax in 1790 
when John Abbott, an indefatigable collector and a skilled painter of 
insects, plants, etc., was sent to America by three or four of the leading 
entomologists of England to collect specimens for their cabinets. After 
visiting several localities in many parts of the Union he settled in 
Scriven County, Georgia. For the next 20 years or more he sent in- 
numerable specimens and hundreds of plates of paintings to Europe, 
chiefly to John Francillon, a silversmith of London. Francillon pur- 
chased them from Abbott for 3d per specimen and sold them for 6d or 
more. Although thousands of specimens and drawings were thus dis- 

328 



History of Science 329 

tributed to collectors and museums throughout Europe, Francillon for 
obvious reasons did not often, if ever, reveal the source of the material. 
However, these specimens were described in all the principal entomol- 
ogical publications of the period. Thus, the basis of American syste- 
matic entomology, both specimens and publications, were located in 
Europe. 

The first paper on the Odonata by an American author was an 
article by John Bartram of Philadelphia in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions of London in 1750/1751. The first discussion of the group to appear 
in America was written by Thomas Say, a great grandson of John 
Bartram, probably about 1833 in New Harmony, Indiana, and read 
before the Academy of natural Science of Philadelphia in 1834, but for 
some unknown reason, not published until 1839. Only three other 
American authors even mentioned the group before 1861. In that 
year an extensive treatment of the order appeared as part of the 
Synopsis of Neuroptera of North America prepared for the Smithsonian 
Institution by the German entomologist H. A. Hagen, one of the two 
world authorities on the group at that time. 

For the remainder of the 19th century only a very few papers 
devoted exclusively to the Odonata appeared and these were written 
by authors interested in the general field of entomology. 

Odonatology in America may be said to have reached full develop- 
ment a few years before 1900. The following 40 years is the "classical 
period" of the science. During this period the first group of writers to 
devote their major or sole activities in entomology to the Odonata were 
active; a few of them had been writing about dragonflies somewhat 
earlier and many continued to write later. They included : P. P. Calvert, 
Francis Harvey, A. P. Morse, James G. Needham, E. B. Williamson, 
James S. Hine, Thomas W. Fyles, Clement S. Brimley, C. H. Kennedy, 
E. M. Walker and R. A. Muttkowski. 



The Mid-Victorian Physicists and the Founding 
of the Cavendish Laboratory 1 

John Sevier 
Indiana University at South Bend, South Bend, Indiana 46615 

The opening of the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University 
in 1874 marked the arrival of professional science in the British uni- 
versity system. The establishment of the Cavendish was an achievement 
of a group which included Maxwell, Kelvin, Faraday, Joule, Stokes, 
Rankine and Rayleigh — as well as men of lesser scientific reputation 
who nonetheless played significant roles in the development of physics: 
i.e., men such as John Tyndall, Peter Guthrie Tait, William Grove, 
Balfour Stewart and Fleeming Jenkin. These mid- Victorian physicists 
were responsible for the development of the modern idea of energy and 
for the creation of physics as an intellectual discipline (14). They were 
also leaders in popularizing physics; they were instrumental in de- 
veloping visible applications of physical theory and persuasive about 
the intrinsic value of scientific work. 

Above all these men firmly established professional science in the 
British universities and thereby laid the groundwork for academic 
careers for scientists in Britain. As they brought physics into the 
British academic world, they developed a new synthesis of theory and 
experiment and gave the discipline a particular cast, one which, to a 
certain extent, it retains today. 

What I should like to do in this paper is first to recount the events 
that led to the founding of the Cavendish Laboratory, second to briefly 
describe the group that was most responsible for these events, third to 
examine some of the actions the members of this group took to bring 
physics into Cambridge University, and finally to focus on Clerk Max- 
well's presentation of physics as a 'liberal' discipline. 

The Founding of the Cavendish Laboratory 

Despite increased respect among laymen in mid-19th century 
Britain, the prestige of science and the status of scientists remained 
low. The increased popularity of science was to some extent grounded 
in its appeal to practical interests, and it was seen as "a tool for trade" 
rather than an intellectual activity of high importance — ". . . suitable 
for the lower ranks of the hierarchy, but not fcr gentlemen . . ." (3). 
The low reputation of science at mid-century was reflected in the ex- 
clusion of scientific pursuits from the British universities. 

During the 1850s, however, there was strong pressure on Oxford 
and Cambridge Universities to open their doors to new students and 
their curricula to new subjects. This pressure grew out of the industrial 
revolution and was focused on the universities from three directions. 



1 This paper was funded in part by research grants from IUSB. It is part of a 
larger work which is to be published in Minerva, A Review of Science, Learning and 
Policy. 

330 



History of Science 331 

First, business and professional people, newly rich and powerful, were 
clamoring for the admission of their children and for curricula relevant 
to the vocations these new entrants would pursue. Second, other groups, 
including scientists, were calling for curricular reform, along the lines 
of the German university model, as a way of meeting the threat of 
foreign economic and technological competition. Third, there was broad 
interest in opening up the universities to diverse religious groups 
through the removal of statutory restrictions. 

Eventually the "Old Universities" responded to this pressure. Ox- 
ford moved first in 1866 with the election of R. B. Clifton to a chair. 
Clifton had begun to organize experimental physics at Owen's College 
a few years earlier. He immediately set out to do the same at Oxford, 
insisting that for the first time laboratory training be a required part 
of the science curriculum. In 1868 construction was begun on the Claren- 
don Laboratory, in 1870 classes were held there, and in 1872 it was 
completed. 

While Clifton's appointment and the opening of the Clarendon did 
represent a gain for physical science, jubilation would have been pre- 
mature. Clifton was never more than a minor figure in physics. He 
did no significant research, he taught only undergraduates, and his 
idea of experimental work was the controlled repetition of standard 
exercises illustrating theoretical precepts. Clifton, a 20th century British 
physicists commented, "lived to a great age and for just fifty years he 
was successful in forbidding all physical experiment in the Clarendon 
Laboratory." (7). 

Meanwhile a much more significant development was brewing at 
Cambridge (2, 5, 15, 18, 19). There a faculty syndicate was appointed 
in 1868 to consider the best ways of meeting new demands for the teach- 
ing of physics that resulted from the earlier inclusion of topics on heat, 
electricity and magnetism in the mathematical tripos. In their Feb- 
ruary 1869 report, this committee argued for an experimental course 
of lectures, the founding of a new professorship, and the construction 
of a "well-appointed" laboratory — all at an estimated cost of £6300 in 
initial outlay and £660 p. a. for stipends. The university Senate ac- 
cepted these recommendations and appointed a second syndicate in 
May 1869 to consider the ways and means of providing the necessary 
funds. 

The task of the second syndicate was more difficult. Over the next 
year this committee developed and had rejected a number of plans. The 
most nearly acceptable of these was one which would have made capital 
outlays from University surpluses and would have covered the stipends 
through a small, temporary increase (from 17 to 19 shillings) in the 
Capitation Tax paid by the Colleges each year to the University to 
meet the levies of the Town of Cambridge. Even this modest proposal 
was beaten back because of the 2 shilling tax increase, and the matter 
lay in limbo through the summer of 1870. During the summer, how- 
ever, something happened. 

In October 1870 the Duke of Devonshire, a wealthy and influential 
aristocrat and industrialist, a mathematics graduate of Cambridge and 



332 Indiana Academy of Science 

an amateur scientist, offered the University funds to meet the capital 
requirements for a laboratory (£6300). Resistance evaporated, and the 
colleges now committed themselves to a permanent levy of 17 shillings 
per capita, far greater support for science than they had been willing 
to consider earlier in the year. In due course, after Sir William Thom- 
son (later Lord Kelvin) and Hermann von Helmholtz declined to stand, 
Clerk Maxwell was elected as the first Cavendish Professor (23). In 
March of 1871 he arrived in Cambridge to supervise the planning and 
construction of the laboratory. He gave his inaugural lecture the fol- 
lowing autumn. The laboratory was partly completed in October 1873 
and used for lectures that term and for laboratory instruction the 
following spring. The Cavendish Laboratory was formally inaugurated 
on June 16, 1874, and experimental physics was thereby officially intro- 
duced into the curriculum of Cambridge University. As the course of 
the history of science since then has proven, this was a very significant 
moment for British scientists and their work. 

The Mid-Victorian Physicists and Their Actions 

Behind the important event of June 16, 1874 were a group of men 
whose actions made the founding of the Cavendish Laboratory an 
achievement rather than a happenstance. This group was intially de- 
fined through its promulgation of the idea of energy. Energy, its con- 
servation and degradation — especially after these ideas were succinctly 
expressed in the first two laws of thermodynamics — provided a new and 
fruitful way of seeing the world (6, 8, 9, 12). Physical scientists in- 
creasingly adopted these ideas after 1850 and oriented their investiga- 
tions in accord with them. By 1855 a definable scientific group emerged, 
a group I call the mid- Victorian physicists. 

Collectively the 145 or so members of this group between 1855 and 
1875 have some interesting characteristics. They are overwhelmingly 
of high social standing — both with regard to their social origins (more 
than 90% from the upper or upper middle classes) and in terms of 
their educational backgrounds (e.g., 40% were Oxford or Cambridge 
University graduates). This was a privileged group of men, not only 
in comparison to British society generally but also in comparison to 
other scientists, for example, the British chemists of the same period. 
The mid-Victorian physicists were also far more likely to pursue pro- 
fessional academic careers than other scientists of their era, even 
though this was a time before professional science had been established 
in the universities. Finally, in comparison both to earlier scientists and 
to their scientific contemporaries, the British physicists of the third 
quarter of the 19th century tended to be religious and religiously ortho- 
dox. In the eyes of those at Oxford and Cambridge, who were under 
increasing attack for their religious restrictiveness, and who were just 
beginning to confront the implications of the "Darwinian Revolution" 
as these were being developed by Thomas Huxley and others, the 
religious tendency of the physicists was an important feature of the 
group. 



History of Science 333 

The mid-Victorian physicists were then a group of scientists who 
had an inherent interest in bringing science into the British universities 
and whose social backgrounds and orientations signaled a natural 
affinity between themselves and the universities, particularly Oxford 
and Cambridge. Both individually and collectively, the physicists under- 
took a number of actions to pursue these interests and affinities, actions 
which led directly to the founding of the Cavendish Laboratory. In 
this paper I am concerned with examing those actions which presented 
physics as a field that was appropriate for inclusion in the established 
curricula of Oxford and Cambridge Universities. 

The presentation of physics to lay audiences from 1855 to the found- 
ing of the Cavendish had two phases. During the first phase, the 
physicists worked within the tradition of popular science that had been 
established at the Royal Institution of London, modified for wider 
audiences at the Mechanics' Institutes, and amplified through the 
plethora of popular scientific journals published between 1830 and 1870 
(10, 15, 16). During the second phase, the presentation of physics 
became 'elementary' rather than 'popular' science, and the audience 
became the universities and prospective physicists rather than the 
public at large. 

Between 1855 and 1867 British physicists published nearly 50 
popular scientific books expounding their views; and almost half of 
the "Friday Evening Discourses" at the Royal Institution, plus un- 
counted articles in popular journals, dealt with important issues in 
mid-Victorian physics. John Tyndall was an important figure dur- 
ing this phase. He lectured often, wrote many articles and published 
several books (24, 26). In his lecture "On the Study of Physics" (1854), 
for example, he argued for the value of the then new physical knowl- 
edge and of its pursuit. Physics "has given us glimpses of the methods 
of Nature which were quite hidden from the ancients. . . ." The ''earnest 
prosecutor" of this science has, moreover, discovered "an indirect means 
of the highest moral culture." "The strictest precision of thought is 
everywhere enforced, and prudence, foresight, and sagacity are de- 
manded." And with this discipline also come "treasures of power of 
which antiquity never dreamed," in the form of "mastery over Nature." 
Although these ends are not central, "this gradual conquest of the 
external world, and the consciousness of augmented strength which ac- 
companies it, render the study of Physics as delightful as it is im- 
portant." The utility of physics was, for Tyndall, connected with its 
intrinsic worth. 

But while the scientific investigator, [he argued] standing upon 
the frontiers of human knowledge, and aiming at the conquest of 
fresh soil from the surrounding region of the unknown, makes the 
discovery of truth his exclusive object for the time, he cannot but 
feel the deepest interest in the practical application of the truth dis- 
covered. There is something ennobling in the triumph of Mind over 
Matter. Apart even from its uses to society, there is something 
elevating in the idea of Man having tamed that wild force which 
flashes through the telegraphic wire, and made it the minister of 
his will. 



334 Indiana Academy of Science 

He closed his lecture by drawing upon his earlier experience as a 
schoolmaster. He described how he would "withdraw the boys from the 
routine of the book" so as to permit them to struggle unaided with chal- 
lenging questions. The results confirmed all he had claimed for the pur- 
suit of science: "I have seen his eyes brighten, and, at length, with a 
pleasure of which the ecstacy of Archimedes was but a simple ex- 
pansion, heard him exclaim, 'I have it, sir.' " 

The works of Tyndall, as well as those of other mid-Victorian 
physicists, were widely circulated and well-reviewed in both serious 
and popular media. Such statements, coupled with numerous visible 
applications of physics, led to a general approbation for the work of 
these men. Queen Victoria spoke for a large segment of the British 
public in the praiseful dedication with which she knighted William 
Thomson in 1866 (23) : 

In testimony of their high appreciation of his successful efforts to 
increase our knowledge of the natural laws of heat, magnetism, 
and electricity, the means of rendering their powers practically 
useful, and especially of his valuable services in connection with 
submarine telegraphy, and the now successful completion of the 
laying of the Atlantic Cable. 

It was on this congratulatory note that the mid-Victorian physicists 
reoriented their public statements of and about their work. 

This reorientation (and the second phase of the presentation of 
physics) began with Kelvin's and Tait's textbook, Treatise on Natural 
Philosophy (22). The publication of this book by the Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press in 1867 marked a shift in the public presentation of 
physics toward the recruiting and training of professional practitioners. 
The Treatise reflected the recognition of the need for a regular cadre 
of recruits whose training requires special attention, and it was a first 
step in reshaping physics into educationally appropriate terms. Such 
a shift was evident in the didactic cast which increasingly characterized 
the public statements of the mid-Victorian physicists after 1867. From 
the Treatise onward for a decade the public expositions of physics are 
better called "elementary" than "popular" science. This is true, for 
example, of even such apparently popular material as Balfour Stew- 
art's articles entitled "What is Energy?" in Nature during 1870 (17). 
Even Tyndall modified his style of popularization, realizing that the 
educational aims of the physicists entailed certain restraints on their 
public statements (25). There was, in fact, a decline of purely popular 
physics, and there were explicit efforts to disparge that which was 
produced (1, 11). Tait summed up the physicists' position during this 
phase (20, 21). Popular science must be distinguished from science 
teaching, he said. The former is too often mere amusement which gives 
an erroneous impression of the intrinsic difficulty of the subject and, 
at the same time, "spoils the taste for the simple facts of science." 

There is but one way to be scientific : but the number of ways of 
being unscientific is infinite. . . . For, though science is in itself 
essentially simple ... it is my duty to warn you in the most 



History of Science 335 

formal manner that the study of it is beset with difficulties, many 
of which cannot but constitute real obstacles in the way even of 
the beginner. . . . there is as yet absolutely no known road to 
science except through or over these obstacles, and a certain amount 
of maturity of mind is required to overcome them. 

Tait was articulating the claims of the mid-Victorian physicists about 
the character of their field as they sought to establish physics as a 
university science: physics is not "word painting" and rhetoric but a 
serious and disciplined activity which requires a substantial investment 
on the part of its practitioners, and which can be a worthy part of 
higher education. 

Physics in the Universities 

By the late 1860s it was possible to see a potential place for pro- 
fessional science at Oxford and Cambridge, though certain constraints 
were entailed. Only that science could enter these universities which 
was willing to stress teaching over research and eschew specialization, 
which was nonexclusive and commensurate with other fields, and which 
could claim a tradition that fell within the established liberal arts. 

By the late 1860s the mid-Victorian physicists were willing and 
able to conform to these conditions, and to undertake the necessary 
compromises. T. G. Bonney, for example, expressed this willingness 
when he answered a critic who had accused him of too modest claims 
for science at Cambridge (4). "I have done all that was in my power," he 
said, "to help the cause of University Reform, and especially of Natural 
Science. But much as I delight in the latter I decline to regard it as 
the only culture, the only training worthy of respect." Literature and 
classics, the physicists argued more generally, were essential parts of 
one's course of study at a university; physics was simply part of 
culture, pedagogically neither the most nor the least important. 

The educational program for physics — shaped to fit the curricula 
of Oxford and Cambridge while still upholding the thrust of science 
toward original research — was the work of Clerk Maxwell. The vision 
of science in Cambridge that Maxwell publicly offered to the University 
authorities just before and just after his election to his chair blended 
mathematics and experiment, as well as liberal and professional studies, 
in a unique way (13). I want to conclude this paper with some of the 
details of Maxwell's presentation and leave you with the question of 
whether science today bears the legacy of this stamp. 

The aim of the working physicists, Maxwell said, is "to acquire and 
develop clear ideas of the things he deals with." Yet clear ideas, both 
the products and the tools of scientific work, are not easily come by, 
partly because "physical research is continually revealing to us new 
features of natural processes, and we are compelled to search for new 
forms of thought appropriate to these features." "Every science must 
have its [own] fundamental ideas — the modes of thought by which the 
process of our minds is brought into the most complete harmony with 
the process of nature. . . ." The physicist may approach his task of gain- 
ing clear, fundamental ideas either mathematically or experimentally. 



336 Indiana Academy of Science 

The former involves learning and using abstract forms so as to bring 
regions of physical phenomena "in succession under the power of the 
calculus;" the latter, observing and measuring the details of these 
phenomena, is trying "to deduce the laws of their relations." Each of 
these modes is useful to the other, yet neither by itself is sufficient 
to do the work of genuine physics. Some synthesis is obviously required, 
one in which each region of natural phenomena "in turn is regarded, 
not merely as a collection of facts to be coordinated by means of the 
formulae laid up in store by the pure mathematicians, but as itself a 
new mathesis by which new ideas may be developed." The design of 
an educational program which could impart this combination of mathe- 
matics and experiment to students of physics was not a trivial challenge. 

Maxwell saw the initial step in meeting this challenge as that of 
bringing experimental physics into the blend of mathematics and nat- 
ural philosophy which was already established in the Cambridge 
curriculum. To do so he would emphasize "Experiments of Research" 
as distinguished from "Experiments of Illustration." The former expose 
students to measurement of physical phenomena and encourage them 
to cooperate as potential scientific colleagues in the exploration of new 
regions; the latter, even when engaging students in manipulations, 
seek only to reinforce the memory of previously known, abstract ideas. 
In adopting this emphasis, Maxwell was banking upon "the unsearch- 
able riches of creation" and "the untried fertility of those fresh minds 
into which these riches will continue to be poured;" and he knew 
that "the labour of careful measurement has been rewarded by the 
discovery of new fields of research, and by the development of new 
scientific ideas." He also knew that, if 'experiments of research' were 
linked to thorough mathematical training, he would be able to expose 
his students to physical phenomena as a "mathesis by which new ideas 
may be developed." If he could have his students "wrenching [their 
minds] away from symbols to the objects, and from the objects back 
to the symbols," they would acquire "not a mere piece of knowledge . . . 
[but] the rudiment of a permanent mental endowment . . . the scien- 
tific faculty." 

So far Maxwell had done no more than provide an articulate justi- 
fication, appropriate for Cambridge, for what chemists like Roscoe at 
Owens College had already established in Britain (albeit in non-mathe- 
matical form) — namely, Liebig's model of original research as profes- 
sional training. Maxwell was, however, less interested than his con- 
temporaries in chemistry in simply establishing a new professional pro- 
gram. He was not content merely to develop 'the scientific faculty' in 
his students, and he would not abide the "narrow professional spirit 
which may grow up among men of science, just as it does among men 
who practice any other special business." Furthermore, he insisted on a 
more active role for the professor qua teacher than just that of 
exemplar to and master of apprentices. His vision was of a liberal edu- 
cation appropriate to the cultivation of British gentlemen, some of 
whom might want to become physicists. To realize this vision, education 
in physics had to do more than just be tied up with the mathematical 



History of Science 337 

tripos. If the Cavendish was to be successful, Maxwell argued, "we must 
endeavor to maintain it in living- union with the other organs and facul- 
ties of our learned body." Moreover, "it must be one of our most con- 
stant aims to maintain a living connection between our work and the 
other liberal studies of Cambridge, whether literary, philological, his- 
torical or philosophical. . . . [for] surely a University is the very place 
where we should be able to overcome [the] tendency of men to become, 
as it were, granulated into small worlds, which are all the more worldly 
for their very smallness." 

In order to ensure such links and their vitality, Maxwell made two 
radical proposals for the conduct of activities within the Cavendish. 
First, he proposed that the physicists develop and work within "a spirit 
of sound criticism." 

Our principal work ... in the Laboratory must be to acquaint 
ourselves with all kinds of scientific methods, to compare them, 
and to estimate their value. It will, I think, be a result worthy of 
our University, and more likely to be accomplished here than in 
any private laboratory, if, by the free and full discussion of the 
relative value of different scientific procedures, we succeed in form- 
ing a school of scientific criticism, and in assisting the development 
of the doctrine of method. 

Second, he would teach the history of science. We must recognize, Max- 
well argued, that those people 

whose names are found in the history of science are . . . men like 
ourselves, and their actions and thoughts, being more free from 
the influence of passion, and recorded more accurately than those 
of other men are all the better materials for the study of the 
calmer parts of human nature. 

But this history of science is not restricted to the enumeration of 
successful investigations. It has to tell of unsuccessful inquiries, 
and to explain why some of the ablest men have failed to find the 
key of knowledge, and how the reputation of others has only given 
firmer footing to the errors into which they fell. 

The history of the development, whether normal or abnormal, of 
ideas is of all subjects that in which we, as thinking men, take 
the deepest interest. 

The implications of these novel proposals were manifold. They meant, 
for example, a genuine role for the teacher. A spirit of criticism, and 
the philosophical study Maxwell would promote thereby, cannot arise 
automatically from the evaluation of alternative methods to be used 
on a single concrete research problem ; and the understanding of the 
course, and the fits and starts, of the development of scientific ideas is 
a feat beyond the grasp of any unaided apprentice. Scientific criticism, 
philosophy and history taught at the Cavendish would also mean that 
non-scientific students would be attracted there to extend their studies, 
and that there would be a general broadening of intelleuctual life in 
Cambridge University. Most importantly, however, and perhaps most 
welcome to the critics of science within the University, was the fact 



338 Indiana Academy of Science 

that, to the extent that these proposals were acted upon, physics would 
be looked at as human activity (the activities of human beings) and 
therefore taught as one of the liberal studies. 

Conclusion 

Maxwell's presentation of physics to Cambridge University is the 
culmination of an achievement by a group of scientists, the mid- Victorian 
physicists, as they brought professional science into the British univer- 
sities through the establishment of the Cavendish Laboratory. This was 
an achievement with very significant consequences for the fate of the 
scientific enterprise. It was made possible, in part, through the per- 
suasive presentation of physics as a humanistic discipline. Now, more 
than 100 years later, one might ask to what extent the field still bears 
this stamp. 



Literature Cited 

1. Anon. 1871. Review of George Berwick's The Forces of the Universe. Nature. 
3:424-25. 

2. Anon. 1910. A History of The Cavendish Laboratory 1871-1910. Longmans, London. 

3. Ashby, Sir Eric. 1959. Technology and The Academics. Macmillan, London. 

4. Bonney, T. G. 1873. Nature. 8:83. 

5. Cambridge University Library, n.d. University Papers. EA 65. 

6. Cardwell, D.S.L. 1971. From Watt to Clausius. Heinemann, London. 

7. Darlington, C. D. 1957. Freedom and Responsibility in Academic Life. Bull. Atomic 
Scientists. 13:133. 

8. Elkana, Yehuda. 1974. The Discovery of The Conservation of Energy. Hutchin- 
son, London. 

9. Gillispie, C. C. 1960. The Edge of Objectivity. Princeton University Press, Prince- 
ton, N. J. 

10. Hays, J. N. 1963. Three London Popular Scientific Institutions, 1799-1840. Ph.D. 
diss., University of Chicago. 

11. Heath, D. D. 1869. Dr. Bence Jones on Matter and Force. Contemporary Rev. 
11:321-32. 

12. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1959. Energy Conservation as an Example of Simultaneous 
Discovery. In M. Clagett, ed., Critical Problems in The History of Science. Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 

13. Maxwell, James Clerk. 1892. Scientifc Papers (W. D. Niven, ed. ) 2 v. Cambridge 
Univ. Press, Cambridge. 

14. Nier, Keith A. 1975. The Emergence of Physics in Nineteenth Century Britain as 
a Socially Organized Category of Knowledge. Ph.D. diss., Harvard Univei-sity, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

15. Sevier, John. 1974. The Founding of The Cavendish Laboratory: A Case Study in 
the 19th Century Rise of Science. Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley. 

16. Sheets-Pyenson, Susan. 1976. Low Scientific Culture in London and Paris, 1820- 
1875. Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

17. Stewart, Balfour. 1870. What is Energy? Nature. 1:647-48, 2:78-80, 183-85, 
270-71. 

18. Sviedrys, Romnaldas. 1970. The Rise of Physical Science at Victorian Cambridge. 
His. St. in Phy. Sci. 2:127-145. 



History of Science 339 

19. . 1976. The Rise of Physics Laboratories in Britain. His. St. in Phy. 

Sci. 7:405-436. 

20. Tait, Peter Guthrie. 1869. Progress of Natural Philosophy. Nature. 1:184-86. 

21. . 1878. On The Teaching of Natural Philosophy. Contemporary Rev. 

3:297-312. 

22. Thomson, William and P. G. Tait. 1867. Treatise on National Philosophy. Cam- 
bridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 

23. Thompson, S. P. 1919. The Life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs. 
2 v. Macmillan, London. 

24. Tyndall, John. 1900. Fragments of Science. 2 v. Collier, New York. 

25. . 1900, 3rd ed. Sound. Collier, New York. 

26. . 1915, 6th ed. Heat, A Mode of Motion. Appleton, New York. 



MICROBIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 

Chairman: Carl E. Warnes 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Chairman-Elect: Donald A. Hendrickson 

The Isolation of Alkalinophilic Bacteria from an Organic Polymer. Janie 
K. Blackburn* and Donald A. Hendrickson, Ball State University, 

Muncie, Indiana. An organic polymer, used to coat the inside of 

beverage containers, was submitted for the isolation and identification 
of any organisms which might be contributing to a slime problem. 
Also, the effectiveness of a biocide added to some of the samples was 
to be investigated. Upon testing, it was found that the polymer was 
extremely alkaline; the average pH of the samples submitted was 11.42. 
Gram stains of the samples were not helpful, since the polymer samples 
dried on the slide as an opaque film when smears were made. Therefore, 
Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar having a pH of 6.70 before autoclaving, 
Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar with the pH adjusted to a pH in the 
range of 11.00 after autoclaving, MacConkey Agar, Sabouraud Dextrose 
Agar and Acidified Potato Dextrose Agar were used for the initial iso- 
lations. The results showed that the significant bacterial population 
consisted of short Gram negative rods. These organisms were identified 
as Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes spp., using API 20E strips. Of these 
organisms, Pseudomonas spp. were the predominant isolates. An inter- 
esting observation was that higher sample dilutions yielded higher con- 
centrations of bacteria. This phenomenon may be due to the presence 
of an inhibitory substance present in the organic polymer; however, 
this substance was never elucidated. A biocide known to be present in 
some of the samples of the organic polymer was found to be effective 
in the control of the population of short Gram negative rod-shaped 
bacteria, but not effective in the control of molds and yeasts. 

A Numerical Simulation of Trichromatic Equations in Chlorophyll Esti- 
mation Using the Spectrophotometric Technique. William Chang and 
Ronald Rossmann, Great Lakes Research Division, The University of 

Michigan. A numerical simulation of trichromatic pigment equations 

is made with the aid of a computer utility program. Significant quantita- 
tive differences in the estimates of pigment concentration result from 
using different sets of trichromatic equations. Estimates of chlorophylls 
a, b, and c were found highly correlated with the application of the 
equations, even though the absorbance values used as input for the 
simulation are not correlated. 

Levels of Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen Demand in the Muncie 
Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent. Edward M. Hale, Ball State Univer- 
sity, Muncie, Indiana. The addition of ammonia to a river can have 

a number of damaging effects. Recently, there has been increased interest 
in biological nitrification of such ammonia, because of the resulting deple- 
tion of dissolved oxygen in the river. The usual five-day BOD test for 

340 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 341 

determining the oxygen demand of an effluent may fail to detect the 
potential effect of ammonia, because nitrification of effluent ammonia 
often doesn't even begin until sometime after five days of incubation. 
The oxygen demand attributable to the ammonia released in Muncie 
sewage treatment plant effluent was determined. It was found that 
ammonia was the single most important source of oxygen demand, 
accounting for about three fourths of the total effluent BOD. A sample 
of effluent was divided in half. One half was treated with allyl thiourea 
10 mg/1), a known inhibitor of ammonia oxidation. Control experiments 
established that this level of inhibitor had no effect on the oxygen 
demand of a nutrient broth that contained no free ammonia. At inter- 
vals the cumulative BOD was determined on both portions. A period 
substantially longer than the standard five-day interval was examined 
using a reaeration technique. In addition, quantitative measurements 
of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate were obtained on the two portions. 
By observing the difference in oxygen uptake between the two portions, 
the BOD attributable to ammonia was determined. 

Incidence of the pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila in the West Fork White 
River, Muncie, Indiana. Carl E. Warnes and J. Scott Bryson,* Depart- 
ment of Biology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. Four sites 

along the West Fork White River in Muncie, Indiana were sampled 
bimonthly over the summer 1979 for the incidence of the fish pathogen 
A. hydrophila. The sites represented locations below the sewage treat- 
ment plant, above the sewage treatment plant, central Muncie, and 
upstream from Muncie. Conductivity, D.O. and temperature measure- 
ments were simultaneously taken and analyzed for correlation with 
incidence of the bacterium. The present study indicates high values of 
the organism throughout the summer with peaks (4000-5500 /ml) occur- 
ring in mid June and late August. The presence of this organism in 
northern latitudes such as Indiana indicates potential hazard to fishes 
of the state as well as human infection from contaminated waters. 

Hospitalization and Nosocomial Infections. Michael R. Langona, Ball 

State University, Muncie, Indiana. Within the United States there 

exists numerous health care facilities in which individuals may receive 
various types of active medical treatment. One such facility of major 
concern to microbiologists and epidemiologists are hospitals in which 
extensive inpatient services are provided. Statistics supplied by the 
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals show that hospital 
admission numbers and patient expenses continue to increase each 
year, while available bed space increases at a lesser rate. For these 
reasons, it is important that the course of treatment of a hospitalized 
individual progress as smoothly, as quickly, and as successfully as pos- 
sible. Since the late 1950's, microbiologists have become more aware of 
the fact that some patients were acquiring infections during and as a 
result of their hosiptalization. These hospital acquired infections inter- 
rupt treatment, prolong hospitalization, and eventually add to the 
patient's total hospital cost. It is now estimated that two to ten per cent 
of all hospitalized patients in acute care facilities throughout the United 
States will acquire a nosocomial infection. The types of microbial 



342 Indiana Academy of Science 

organisms which are involved with nosocomial infections, and their 
mechanism of transmission within the hospital environment will be dis- 
cussed within the contents of this paper. With the cooperation of the 
patient, his visitors, and the hosiptal staff, the fight against nosocomial 
infections may be successful. 



The Role of Ca-+ in Electron Transport of Spinach Chloroplasts 

Karen S. Troxel, Rita Barr and Frederick L. Crane 

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Abbreviations used: DCMU — 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethyl- 
urea; EGTA — ethyleneglycol bis ( a -aminoethyl ether) -N,N-tetracetic 
acid; MV — methylviologen; PS I — Photosystem I; PS II — Photosystem 
II; TMPD-NjNjN 1 , INP-tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine. 

Introduction 

The effect of Ca 2 + on chloroplasts has frequently been studied from 
the point of view of its role in the cation-regulated excitation energy 
transfer between the two photosystems, termed "spillover" (4, 5, 6, 7). 
Gross and Hess (5) found 2 Ca 2 + binding sites in chloroplasts: site 1 
bound 0.65 /miole/mg chl and had a K d of 8; site II bound 0.5 /miole/mg 
chl and had a K (1 of 51. Gross, Zimmerman, and Hormats (7) described 
how low concentrations of monovalent or divalent cations (1-10 mM), 
including Ca 2 + ions, decreased the quantum yield of PS II and increased 
that of PS I. No attempt was made by these authors to remove ions from 
chloroplasts prior to the addition of mono- or divalent cations. 

In the present study we try to demonstrate how removal of Ca 2 + 
from chloroplasts by a chelator is correlated with loss of electron trans- 
port activity, and how the addition of Ca 2 + to EGTA-treated chloro- 
plasts can partially restore PS I activity. 

Materials and Methods 

Sucrose-NaCl chloroplasts (0.4 M sucrose, 0.05 M NaCl) were pre- 
pared from market spinach as previously described (2). Chlorophyll 
was determined according to Arnon (1). PS I and II activities were 
assayed with a Clark-type L , electrode as previously described (2). 
Reaction components are given in figure legends. Reaction mixtures were 
irradiated with white light (2.6 x 10 3 ergs/cm 2 «sec -1 ) from a specially 
built lamp through a 250 ml round bottom flask containing 1% CuS0 4 
solution as a heat shield. Reaction rates were recorded with a Sargent- 
Welch SRG recorder. 

The EGTA treatment of chloroplasts was done as follows: 40 ml 
of unbuffered 200 ^M EGTA solution was added to chloroplasts (2.5 
mg chlorophyll) suspended in 2.5 ml SN. After stirring, this slurry 
was kept on ice for 15 min. The treated chloroplasts were pelleted by 
centrifugation at 600 xg for 10 min. The chloroplasts were drained 
of residual EGTA solution by resting upside-down on paper towels 
for 1 min., or by being rewashed with fresh SN solution and recentri- 
fuged. The final chlorophyll concentration was readjusted to 1 mg/ml 
before assays. Control chloroplasts were osmotically shocked (termed 
"shocked" in Fig. 1) by suspension in distilled water during the 15 min. 
EGTA treatment. 

343 



344 Indiana Academy of Science 

EGTA [ethyleneglycol bis ( a -aminoethyl ether) -N,N-tetracetic acid] 
was purchased from the Sigma Chemical Co. and recrystallized from 
50% isopropanol before use. Plastocyanin was the gift of Dr. E. Ullrich, 
Chemistry Department, Purdue University. 

Results and Discussion 

Ca-+ effects on chloroplasts have hitherto been considered as a 
general effect on the "spillover" of excitation energy along with other 
mono- or divalent cations by Gross and associates (4, 5, 6, 7), or as 
an effect on water oxidation in algae (3, 8, 9, 10). We have found a 
more specific Ca 2+ effect in PS I of spinach chloroplasts, associated with 
the plastocyanin region. The evidence for this is 3-fold: (1) EGTA is 
known to be more selective toward Ca 2 + ions even in presence of 
Mg 2 + , as shown by Schmid and Reilley (11). Therefore, treatment of 
chloroplasts with EGTA should, presumably, remove Ca 2 + ions in 
preference to other ions. Inactivation of chloroplast electron transport 
reactions by EGTA treatment is shown in Fig. 1. It can be seen that 
the H.,0 —^ MV pathway, which covers both photosystems, is inhibited 
>75%, as is indophenol reduction by PS II. Since the ascorbate plus 
TMPD -» MV reaction, which donates electrons close to plastocyanin, 
is inhibited >50% by the EGTA treatment, the implication is that 
2 Ca 2 + sites, one associated with PS II, the other with the plastocyanin 
region in PS I, exist in the electron transport chain of spinach chloro- 
plasts. No effect of the EGTA treatment on the ascorbate + DCIP ->• MV 
shows that Ca 2 + site I is located before P700. (2) Partial restoration 
of electron transport activities with Ca 2+ ions in the ascorbate 
+ TMPD -» MV reaction is added evidence that Ca-+ ions are impli- 
cated. Based on stimulation of the rate seen in EGTA-treated chloro- 
plasts (Fig. 2), 48% stimulation can be obtained, although based on 
untreated chloroplasts, the restoration by Ca 2 + ions amounts to 16% 
(Table 1). However, Table 1 also shows that Ca 2+ ions gave better 
restoration of activity than other ions tested. (3) Exogenous plasto- 
cyanin with 20 raM CaCl 2 can jointly restore activity of the ascor- 
bate + TMPD — > MV pathway to control levels (Fig. 3). 

This, again, is evidence for a functional role of Ca 2+ ions in the 
electron transport chain of spinach chloroplasts. Studies are in progress 
to determine in what manner the plastocyanin region reacts with Ca 2 + 
ions. 

Acknowledgments 

This study was supported by N.S.F. Grant PCM-7820458. The 
authors wish to thank Dr. R. A. Dilley for providing spinach and 
Dr. E. Ullrich for the gift of purified plastocyanin. 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



345 



1200 -i 



1000- 



QJ Shocked Control 
Vva Rewoshed Control 




Figure 1. The Effect of EGTA Treatment on Electron Transport Rates in Spinach 
Chloroplasts. Reaction conditions for O2 evolution or uptake as described in Materials 
and Methods. The reaction mixture for the reaction HjO — >. MV contained chloroplasts 
(50 ^g chlorophyll), 25 mM Tris-Mes buffer, pH 8, 5 mM NHiCl, 0.5 mM Na azide, and 
0.5 mM MV; for H2O -» DCIP-chloroplasts, buffer and NHiCl as above, and 0.5 mM 
DCIP, for asc. + TMPD -+ MV -chloroplasts, 25 mM Tris-Mes, pH 8, 5 ^M DCMU, 
0.5 mM Na azide, 0.5 mM MV, 0.05 mM TMPD and 1 mM Na ascorbate; for asc. + 
DCIP -» MV - as for the asc. + TMPD -> MV reaction, except 0.5 mM DCIP in place 
of TMPD. 



346 



Indiana Academy of Science 



-: +75 r 



o CONTROL + CaCI 2 
• EGTA + CaCI 2 
A CONTROL + MgCI 2 
▲ EGTA 4 MgCI 2 




IONS ADDED (mM) 



Figure 2. The Effect of Ca 2 + and Mg- + Ions on The Restoration of Electron Transport 
in EGT A-Treated Chloroplasts in Photosystem I. The reaction studied was ascorbate 
+ TMPD _ ^ MV. The reaction mixture contained chloroplasts, buffer and other in- 
gredients as described in Fig. 1. The control rate without ions was 1137 nmoles Oi/mg 
chl'hr; the rate of EGTA-treated chloroplasts was 658 nmoles Oa/mg chl»hr; -\- indi- 
cates stimulation, -inhibition of rate in relation to control. 






Microbiology and Molecular Biology 



34' 






^ 



-: 



t- OS H CO I- CO G5 t-I 

I I I I I I I I 



<* 



u 



+ 



CXI E~ CXI 

+ + + 



CXI i-H tO 



!fi N N 



£2 



lO CXI lO lO lO ift 



8 R o q g 



O O r^ 



tf 



1 



.2 5 
+-> t> 



J5 cS 

* s 

u .5 

be "J 



o .S 



348 



Indiana Academy of Science 



+100 r 



O 

QC 

H 

Z 

o 
o 

u. 
o 

CM 

o 

u. 
o 

z 
o 

H 
CD 

X 



o 



o 

< 






o PC 

• PC + 20mM CaCI 2 



+50 - 



-50 




-100 



0.03 



0.06 



0.09 



0.12 



PLAST0CYANIN (mg/ml) 



Figure 3. The Effect of Ca 2 + Ions and Plastocyanin on the Restoration of Electron 
Transport in EGTA-Treated Cloroplasts. The recation studied was ascorbate + TMPD 
-» MV. The electron transport rate of EGA-treated chloroplasts tvas 612 nmoles Oi/mg 



chl'hr. Reaction conditions as in Fig. 2; + indicates stimulation, 

relation to control. 



inhibition of rate in 



Microbiology and Molecular Biology 349 

Literature Cited 

1. Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzyme in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in 
Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 24, 1-15. 

2. Barr, R. and F. L. Crane. 1977. The effect of prostaglandins on photosynthesis. 
Proceed. Indiana Acad. Sci. 86, 117-122. 

3. Brand, J. 1979. The effect of Ca++ on oxygen evolution in membrane prepara- 
tions from Anacystis nidulans. FEBS Lett. 103, 114-117. 

4. Davis, D. J., P. A. Armond, E. L. Gross and C. J. Arntzen. 1976. Differentiation 
of chloroplast lamellae. Onset of cation regulation of excitation energy distribu- 
tion. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 175, 64-70. 

5. Gross, E. L. and Hess, S. C. 1974. Correlation between calcium ion binding to 
chloroplast membranes and divalent cation-induced structural changes and changes 
in chlorophyll a fluorescence. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 339, 334-346. 

6. GROSS, E. L. and Prasher, S. H. 1974. Correlation between monovalent cation- 
induced decrease in chlorophyll a fluorescence and chloroplast structural changes. 
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 164, 460-468. 

7. Gross, E. L., R. J. Zimmermann and G. F. Hormats. 1976. The effect of mono- 
and divalent cations on the quantum yields for electron transport in chloroplasts. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 440, 59-67. 

8. Piccioni, R. G. and D. C. Mauzerall. 1976. Increase effected by calcium ion in 
the rate of oxygen evolution from preparations of Phormidium luridum. Biochim. 
Biophys. Acta 423, 605-609. 

9. Piccioni, R. G. and D. C. Mauzerall. 1978. Calcium and photosynthetic oxygen 
evolution in Cyanobacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 504, 384-397. 

10. Piccioni, R. G. and D. C. Mauzerall. 1978. A high potential redox component 
located within Cyanobacterial photosystem II. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 504, 398-405. 

11. Schmid, R. W. and C. N. Reilley. 1957. New complexion for titration of calcium 
in the presence of magnesium. Anal. Chem. 29, 264-268. 



PHYSICS 

Chairman: Ralph Llewellyn 
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Chairman-Elect: Gerald P. Thomas 
Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 

Mars Orbit for the High School Classroom. George Unger, Mitchell 

High School and Uwe J. Hansen, Indiana State University. The 

project physics method of plotting a mars orbit from sky photographs 
suffers from two difficulties, namely eight points are not enough for 
an easy, accurate elliptical plot, and student carelessness often results 
in drastic departures from ellipticity. Two remedies have been tried in 
introductory physics classes during the Summer of 1979. Both have 
contributed to greater accuracy. The approach is simply to increase the 
number of points. The additional data points are taken from appropri- 
ate issues of the Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. Plotting accuracies 
were improved by converting essentially geocentric data to heliocentric 
polar coordinater. 

Microprocessor Monitoring of a Flat Plate Solar Hot Water Collector. 

Vincent A. DiNoto, Jr. and Walter H. Carnahan, Indiana State 
University. A basic description of the design of the flat plate col- 
lector will be given. The operating system will be discussed in detail 
including the construction of the system. The heart of this research 
project is the interfacing of 10 temperature detectors and a photodiode 
to a KIM-1 microprocessor to monitor the activity of the solar collector 
and its 40-gallon water storage tank. The temperature is monitored 
hourly throughout the day at different locations in the system. The 
solar flux is measured once a minute and then summed each hour, so 
that an average reading may be obtained. The photodiode is placed at 
the same angle as the collector so that the efficiency of the system can 
be determined. The interfacing circuits along with the data logging 
programs will be discussed. In concluding the efficiency of this type of 
collector will be discussed for Central Indiana. 

Defects in the Jupiter Effect. Donald B. DeYoung, Grace College. 

The Jupiter Effect is a popular scenario of planetary alignment, sup- 
posedly resulting in major earthquake activity during 1982. The idea 
was first proposed by astronomers John Gribbin and Stephen Plagemann 
in 1974. However, current data on planetary motion and solar activity 
demonstrates the weakness of the prediction. Furthermore, calculations 
show the infinitesimal tidal effect of the planets on the sun relative 
to that of the moon on the earth. It is suggested that earthquakes 
might be correlated with the moon's position more readily than with 
planetary alignment. A lunar effect is searched for in the earthquake 
record. 

Water Analysis of Otter Creek. Melissa Perucca and Vincent Dinoto, 
Indiana State University. Otter Creek, what has happened to it? 

350 



Physics 351 

Many years ago this creek that flows through northern Vigo county 
was sparkling clear and the sight of many river otters. However, in 
recent years the creek has become muddy, polluted and the wildlife 
population has dropped sharply. How did all this pollution occur? 
There are no large industries along the creek, and it flows through a 
seemingly innocent countryside. To try and find the answer to this 
question I took water samples from Otter Creek and two of its tribu- 
taries at one week intervals. I then ran chemical tests on the samples, 
covering alkalinity, heavy metals, and farm pollutants. As the results 
of the test were found, they were graphed. The results confirmed my 
expectations that the creek was polluted by mine and farm residue. 
In one test area involving iron, chromium and sulfate, of which all 
are related to mine residue, the results of the sulfate varied from 
the other two. The sulfate seemed to be coming from a different source. 
The discovery of this source along with the control of it and the others 
would secure the public's safety and attract more wildlife to this area. 

Bismuth Under Pressure — Cyclotron Resonance. Patricia A. Harris, 
Computer Management Systems, Inc., and Uwe J. Hansen, Indiana 

State University. Observation of cyclotron resonance in bismuth at 

atmospheric pressure and at elevated pressures is in progress. Pre- 
liminary results at a pressure of 9000 PSI confirm in general terms 
the band shift resulting in a decrease of effective mass of the order of 
-5% per Kb. The experiments are carried out using hand operated gas 
pressure system with helium as the pressure medium. 

Meetings of the Physics Division of I.A.S. since 1935. Carl C. Sartain, 

Indiana State University. Prior to 1935, one division of the Indiana 

Academy of Sciences was the Physics and Mathematics Division. In 
1935, two divisions were formed, the Mathematics Division and the 
Physics Division. I have listed for each year since then, the Chairman 
of the Division, the host institution and the meeting dates. Six people 
have been chairman more than one year. No person has been chairman 
for more than two years. In 1942, although the I.A.S. met, the Physics 
Division did not meet. In 1979, the Division became the Physics and 
Astronomy Division. 



PLANT TAXOJNOMY 

Chairman : Donald L. Burton 
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 

Chairman-Elect: John Bacone 
Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, Indiana 47306 

A Numerical Analysis of the Tribes of the Brassicaceae. Larry A. 
Hauser, Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame. 

Indiana. Understanding of the relationships among the tribes of 

Brassicaceae has been problematic. Many tribes are artificial and based 
on few characters. An investigation of the tribes of the family was con- 
ducted by elucidating relationships among exemplar genera in several 
of the tribes. Representative genera from each tribe were selected to 
obtain a diverse sampling throughout the family. Many of these genera, 
and much of the data obtained, were gathered from information biased 
toward North American sources. Data were collected on each of these 
genera and studied using such numerical techniques as ordination (e.g. 
principal components analysis) and summarization graphics. Using these 
techniques provided insights into the tribal problem. Analysis of rela- 
tions among the characters used was another important aspect of the 
study. Its purpose was to determine multivariate adaptive character 
complexes found both in terms of geographic distribution, and ecological 
classification. The study also involved evaluation of the cladistic rela- 
tionships among the genera studied. Results of the analysis of taxonomic 
structure revealed clusters of genera along tribal lines, but also some 
exceptions. Results of multivariate character analysis included delimita- 
tion of several character clusters that could be related to evolutionary 
adaptive functions. Finally, correlating among character clusters them- 
selves were found to be important. 

Relationships Between Area And Number Of Taxa Of The Brassicaceae 
In The Soviet Union. Theodore J. Crovello, Department of Biology, 

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana. The relationship 

between the geographic areas occupied by taxa has long been of interest. 
At first interest had to be confined to the creation of distribution 
maps for each taxon, a task still incomplete, but essential for other 
types of biologic studies. Research on the distribution of taxa of the 
Brassicaceae, the mustard family, in the Soviet Union reveals that 
biogeographic study is a multistage decision process, with our conclusions 
being affected greatly by decisions made at various points, e.g., choice 
of the level of the taxonomic hierarchy at which to do the analysis. 
A prose equation explaining the relation between area and number of 
taxa will be presented. The Soviet mustard data and analyses will be 
used to discuss the equation. 

A Botanical Expedition to Mexico. Clifton Keller, University of Notre 

Dame and Andrews University. A seven-thousand-mile study tour 

sponsored by the biology department of Andrews University and directed 

352 



Plant Taxonomy 353 

by Dr. Richard Ritland, provided an optimal environment for a survey 
expedition. Differences between fioristic expectations and observations 
were described. First-hand systematic study of Mexico's flora and vege- 
tation was encouraged. 

Patterns of Morphological and Phenolic Variation in a Hybridizing Pop- 
ulation of Quercus. Richard J. Jensen,* Department of Biology, Saint 
Mary's College and Judith F. Knops, Department of Biological Sciences, 

Wright State University. Previous study of a population of red oaks 

in New Jersey had provided evidence of hybridization involving all 
three species present: Quercus ilicifolia, Q. marilandica, and Q. velutina. 
The research reported here was undertaken to a) further clarify the 
extent and direction of hybridization and b) determine if patterns 
detected with morphologically and chromatograpically based data sets 
illustrated congruence. Twenty-two morphological characters for each 
of eighty-seven trees were analyzed by analysis of variance, principal 
components analysis, and discriminant analysis. The results of these 
studies, allowing recognition of three statistically defined species groups 
and intermediately positioned putative hybrids, suggested that hybridi- 
zation is restricted to crosses of Q. ilicifolia-Q. marilandica and Q. mari- 
landica-Q. velutina. Chromatographic profiles of the same trees, derived 
from methanolic leaf extracts, revealed distinctive profiles for each 
species and allowed detection of putative hybrids. Principal coordinate 
analysis of a similarity matrix based on the presence/absence of thirty 
phenolic compounds produced a two dimensional plot very similar to 
that produced with principal components analysis of the morphological 
data. Further, a discriminant analysis of phenolic characters, in which 
the individual trees were assigned to groups defined by the morphologi- 
cal analyses, resulted in no misclassifications. The patterns of phenolic 
variation strengthened the conclusion that hybridization is not occur- 
ring between Q. ilicifolia and Q. velutina Additionally, the overall rela- 
tionships suggest that both Q. velutina and Q. ilicifolia may be derived 
from a Q. marila?idica-like ancestor. 

The Rediscovery of Noteworthy Plants in Indiana. James R. Aldrich 
and Henry Woolsey, Department of Natural Resources, 612 State 

Office Building, Indianapoils, Indiana. This report focuses on the 

field-reverincation data gathered for special plant species as identified 
by the preliminary list of Indiana vascular plant species of special con- 
cern compiled by Mr. John A. Bacone. Data, most of which has been 
gleaned from the literature and Indiana's major herbaria, was used 
to catalogue previously known occurrence sites of these species by the 
Indiana Natural Heritage Program. Subsequently, many of these sites 
were visited during the past year. Discussed herein are the percentage 
and types of sites found to be still intact or destroyed, as well as the 
number of special plant species that were rediscovered. 

Present Status of Certain Recent Additions to our Natural Flora. 

Samuel W. Witmer, Goshen College. The 1979 condition of each 

of several species of seed plants is compared with its condition at the 
time of finding. The following species are treated : 



354 Indiana Academy of Science 

Ornithogalum nutans 
Bellis perennis 
Juniperus sabina 
Iliamna remota 
Rhamnus Frangula 
Butomus umbellatus 
Lotus corniculatus 
Artemisia vulgaris 
Chloris verticillata 
Polygonum Sieboldii 
Elaeagnus umbellatus 

These are illustrated with color slides. 

New Plant Records For Wayne County, Indiana. Robert D. Waltz and 
Elaine G. Hendricks, Hayes Regional Arboretum, Richmond, Indiana. 

The following species, Spiranthes lucida (H.H. Eat.) Ames, Coral- 

lorhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. (ORCHIDACEAE) ; and Carduus 
nutans L. (ASTERACEAE) , are herein reported as the first published 
records of these species relative to the flora of Wayne County, Indiana. 
Voucher specimens are deposited in the herbarium of the Hayes Region- 
al Arboretum, Richmond, Indiana. Annotations: Spiranthes lucida (H.H. 
Eat.) Ames., spike collected, June 13, 1978. Elaine G. Hendricks, col- 
lector; calcareous margin of swamp near Elliott's Mill Bog, Wayne 
County, Richmond, Indiana: Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt., 
raceme collected September 21, 1973. Elaine G. Hendricks, collector; 
oak woods, Hayes Arboretum, Wayne County, Richmond, Indiana: 
Carduus 7iuta?is L., specimen collected, June 17, 1977. Robert D. Waltz, 
collector; dry, calcareous soil, near Elliott's Mill Bog, Wayne County, 
Richmond, Indiana. 

Distribution And Boundaries Of Trees In Several Midwestern States. 

Thomas P. Seasly,* Theodore J. Crovello, and Barbara J. Hellen- 
thal. Department of Biology, The University of Notre Dame, Notre 

Dame, Indiana. E. L. Little's Atlas Of United States Trees served 

as the source of distribution data for all tree species occurring 
in at least one of the following states: Michigan; Illinois; Indi- 
ana; Ohio; or Kentucky. For each such species its status in each of 
the states was recorded as possessing one of the following proper- 
ties: a range boundary in the direction of one of the eight principal 
compass points (states 1-8) ; a disjunct boundary; no boundary because 
it is not found in the state; or no boundary because it is found through- 
out the state. Of the 93 trees occurring in at least one of the above 
states, 17 are conifers. Tabular, graphic and cluster analyses were used 
to answer three questions: 1) what are the biogeographic relations 
among the states based on tree distributions; 2) do the data suggest 
that Indiana should be considered more of a tension zone state than 
any of its four neighbors; and 3) do the data provide insights into the 
history of recolonization of these states since the last glacier? Results 
indicate that relations among the states change with the subgroup of 
trees being considered (conifers versus hardwoods; northern versus 



Plant Taxonomy 355 

southern). Indiana has no more tree range boundaries than its neigh- 
bors, and sometimes less, so it should not be considered more of a 
tension zone state than some of its neighbors. At present, the available 
methods and data helped to provide several hypotheses about the bio- 
geographic history of Indiana, but no evidence that clearly supported 
a particular hypothesis. 

Indiana Plant Distribution Records, Clark County. R. H. Maxwell, 

Indiana University Southeast Herbarium, New Albany, Indiana. 

Collections of vascular plants within the Indiana Army Ammunition 
Plant near Charlestown in Clark County have yielded a new state dis- 
tribution record : Dioscorea batatas Dene. The voucher specimen is 
Maxwell 1590, 22 September, 1977 (IND, JEF). The twining vines were 
common along the Ohio River at the bottom of the rocky bluff about 
100 m south of the mouth of Fourteen Mile Creek. 

The survey within the Ammunition Plant is being conducted with 
permission of the Department of the Army and ICI Americas, Inc. 



Central Cells of the Stem Node and Charophyte Taxonomy 

Fay Kenoyer Daily, Butler University 

Introduction 

After studying the structure of the axial node of 32 taxa represent- 
ing Chara, Lamprothamnium, Nitellopsis, Nitella and Tolypella, Frame 
and Sawa (2) concluded that the transfer of Chara homemannii and 
Chara buckellii to Lamprothamnium by Daily (1) "may not be appropri- 
ate". Another interpretation of their results is presented here. 

Background 

Figure 1 shows the stem node of Lamprothamnium succinctum 
(A. Br.) R.D.W. of the Tribe Chareae having three central cells. After 
two central cells were formed, one divided again and the other one did 
not. Figures 2, 3 and 4 give a range in the number of axial node central 
cells in the genus Nitella of the Tribe Nitelleae from four to eight 
representing two or three divisions. The genus Tolypella of the Tribe 
Nitelleae has subdivided central cells also. One species of Nitella may 
show this whole numerical range of axial central nodal cells as in 
the dioecious Nitella opaca. Lamprothamnium papulosum (Wallr.) J. Gr., 
type species of the genus Lamprothamnium belonging to the Tribe 
Chareae, also has four central cells of the stem node (Giesenhagen, 3). 
It is indicated by Frame and Sawa (2) that this is the only genus of 
the Tribe Chareae having subdivided central cells of the axial node. 
The rest of the Chareae have undivided central cells of the axial node 
as Chara homemannii Wallm. shown in Fig. 5. This includes the former 
Nitellopsis bulbillifera C.C. Dont. and Chara buckellii G.O. Allen trans- 
ferred as varieties to Lamprothamnium longifolium (Rob.) Daily (1). 
It also includes Nitellopsis obtusa (Desv. in Louis.) J. Gr., type species 
of Nitellopsis. 

On the basis of these results, Frame and Sawa (2) concluded 
that the subdivided central cells of the stem node in both Lamprotham- 
nium papulosum and L. succinctum apparently support Wood's (5) 
transfer of the latter species from the genus Chara. However, since the 
central cells of the axial node of Chara homemannii and C. buckellii 
do not subdivide, strong doubt is cast on the validity of Daily's transfer 
(1) of these taxa to the genus Lamprothamnium. 

Discussion and Conclusions 

Another interpretation of these results seems plausible. The divided 
central cell of the stem node of the morphologically transitional taxon, 
Lamprothamnium succinctum, seems no more important taxonomically 
than the undivided central cell. Therefore, the affinity of the taxon might 
be with other taxa having divided or undivided central cells of the axial 
node. Also Sawa (4) and Frame and Sawa (2) accept a range of four 
to eight central cells in the axial nodes (a doubling) in taxa properly 
referred to Nitella. Therefore, it seems justified in Lamprothamnium 

356 



Plant Taxonomy 



357 




Figure 1. Stem noc!e of Lamprotliamnium succinctum (c = central cell) redrawn from 

Frame and Sawa (2). Figures 2-5. Central cells of the stem node: 2. Nitclla opaca 

redrawn (4); 3. Nitclla mirabilis redrawn from Sawa (4); 4. Nitclla opaca 

redrawn from Sawa (4); 5. Char hornemannii adapted from Frame and Sawa (2). 



358 Indiana Academy of Science 

to accept taxa with a range of two to four axial node central cells or 
also a doubling of the number. There would be nothing in this concept 
to prevent the transfer to Lamprothamnium of Chara hornemannii, 
Chara buckellii and Nitellopsis bulbillifera by Daily (1) or Chara 
succincta by Wood (5). 

Acknowledgment 

The author is grateful to the Journal of Phycology for permission 
to use Figures 1 and 5 adapted from that publication. 



Literature Cited 

1. Daily, F. K. 1967. Lamprothamnium in America. J. Phycol. 3:201-207. 

2. Frame, Paul and T. Sawa. 1975. Comparative anatomy of Charophyta: II. The 
axial nodal complex — an approach to the taxonomy of Lamprothamnium J. Phycol. 
11 (2) :202-205. 

3. Giesenhagen, K. 1898. Untersuchungen tiber die Characeen. IV. Flora 85:19-64. 

4. Sawa, T. 1966. A cytological and anatomical approach to taxonomic problems of 
the Characeae. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of Louisville, Kentucky. 157 pp. 

5. Wood, R. D. 1962. New combinations and taxa in the revision of the Characeae. 
Taxon 11 (1) :7-25. 



A Preliminary List of Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants 

in Indiana 

John A. Bacone, Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Cloyce L. Hedge, Indiana Department of Natural Resources 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Introduction 

Since the Flora of Indiana was published (Deam, 1940), many 
significant changes have taken place with respect to Indiana's flora. 
The destruction of habitat due to increasing urbanization, industrializa- 
tion and agriculture has resulted in many native plants becoming 
increasingly rare. Continuing disturbances, such as the lowering of 
water tables and the lack of natural fires, have further degraded the 
habitat of many rare native species, tipping the competitive edge toward 
aggressive species introduced from the Old World. As a result of this 
destruction and degradation of habitat, species that were rare in the 
1940's are even rarer today. Twenty-two plants are considered to have 
been extirpated from Indiana, and a number are known today from 
only one site. 

Many conservation and academic interests are concerned with the 
status of vascular plants in Indiana. The true status of Indiana's rarest 
plants needs to be ascertained, in order that those plants truly in 
danger of extirpation can be identified. The remaining populations of 
these plants can then be monitored and measures taken to aid their 
survival through environmental planning and review processes. 

Compilation and Selection Criteria 

An attempt was made to take into account all known information 
for each taxon during this compilation. The previously prepared lists of 
Barnes (3), Crovello (5), and Crankshaw (4) were consulted. Addi- 
tions to the flora, including new state records and new county records, 
are noted in the Deam Herbarium at Indiana University, Bloomington, 
and are integrated into the computerized Flora of Indiana data bank 
at the University of Notre Dame, in cooperation with the Biology 
Survey Committee of the Indiana Academy of Science. These data 
banks were also consulted, as were several botanists within and without 
Indiana. A large listing of plants potentially endangered, threatened, 
or rare was then prepared. This listing considered taxa proposed on 
the earlier lists, as well as other taxa thought to be rare or vulnerable. 
Rarity or vulnerability may result from : few recorded occurrences, 
small population size, widely scattered distribution patterns, low site or 
habitat tenacity, peripherality of range, shrinking habitat due to land- 
scape modification, relictual habitat conditions, sensitivity to human 
intrusion, susceptibility to environmental conditions, a combination of 
these situations, or other factors. 

359 



360 Indiana Academy of Science 

Several species reported as new to the State subsequent to the 
last report to the Academy of Science were included. Hybrid species 
and naturalized exotic (i.e. non-North American) species introduced 
accidentally or deliberately were not included. Several North American 
species, which are known to be adventive from other states or in- 
troduced to Indiana, were not listed. Plants which may be adventive, 
but for which further information was needed before a decision could 
be made, were listed. 

Data for all taxa on this first listing was gleaned from herbarium 
labels at the Friesner Herbarium, Butler University, The Hebert Her- 
barium, Notre Dame University, and the herbaria at Bail State Uni- 
versity, Muncie, Indiana, the Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois, and 
the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois. A new listing was prepared and 
presented to the Indiana Academy of Science (2). This list was also 
presented to the Natural Heritage Classification Workshop, Indianapolis, 
in February, 1978. 

During the past year, most remaining Indiana herbaria and several 
regional herbaria have been searched, and input gained from many per- 
sons knowledgeable about Indiana's flora. All locations for species on 
the list have been mapped and recorded in the Department of Natural 
Resources' National Heritage Program data bank. Field work during 
1979 included searches to reverify the existence or destruction of a 
number of the older plants locations or their habitats. In addition, a 
number of new sites were located during the course of various in- 
ventories and studies. 

This current list reflects the updated information obtained during 
the past year. Each plant is assigned a category after consideration 
of factors including: 1) the number of sites from which it is known; 2) 
the vulnerability and type of habitat; 3) length of time since the 
plant was last observed or collected; 4) its status in surrounding 
states; 5) comments from knowledgeable authorities. 

Results and Discussion 

The "Preliminary List of Endangered and Threatened Vascular 
Plants in Indiana" is shown in Table 1. These plants have been grouped 
into categories which, to the authors' knowledge, best reflect their 
present status. 

Table 1. A preliminary list of endangered and threatened vascular plants in Indiana. 

Symbols are defined as follows: Fe (taxa proposed or under review for federal status); 

F (follows nomenclature of Fernald, 1950); S (follows nomenclature of Swink and 

Wilhelm, 1979); D (follows nomenclature of Deam, 1940). 

EXTIRPATED OR POSSIBLY EXTIRPATED 

1. Aconitum uncinatum L. 

2. Adlumia fungosa (Ait.) Greene 

3. Arethusa bulbosa L. 
Fe 4. Asclepias mcadii Torr. 

Fe 5. Astragalus tennesseensis Gray. 

6. Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. 

7. Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. 



Plant Taxonomy 361 



Table 1 — Continued 

8. Corallorhiza trifida Chat. var. verna Fern. 

(C. trifida D. ) 

9. Halesia Carolina L. 

10. Hippuris vulgaris L. 

11. Hypericum dolabriforme Vent. 

12. Juncus militaris Bigel. 

13. Lactuca ludoviciana (Nutt. ) DC. 

14. Lechea stricta Leggett. 

15. Lesquerella globosa (Desv. ) Wats. 

16. Mikania scandens (L.) Willd. 

17. Poa cuspidata Nutt. 

18. Psilocarya nitens (Vahl.) Wood. 
Fe 19. Psoralea stipulata T. & G. 

20. Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. 

21. Solidago buckleyi T. & G. 

22. Trautvetteria carolinensis (Walt.) Vail. 

ENDANGERED 

1. Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth and Hook (A. m. 

revoluta arachnoidea and A. m. var. intercedens D.) 

2. Androsace occidentalis Pursh. 

3. Anemone caroliniana Walt. 

4. Arabis drummondii Gray. 

5. Arabis patens Sulliv. 

6. Arenaria patida Michx. 

7. Asplenium montanum Willd. 

8. Asplenium ruta-muraria L. var. cryptolepis (Fern.) Wherry. 

(A cryptolepis D. ) 

9. Aster furcatus Burgess. 

10. Aster oblongifolius Nutt. 

(includes A. oblongifolius rigidulus D.) 

11. Aureolaria grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell vai\ pulchra Pennell 

(Gerardia grandiflora pulchra S. ) 

12. Besseya bullii (Eat.) Rydb. 

(Wulfenia bullii S., F.) 

13. Betida populijolia Marsh. 

14. Botrychium matricariaejolium A. Br. 

15. Botrychium midtifidum (Gmel. ) Rupr. var. intermedium 

(D.C. Eat.) Farw. (B. multifidum silaifolium D.) 

16. Botrychium oneidense (Gilbert) House. 

(B. dissectum oneidense D.) 

17. Botrychium simplex E. Hitchc. 

18. Buchnera americana L. 

19. Calla palustris L. 

20. Callirhoe triangulata (Leavenw. ) Gray. 

21. Calycocarpum lyoni (Purish) Gray. 

22. Cardamine pratensis L. var. palustris Wimm and Grab. 

23. Carex abscondita Mackenzie. 

24. Carex alopecoidea Tuckerm. 

25. Carex arctata Boott. 

26. Carex atherodes Spreng. 

27. Carex bushii Mackenzie. 

28. Carex chordorrhiza L. 

29. Carex cumulata (Bailey) Mackenzie. 

30. Carex decomposita Muhl. 

31. Carex eburnea Boott. 

32. Carex flava L. 

33. Carex folliculata L. 

34. Carex gigantea Rudge 

35. Carex hoivei Mackenzie 

36. Carex incomperta Bickn. 



362 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

37. Carex leptonervia Fern. 

38. Carex nigromarginata Schw. 

39. Carex pedunculata Muhl. 

40. Carex pseudo-cyperus L. 

41. Carex retrorsa Schw. 

42. Carex richardsonii R. Br. 

43. Carex scabrata Schw. 

44. Carex seorsa Howe. 

45. Carex styloflexa Buckl. 

46. Carya pallida Ashe. 

47. Carya texana Buckl. (C. buckleyi arkansana D. ) 

48. Ceanothus herbaceus Raf. (C. ovatua D., S. ) 

49. Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray. 

50. Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx. ) D.C. Eat. 

51. Chrysosplenium americanum Schw. 
Fe 52. Cladrastis lutea (Michx. f.) K. Koch. 

53. Conioselinum chinense (L.) BSP. 

54. Cornus canadensis L. 

55. Corydalis sempervirens (L. ) Pers. 

56. Cuscuta cuspidata Engelm. 

57. Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. 

58. Cyperus dentatus Torr. 

59. Dentaria multifida Muhl. 

60. Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. 

61. Dicliptera brachiata (Pursh) Spreng. 

(Diapedium brachiatum D. ) 

Fe 62. Dodecatheon meadia L. var. frenchii Vasey. 

63. Dryopteris clintoniana (D.C. Eat.) Dowell. 

( D. cristata clintoniana D. ) 

64. Echinodorus cordifolius (L.) 

65. Eleocharis geniculata (L.) R. & S. 

66. E. melanocarpa Torr. 

67. E. microcarpa Torr. (E. microcarpa filiculmis D. ) 

68. E. ovata (Roth) R. and S. 

69. E. robbinsii Oakes. 

70. E. wolfii Gray. 

71. Equisetum variegatum Schleich. 

72. Erigeron pusillus Nutt. (D., F.) 

73. Eriophorum spissum Fern. 

74. Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. 

75. Eupatorium incarnatum Walt. 

76. Euphorbia serpens HBK. 

77. Fimbristylis caroliniana (Lam.) Fern. 

(F. puberula D., F. drummondii, S. ) 

78. Fuirena pumila Torr. 

79. Galactia volubilis (L.) Britt. var. mississippiensis Vail. 

80. Gaura filipes Spach 

81. Gentiana vittosa L. 

82. Geranium bicknellii Britt. 

83. G. robertianum L. 

84. Gerardia gattingeri Small 

85. G. skinneriana Wood. 

86. Geum rivale L. 

87. Gleditsia aquatica Marsh. 

88. Glyceria borealis (Nash) Batchelder. 

89. Glyceria grandis S. Wats. 

90. Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) BSP. 

91. Habernaria dilatata (Pursh.) Hook. 
Fe 92. H. flava (L.) Br. (H. scutellata D.) 

93. H. hookeri Torr. 

Fe 94. H. leucophaea (Nutt.) Gray. 



Plant Taxonomy 5J63 



Table 1 — Continued 

95. H. orbiculata (Pursh. ) Torr. 

96. Heuchera parviflora Bartl. var. rugelii (Shuttlew.) R. B. & L 

97. Hexalectris apicata (Walt.) Barnh. 

98. Hibiscus lasiocarpus Cav. 

99. Hieraceum venosum L. 

100. Hottonia inflata Ell. 

101. Hydrocotyle americana L. 

102. Hypericum adpressum Bart. 

103. H. denticulatum Walt. 

104. H. frondo8um Michx. 

105. Iresine rhizomatosa Standi. 

106. Juncus scirpoides Lam. 

107. Jussiaea decurrens (Walt.) DC. 

108. Lathyrus maritimus (L.) Bigel var. glaber (Ser. ) Eames. 

(L. japonicus glaber D.) 

109. Leavenworthia uniflora (Miichx. ) Britt. 

110. Lechea racemulosa Michx. 

111. Lemna minima Philippi 

112. L. perpusilla Torr. 

113. L. valdiviana Philippi (L. cyclostasa D. ) 

114. Lespedeza stuevei Nutt. 

Fe 115. Lesquerella globosa (Desv. ) Wats. 

116. Ligusticum canadense (L.) Britt. 

117. Linnaea borealis L. (L. borealis americana D.) 

118. Linum intercursum Bickn. 

119. L. sulcatum Riddell. 

120. Lithospermum incisum Lehm 

121. Lonicera canadensis Marsh. 

122. Ludwigia glandulosa Walt. 

123. Luzula acuminata Raf. (L. carolinae saltuensis D. ) 

124. Lycopodium clavatum L. 

125. L. inundatum L. 

126. L. obscurum L. 

127. L. selago L. var. patens (Beauv. ) Desv. 

128. L. tristachyum Pursh. 

129. Lycopus amplectens Raf. (L. sessilifolius D. ) 

130. Magnolia tripetala L. 

131. Malaxis unifolia Michx. 

132. Melothria pendula L. 

133. Monarda bradburiana Beck. 

134. Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin. 

135. M. cuspidata (Torr.) Rydb. 

136. Myosotis laxa Lehm. 

137. M. macrosperma Engelm. (M. virginica macrospera D. ) 

138. Myriophyllum pinnatum (Walt.) BSP. (M. scabratum D.) 

139. M. verticillatum L. (Af. v. pectinatum D. ) 

140. Oenothera triloba Nutt. 

141. Ophioglo8sum engelmanni Prantl. 

142. Orobanche fasiculata Nutt. (O.f. typica D.) 

143. Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. 

144. O. pungens (Torr.) Hitchc. 

145. O. racemosa (Smith) Ricker. 

146. Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. 

147. Panicum bicknellii Nash. 

148. P. longifolium Torr. 

149. P. verrucosum Muhl 

150. Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt. 

151. Phacelia ranunculacea (Nutt.) Const. (P. covillei D. ) 

152. Phlox ovata L. 

Fe 153. Plantago cordata Lam. 

Fe 154. Poa paludigena Fern, and Wieg. 



364 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

155. Polygala paucifolia Willd. 

156. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. var. adenocalyx (Standord) Gl. 

157. P. hydropiperoides Michx. var. setaceum (Baldw. ) Gl. 

(P. setaceum inter jectum D.) 

158. Populus balsamifera L. (P. tacamahacca D. ) 

159. Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. 

160. P. pulcher Tuckerm. 

161. P. richardsonii (Benn.) Rydb. 

162. Potentilla anserina L. 

163. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Wuhn var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) Heller. 

164. Pyrola asarifolia Michx. (P.a. incarnata D.) 

165. P. secunda L. 

166. P. virens Schweigg. (P. chlorantha D. ) 

167. Ranunculus pusillus Poir. 

Fe 168. Rhus trilobata Nutt. var. arenaria (Greene) Barkley. 

169. Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) Gray. var. interior Fern. 

170. R. globularis (Chapm.) Small, var. recognita Gale. 

(R. cymosa D.) 

171. Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. var. umbrosa (Boynton and Beadle) 

Cronq. (R. umbrosa D. ) 

172. R. palustris Eggert. (D., F.) 

173. Sabatia campanulata (L.) Torr. (S.c. gracilis D.) 

174. Sagittaria australis (J.G. Sm.) Small. (D., F. ) 

175. Salix caroliniana Michx. (S. longipes wardi D.) 

176. Sanguisorba canadensis L. 

177. Scheuchzeria palustris L. var. americana Fern. 

178. Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen. 

179. Scirpus subterminalis Torr. 

180. S. torreyi Olney. 

181. Scleria oligantha Michx. 

182. S. pauciflora Muhl. (S.p. caroliniana D.) 

183. S. reticularis Michx. 

184. S. reticularis Michx. var. pubescens Britt. 

(S. setacea D.) 

185. Scutellaria saxatilis Riddell. 

186. Silene regia Sims. 

187. Sisyrinchium angustifloium Mill (S. montanum S.) 

188. Solidago squarrosa Muhl. 

189. Sorbus decora (Sarg. ) C. K. Schneid. 

190. Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong. 

191. Spigelia marilandica L. 

192. Spiranthes tuberosa Raf. (S. beckii D.) 

193. Stipa avenacea L. 

194. S. comata Trin. and Rupr. 

Fe 195. Sullivantia sullivantii (T. and G. ) Britt. 

196. Talinum rugospermum Holz. 

197. Thuja occidentalis L. 

198. Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. 

199. Trachelospermum difforme (Walt.) Gray. 

200. Trichomanes boschianum Sturm. 

201. Trillium cernuum L. var. macranthum A.J. Eames and Wieg 

202. Tripsacum dactyloides L. 

203. Utricularia minor L. 

204. U. radiata Small. ( U. inflata minor S., F. ) 

205. Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. ( V. canadense D.) 

206. Valeriana edulis Nutt. 

207. V. uliginosa (T. and G.) Rydb. 

208. Valerianella chenopodifolia (Pursh. ) DC. 

209. Veronica americana (Raf.) Schw. 

210. Viburnum cassinoides L. 

211. Viola hirsutula Brainerd. 



Plant Taxonomy 365 



Table 1 — Continued 

212. Wisteria macrostachya Nutt. 

213. Wolfiella floridana (Smith) Thompson. 

214. Xyris caroliniana Walt. 

215. Zizia aptera (Gray) Fern. 

216. Zygadenus glaucus Nutt. {Zigadenus glaucus D.) 

THREATENED 

1. Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. 

2. Andromeda glaucophylla Link. 

3. Antennaria solitaria Rydb. 

4. Arabis viridis Harger. var. deamii Hopkins ,G., D.) 

(A. missouriensis deamii F., S. ) 

5. Aralia hispida Vent. 

6. Arenaria stricta Michx. 

7. Aristida tuberculosa Nutt. 

8. Aristolochia tomentosa Sims. 

9. Aster ptarmicoides (Nees) T. and G. 

10. A. sericcus Vent. 

11. A. solidagineus Michx. (Seriocarpus linifolius D. ) 

12. Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. 

13. B. tinctoria (L.) R. Br. (B. tinctoria crebra D. ) 

14. Betula papyri] era Marsh. 

15. Bidens beckii Torr. (Megalodonta beckii D.) 

16. Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. var. lacustris Fern. 

17. Carex alata Torr. and Gray. 

18. C. aurea Nutt. 

19. Carex conoidea Schk. 

20. C. crawei Dewey. 

21. C. garberi Fern. 

22. C. limosa L. 

23. C. trichocarpa Muhl. 

24. Circaea alpina L. 

Fe 25. Cirsium pitcheri (Torr.) T. and G. 

26. Cirsium virginianum (L.) Michx. 

27. Clitoria mariana L. 

28. Cornus rugosa Lam. 

29. Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. 

30. Cypripedium calceolus L. var. parviflorum Salisb. 

( C. parviflorum D. ) 

Fe 31. C. candidum Muhl. 

32. Dentaria diphylla Michx. 

33. Eleocharis equisetoides ( Ell. ) Torr. 

34. E. pauciflora (Lightf.) Link. (E. pauciftora fernaldii D. ) 

35. Epigaea repens L. 

36. Eriophorum angustifolium Honckeny 

37. E. gracile Koch. 

38. E. viridi-carinatum (Engelm.) Fern. 

39. Euphorbia polygonifolia L. 

40. Festuca paradoxa Desv. 

41. Fragaria vesca L. var. americana Porter. (F. vesca D. ) 

42. Gonolobus obliquus (Jacq. ) Schult. 

43. Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br. 

44. H. clavallata (Michx.) Spring. 

45. H. flava (L.) R. Br. var. herbiola (Lindl.) Correll 

(H. flava D.) 

46. H. hyperborea (L.) R. Br. 

47. Heuchera villosa Michx. var. macrorhiza (Small) R. B. & L. 

48. Houstonia nigricans (Lam) Fern. (H. angustifolia D. ) 

49. Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. (H. tomentosa intermedia D.) 

50. Hymenocallis occidentalis (LeConte) Knuth. 

51. Hypericum pyramidatum Ait. (H. ascyron L.) 



366 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

52. Ilex decidua Walt. 

53. Iaotria verticillata (Willd. ) Raf. 

54. Juncus pelocarpus E. Meyer. 

55. Juniperus communis L. var. depreasa Pursh. 

56. Kalmia latifolia L. 

57. Lathyrua ochroleucua Hook. 

58. Liatria pycnoatachya Michx. (L. bebbiana D. ) 

59. L. aquarroaa (L. ) Michx. 

60. Lilium canadenae L. 

61. L. auperbum L. 

62. Ludwigia aphaerocarpa Ell. (L. aphaerocarpa deamii D. ) 

63. Magnolia acuminata L. 

64. Matteuccia atruthiopteria (L.) Todaro var. pennaylvanica 

(Willd.) Morton. (Pteretia noduloaa W. ) 

65. Melampyrum lineare Desr. (M. lineare latifolium and 

M. lineare pectinatum D. ) 

66. Melanthium virginicum L. 

67. Melica mutica Walt. 

68. Milium effuaum L. 

69. Myrica aaplenifolia L. var. tomentoaa (Chev. ) Bl. 

( Comptonia peregrina D. ) 

70. Napaea dioica L. 

71. Onoamodium molle Michx. var. hiapidiaaimum (Mack) Cronq. 

(O. hiapidiaaimum D. ) 

72. Panicum leibergii (Vasey) Scribn. 

73. Paaaiflora incarnata L. 

74. Penatemon caneacena (Britt. ) Britt. (P. caneacena typicua D.) 

75. Perideridia americana (Nutt. ) Reichenb. 

76. Phlox amplifolia Britt. 

77. Phoradendron flaveacena (Pursh) Nutt. 

78. Poa alaodea Gray 

79. P. wolfii Scribn. 

80. Polygonella articulata (L.) Meissn. 

81. Polygonum careyi Olney. 

82. Polytaenia nuttallii DC. 

83. Potamogeton freiaii Rupr. 

84. P. robbinaii Oakes. 

85. P. atrictifoliu8 Benn. (P. atrictifoliua vars. typicua and rutiloidea D. ) 

86. Pailocarya acirpoidea Ton*. 

87. Pyrola elliptica Nutt. 

88. P. rotundifolia L. var. americana (Sweet) Fern. 

89. Rhynchoapora macroatachya Torr. 

90. Rubua odoratua L. 

91. Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. 

92. Salix cordata Michx. (S. adenophylla D., S. ayrticola S. ) 

93. S. aeria8ima (Bailey) Fern. 

94. Satureja glabella (Michx.) Briquet var. anguatifolia (Torr.) 

Svenson. (S. glabra D., S. arkanaana S. ) 

95. Saxifraga virginienaia Michx. 

96. Scirpua amithii Gray var. williamaii Fern. (S. debilia 

D., S. purahianua S. ) 

97. Scutellaria parvula Michx. var. auatralia Fassett. 

(S. auatralia D. ) 

98. Sedum telephioidea Michx. 

99. Selaginella rupeatria (L.) Spring. 

100. Solidago hiapida Muhl. 

101. Solidago apathulata DC. var. gillmani (Gray) Cronq. 

(S. deamii D., S. racemoaa gillmani S., D., F.) 

102. Spiranthea lucida ( H. H. Eaton) Ames. 

103. S. ovalia Lindl. 

104. Stachya clingmanii Small. 



Plant Taxonomy 367 



Table 1 — Continued 

105. Stenanthium gramincum (Ker. ) Morong. (includes S. 

robustum D. ) 

106. Styrax americana Lam. 

107. Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. 

108. Tragia cordata Michx. 

109. Tri folium reflexum L. var. glabrum Lojac. 

110. Triglochin palustris L. 

111. Uticularia cornuta Michx. 

112. U. intermedia Hayne. 

113. U. purpurea Walt. 

114. U. resupinata B. D. Greene. 

115. Vaccinium oxy coccus L. 

116. Viola blanda Willd. 

117. V. pedatifida G. Don. 

118. V. primulifolia Vahl. 

119. Vitis palmata Vahl. 

120. Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt. 

SPECIAL CONCERN 
RARE AND/OR RESTRICTED 

1. Aesculus octandra Marsh. 

2. Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. 

3. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. 

4. Aristida intermedia Scribn. and Ball. 

5. Aster junciformis Rydb. (A. junceus D.) 

6. A. undulatus L. 

7. Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. 

( Hydranthelium rotundif olium D. ) 

8. Baptista leucophaea Nutt. 

9. Carex bebbii Olney 

10. C. disperma Dewey. 

11. C. louisianica Bailey. 

12. Carex sparganioides Muhl. var. cephaloidea (Dewey) 

Carey. ( C. cephaloida D. ) ( tax ) . 

13. Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Bart. var. cisatlantica Blake 

14. Clematis pitcheri T. and G. 

15. Crataegus viridis L. 

16. Dennstaedtia punctilobida (Michx.) Moore 

17. Didiplis diandra (Nutt.) Wood. 

18. Drosera intermedia Hayne. 

19. D. rotundifolia L. 

20. Gentiana flavida Gray 

21. Habenaria psy codes (L.) Spreng. 

22. H. viridis (L.) R. Br. var. bracteata (Muhl.) Gray. 

23. Lespedeza nuttallii Darl. 

24. Linum striatum Walt. 

25. Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. 

26. Menyanthes trifoliata L. (M. trifoliata minor D.) 

27. Nemopanthus mucronatus (L.) Trel. 

28. Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britt. 

29. Panax trif olium L. 

30. Panicum boreale Nash. 

31. Pinus banksiana Lamb. 

32. P. virginiana Mill. 

33. Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker. 

34. Potamogeton praelongus Wulfen. 

35. Prunus pennsylvanica L. f. 

36. Quercus falcata Michx. var. pagodaefolia Ell. (F., D.) 

37. Rhamnus alnifolius L'Her. (R. alnifolia D. ) 

38. Ribes hirteilum Michx. (Grossularia hirtella D.) 

39. Smilax bona-nox L. 



368 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

40. Taxus canadensis Marsh. 

41. Vaccinium arbor eum Marsh. 

42. V. macrocarpon Ait. 

SPECIAL CONCERN— TAXONOMY PROBLEMS 

1. Botrychium dissectum Spreng. var. tenuifolium 

(Underw. ) Farw. 

2. Carex debilis Michx. var. rudgei Bailey. 

3. C. muricata L. var. laricina (Mackenzie) Gl. 

(C. laricina D.) 

4. C. tetanica Schk. var. woodii (Dewey) Wood. 

(C. woodii D.) 

5. Cassia fasciculata Michx. var. robusta (Pollard) Macbr. 

(possibly adventive) 

6. C. nictitans L. (C. nictitans leiocarpa D.) 

7. Chaerophyllum procumbens (L.) Crantz. var. shortii T. & G. (F., D.) 

8. Cornus amomum Mill, (proper identification) 

9. Euphorbia vermiculata Raf. 

10. Hemicarpha drummondii Nees. (F., D.) 

11. Lathyrus venosus Muhl. 

12. Liatris scabra (Greene) K. Schum. 

13. L. squarrulosa Michx. (possibly adventive) 

14. Lycopodium inundatum L. var. bigelovii Tuckerm. 

15. Oxalis dillenii Jacq. (O. florida D.) 

16. Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. var. puritanorum Svenson. 

17. P. lucidum Ashe. 

18. P. mattamuskeetense Ashe. 

19. P. subvillosum Ashe. 

20. P. yadkinense Ashe. 

21. Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. (P. capillaceus D.) 

22. P. pusillus L. (P. berchtoldi mucronatus, P. panormitanus 

vars. major and minor D.) 

23. P. vaseyi Robbins. 

24. Pycnanthemum incanum (L. ) Michx. 

25. Rubus enslenii Tratt. (R. centralis, R. deamii D.) 

26. Rumex hastatulus Baldw. 

27. Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. (V. glandifera D.) 

SPECIAL CONCERN— ADVENTIVE 

1. Berberis canadensis Mill. 

2. Bouteloua gracilis (HBK. ) Lag. 

3. Cabomba caroliniana Gray. 

4. Crotonopsis ellipti-ca Willd. 

5. Erianthus alopecuroides (L.) Ell. 

6. Euphorbia obtusata Pursh. 

7. Glyceria acutiflora Torr. 

8. Gnaphalium viscosum HBK. (G. macounii D. ) 

9. Isoetes engelmanni A. Br. 

10. J uncus secundus Beau v. 

11. Krigia oppositifolia Raf. (Serinia oppositifolia D. ) 

12. Najas gracillima (A. Br.) Magnus. 

13. Polygonum cilinode Michx. 

14. Proboscidea louisiana (Mill.) Woot. & Standi. 

(Martynia louisianica D.) 

15. Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh. 

16. Pycnanthemum torrei Benth. 

17. Ranunculus texensis Engelm. (R. oblongifolius D.) 

18. Rhexia mariana L. (R.m. leiosperma D. ) 

19. Strophostyles leiosperma (T. & G.) Piper. 

20. Trichostema dichotomum L. 



Plant Taxonomy 369 

Table 1 — Continued 

21. Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Ait. 

(V. trilobum S., D.) 

22. Zannichellia palustris L. (Z. p. major D.) 

SPECIAL CONCERN— FEDERAL 

1. Chelone obliqua L. var. speciosa Pennell and Wherry. 

2. Habenaria peramoena Gray. 

3. Hydrastis canadensis L. (vulnerable) 

4. lliamma remota Greene. 

5. Panax quinquefolium L. (vulnerable) 

6. Phlox bifida Beck. var. stellaria (Gray) 

Wherry (taxonomy) 

7. Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm. var. americana Fern. 

8. Synandra hispidula (Michx.) Britt. 

9. V eratrum woodii Robbins. 

SPECIAL CONCERN— OTHER 

1. Cypripedium acaule Ait. (vulnerable) 

2. C. reginae Walt, (vulnerable) 

3. Saxifraga forbesii Vasey. (verification) 

Extirpated or possibly extirpated plants are those which were listed 
as extirpated by Deam (6) and not reverified since, or have had all 
known sites destroyed and no new locations found. For example, 
Astragalus tennesseensis Gray was known from one site which Deam 
could not reverify; Solidago buckleyi T. & G. was found only once by 
Deam, at a site which has since been destroyed. 

An endangered status is assigned when a taxon is known or re- 
ported from five or fewer sites, while threatened plants are those 
known or reported from ten or fewer stations. Plants of federal concern 
that are also considered in these categories are noted with an "Fe" 
in the margin preceding the named taxon. 

Sufficient information was not available for a number of species 
represented on previous lists. These species are currently listed in 
various special concern subcategories, and once the needed information 
is available, will either be placed in an appropriate category or 
dropped from consideration. Some plants in Indiana occur at more 
than ten sites, and /or are known from less than five counties. Thus, 
the subcategory special concern — rare and lor restricted was created. 
For instance, Aescnlus octandra Marsh is found in five southeastern 
counties, but is fairly well distributed within those counties. 

With the disappearance of native habitats, certain native taxa 
are capable of moving onto disturbed sites; these are considered as 
special concern — adventive. Erianthus alopecuroides (L.) Ell. naturally 
occurred in only one southern county, but now is believed to be more 
common, occurring in old field habitats. Other species included in this 
category are plants which may have moved into Indiana recently, or 
are becoming more common. 

The special concern — taxonomy subcategory contains plants which 
have uncertain taxonomic status. Examples include Paiiicum subvil- 
losum Ashe, which may be lumped with a more common species, and 
Rumex hastatulus Baldw., which may be misidentified. 



370 Indiana Academy of Science 

Plants are placed in the special concern — federal subcategory due to 
their being proposed for federal status (10) or proposed for federal 
review (1), although their status within Indiana may not be critical. 
The fact that Habenaria peramoena Gray is proposed for federal re- 
view (1) but is known from sixteen Indiana counties illustrates this 
point. 

The final subcategory, special concern — other includes plants that 
may be vulnerable to collection (e.g. Cypripedium reginae Walt.) or in 
need of verification (e.g. Saxifraga forbesii Vasey). 

Hopefully, input from various sources throughout the state will 
permit the update and continuous refinement of plant statuses. Plants 
may be added, dropped, or changed to other categories. These revisions 
will result in a more complete knowledge of Indiana's rarest vascular 
flora and will also ultimately play a vital role in their protection. 

Nomenclature 

Nomenclature for all but a very few taxa follows Gleason and 
Cronquist (8). The few remaining taxa follow Fernald (7) or Swink 
and Wilhelm (9) and are noted by the symbols F., and S., respectively. 
Nomenclatural listings of Deam (1940) were included as synonyms for 
those taxa treated differently in the more recent manuals, and are 
noted by the symbol D. 

Acknowledgements 

In addition to the authors previously cited, we are very grateful 
to John Ebinger, Marion Jackson, Ray Schulenberg, Floyd Swink, and 
Gerould Wilhelm, who provided continuing assistance in the preparation 
of this list. The assistance of curators of herbaria within and without 
Indiana is appreciated. We are grateful to John Ebinger and R. O. 
Petty, who collected and provided us with herbarium information. John 
Pelton and Willard Yates provided the facilities and assistance of the 
Friesner Herbarium at Butler University. We are especially grateful to 
the botanists who continue to provide us with the field information on 
which this list depends, including persons from the Indiana Natural 
Heritage Program, the Division of Nature Preserves, the Natural 
Land Institute, the Indiana Academy of Science, and the Morton 
Arboretum. 



Literature Cited 

1. Ayensu, E. S., and R. A. DeFilipps. 1978. Endangered and Threatened plants of 
the United States. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. 301 p. 

2. Bacone, J. A. 1978. A preliminary list of endangered, threatened and rare vascular 
plant species in Indiana. Ind. Dept. Nat. Res., Div. of Nature Preserves. 12 p. 

3. Barnes, W. B. 1976. Rare and endangered plants in Indiana. Ind. Dept. Nat. 
Res., Div. of Nature Preserves. 12p. 

4. Crankshaw, W. B. 1977. Indiana flora: categorized by degree of risk to species. 
Ball State Univ., Muncie, Ind. Unpubl. manu. 9 p. 

5. Crovello, T. J. 1977. Rare plant species of Indiana. Ind. Acad, of Sci., Biol. 
Surv. Comm. 12p. 



Plant Taxonomy 371 

6. Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Dept. Cons., Div. Forestry, Indianapolis. 
1,236 p. 

7. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. American Book Co., New York. 
1,632 p. 

8. Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of north- 
eastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Co., Princeton, N. J. 
810 p. 

9. Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1979. Plants of the Chicago Region. The Morton 
Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. 922 p. 

10. Uunited States Fish and Wildlife Service. 1979. Great Lakes Region "Red Book" 
for threatened and endangered species. 



A Floristic Inventory of Hemlock Bluff Nature Preserve 

Jackson County, Indiana 

Lois Mittino Gray, Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana 47446 

and 

John A. Bacone, Indiana Department of Natural Resources 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 

Introduction 

A floristic inventory was undertaken during the years 1977-79 by 
the authors in the Hemlock Bluffs Nature Preserve. The area is located 
in Jackson County in Section 23, Township 5 North, Range 2 East of 
the Tunnelton Quadrangle. In 1977, forty acres were dedicated as a 
state nature preserve and have been insured protection under the Indi- 
ana Nature Preserve Act. This unique area includes many natural 
communities, and Eastern hemlocks are represented here in all sizes 
from vigorous seedlings to record mature trees. The tract is located 
in the "Knobs" area of the Crawford Upland. A steep siltsone bluff, 170 
feet tall, overlooks Guthrie Creek which flows through lower sections 
of the preserve. A hiking trail traverses the upper slopes of the nature 
preserve. 

Methods 

The authors visited the nature preserve fourteen times during 
three growing seasons. The information collected for each plant in- 
cluded flowering time, fruiting time and relative abundance, as well as 
the natural communities in which it was located. 

Discussion 

Many natural communities were identified in the preserve ranging 
from dry-mesic upland slopes to the wet lower floodplains. 

Dry-mesic upland forest. This community is on upper slopes where 
there is an intermediate soil moisture gradient. Dominant plants in- 
clude: Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, Liriodendron tulipifera, Sassafras 
albidum, and Carya ovata. Unerstory species included : Cornus florida, 
Lindera benzoin, Hamamelis virginiana, Ulmus rubra and Cercis cana- 
densis. Herbaceous plants were represented by the orchids Liparis 
liliifolia and Aplectrum hyemale, Eupatorium rugosom, Solidago caesia, 
and many spring wildflowers. A disturbed portion of the forest (an 
old logging road) contains an abundance of Aralia spinosa and 
Boehmeria cylindrica. 

Mesic-Bluff and Ravine Forest. This community may be found on 
north and east facing slopes, in ravines, and on level slopes where the 
soil moisture content is high. Dominant trees include: Acer saccharum, 
Fagus grandifolia, Quercus borealis maxima, Tsuga canadensis, and 
Acer rubrum. Unerstory woody plants include: Asimina triloba, Morus 
rubra, Viburnum acerifolium, Vaccinium vacillans, Gaylussacia bac- 
cata and Rubus odoratus. Ferns such as Dryopteris marginalis, and 

372 



Plant Taxonomy 373 

Polystichum acrostichoides abound on these wetter slopes. Herbaceous 
plants include: Monotropa hypopithys, Mitchella repens, Cunila orga- 
noides, Car ex picta, and many spring wildflowers. 

Wet-Mesic Flood-plain Forest. This community occurs at the edge 
of the floodplain. The plants found here are not inundated during the 
flood stage but they are water-tolerant plants. Trees include: Celtis 
occidentalis, Ulmus americana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica subintegerrima, 
Aesculus glabra, Carpinus caroliniana, and Acer negundo. Shrubs spe- 
cies include: Rubus odoratus, R. occidentalis, Hydrangea arborescens, 
Euonymus atropurpureus, and Rhus radicans. Herbaceous plants often 
occurred in large colonies, and included Pilea pumila, Campanula ameri- 
cana, Impatiens spp., Aruncus dioicus, and Hydrophyllum appendiculatum. 

Wet Floodplain Forest. This community floods frequently, and has 
a lower tree species diversity. It exhibits a very open overstory, and 
the understory is often choked with nettles and vines in midsummer. 
Representative tree species include: Populus deltoides, Betula nigra, 
Platanus occidentalis, Salix interior, Salix nigra, and Juglans cinerea. 
Vines such as Polygonum scandens and Lonicera japonica are abundant. 
Pilea pumila forms dense carpets in the area. 

Disturbed Areas. Two parking lots are provided for visitors to the 
nature preserve. The vicinity of these two areas and portions of an old 
field near the edge of the preserve are areas that have been heavily 
disturbed by man. Predominant species are herbaceous plants, many of 
which are aliens (non-native). Important plants include: Conyza 
canadensis, Verbesina alternifolia, Eupatorium spp., Aster spp., and 
Solidago spp. Tree species include : Rhus glabra, Juniperus virginiana, 
Sassafras albidum, Diospyros virginiana, and Liriodendron tulipifera. 

Summary 

Three hundred species, representing two hundred twenty genera, 
were identified in the forty acre preserve. A species list for the preserve 
is presented in Table 1. Complete listings of flowering time, and relative 
abundance are on file with the Division of Nature Preserves, Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana 46204. 

Table 1. Species list for Hemlock Bluff Nature Preserve, Jackson County. 1 
* = county record; # = alien species 

*1. Acer negundo L. 

2. Acer rubrum L. 

3. Acer saccharum Marsh. 

4. Achillea millefolium L. 

5. Actaea alba L. (A. pachypoda D. ) 

6. Adiantum pedatum L. 

7. Aescuhis glabra Willd. 

*8. Agrimonia rostellata Wallr. 

9. Agrostis hyemalis (Walt) BSP 

*10. Allium tricoccum Ait. 

#*11. Allium vineale L. 

*12. Ambrosia artemisiifoHa L. 



1 Nomenclature according to Gleason and Cronquist. 

2 Synonomy with Deam established. 



374 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

13. A. trifida L. 

14. Amelanchier laevis Wieg. 

15. Amphicarpa bracteata var. comosa Fern (L.) 

16. Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach 

17. Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ) Torr 

18. Apocynum cannabinum L. 

19. Arabia laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. 

20. Aralia racemosa L. 

21. Aralia spinosa L. 
#*22. Arctium minus Schk. 

23. Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott 

24. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott 

25. Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fern 
*26. Asarum canadense L. 

27. Asimina triloba (L). Dunal 

28. Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. 

29. Aster pilosus Willd. 

*30. Aster sagittifolius Willd. 

31. Athyrium pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Tidestr. 

#32. Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. 

33. Betula nigra L. 

34. Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. 
*35. Bidens frondosa L. 

36. Blephilia hirsuta (pursh) Benth. 

37. Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. 

38. Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. 
#*39. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. 

40. Campanula americana L. 

41. Campsis radicans (L.) Seem. 

42. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. 
*43. Cardamine douglassii (Torr.) Britt. 

44. Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. 

45. Carex frankii Kunth. 

46. Carex picta Steud. 

*47. Carex plantaginea Lam. 

48. Carex platyphylla Carey. 

49. Carex prasina Wahl. 
*50. Carex virescens Muhl. 

51. Carex vulpinoidea Michx. 

52. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. 

53. Carya cordiformis ( Wang. ) K. Koch. 

54. Carya ovalis (Wang.) Sarg. 

55. Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch. 

56. Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. 

57. Celastrus scandens L. 
*58. Celtis occidentalis L. 

#59. Cerastium vulgatum L. 

60. Cercis canadensis L. 

#61. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. 

62. Cinna arundinacea L. 

63. Circaea quadrisulcata (Maxim.) Franch & Sav. (C. latifolia D. ) 
*64. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng. 

#*65. Cirsium vulgare (Savi.) Tenore. 

66. Claytonia virginica L. 

67. Collinsonia canadensis L. 

68. Commelina virginica L. 

*69. Conopholis americana (L.) Wallr. 

#*70. Convolvulus arvensis L. 

*71. Cony za canadensis (L.) Cronq. (Erigeron canadensis D. ) 

72. Cornus florida L. 

*73. Corydalis fiavula (Raf.) DC. 



Plant Taxonomy 375 



Table 1 — Continued 

74. Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. 

*75. Cubelium c&ncolor (Forst. ) Raf. (Hybanthua concolor D.) 

76. Cunila origanoidea (L.) Britt. 

*77. Cuphea petiolata (L. ) Koehne. 

78. Cuacuta gronovii Willd. 

79. Cynogloasum virginianum L. 

80. Cyperua atrigoaua L. 

81. Cyatopteria jragilia (L.) Bernh. 
*82. Daucua carota L. 

83. Dentaria heterophylla Nutt. 

84. Dentaria laciniata Muhl. 

*85. Deamodium cuapidatum (Muhl.) Loud. {D. bracteoaum D.) 

86. Deamodium nudiflorum (L.) DC. 

#87. Diathua armeria L. 

*88. Dicentra canadenaia (Goldie. ) Walp. 

89. Dicentra cucullaria ( L. ) Bernh. 

90. Dioscorea villoaa L. 

91. Dioacorea quaternata (Walt.) Gmel. 
*92. Dioapyroa virginiana L. 

93. Dryopteria marginalia ( L. ) Gray. 

94. Elymua ripariua Wieg. 

*95. Epifagua virginiana (L. ) Bail. 

96. Epilobium coloratum Biehler. 

*97. Equiaetum arvenae L. 

98. Erechtitea hieracifolia (L.) Raf. 

99. Erigenia bulboaa (Michx. ) Nutt. 
100. Erigeron annua (L.) Pers. 

*101. Erigeron philedilphicua L. 

102. Erigeron atrigoaua Muhl. (E. ramosus D.) 

103. Erythronium americanum Ker. 

104. Euonymoua atropurpureua Jacq. 

105. Eupatorium coeleatinum L. 

106. Eupatorium fiatuloaum Barratt. 
*107. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. 

108. Eupatorium rugoaum Houtt. 

*109. Eupatorium aeaailifolium L. 

110. Eupatorium aerotinum Michx. 

♦111. Euphorbia commutata Engelm. 

*112. Euphorbia dentata Michx. 

*113. Euphorbia maculata (E. Supina D. ) 

114. Fagua grandifolia Ehrh. 

#*115. Featuca elatior L. 

*116. Fraxinua americana L. 

117. Fraxinua pennaylvanica Marsh. (F. lanceolata D. ) 

118. Galium aparine L. 

119. Galium circaezena Michx. 

120. Galium concinnum T. & G. 

121. Galium triftorum Michx. 

122. Gayluaaacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch. 

123. Geranium maculatum L. 

124. Geum canadenae Jacq. 
#*125. Glechoma hederacea L. 

126. Hamamelia virginiana L. 

*127. Helianthua decapetalua L. 

*128. Helianthua groaaeaerratua Martens 

*129. Helianthua hirautus Raf. 

130. Helinathua tuberoaua L. 

131. Heliopsia helianthoides (L.) Sweet 

132. Hepatica acutiloba DC. 

133. Heuchera americana var. brevipetala R. B. & L. 

134. Hieracium panicidatum L. 



370 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

135. Houstonia purpurea L. 

136. Hydrangea arborescens L. 

137. Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx. 

138. Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Mutt. 
*139. Hydrophyllum virginianum L. 

140. Hypericum mutilum L. 

*141. Hypericum perforatum L. 

142. Hypericum punctatum Lam. 

143. Hystrix patula Moench. 

144. Impatiens bi flora Walt. 

145. Impatiens pallida Nutt. 

146. Iodanthus pinnatifidus (Michx.) Steud. 

147. Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. F. W. Meyer 

148. Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers. 
*149. Juglans cinerea L. 

*150. Juglans nigra L. 

*151. J uncus marginatus Rostk. 

*152. Juniperus virginiana var. creba Fern. 

*153. Justicia americana (L.) Vahl. (Dianthera americana D.) 

154. Krigia bi flora (Walt.) Blake 

*155. Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn. 

#*156. Lamium purpureum L. 

*157. Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd. 

158. Leersia virginica Willd. 

#*159. Lespedeza cuneata (Dumont) G. Don. 

160. Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume. (Benzoin aestivale D. ) 

*161. Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich. 

162. Liriodendron tulipij era L. 

163. Lobelia inflata L. 

164. Lobelia siphilitica L. 
#*165. Lonicera japonica Thunb. 

166. Luzula campestris var. echinata (Small) Fern. & Wieg. 

(Luzula echinata D.) 

167. Lycopus virginicus L. 
*168. Lysimachia nummularia L. 
*169. Medeola virginiana L. 

#*170. Medicago lupulina L. 

#*171. Melilotus alba Desr. 

#*172. Melilotus officinalis (L.) Desr. 

173. Menispermum canadense L. 

174. Mimulus alatus Ait. 

175. Mitchella repens L. 

176. Mitella diphylla L. 

177. Monarda clinopodia L. 

178. Monarda fistulosa var. mollis (L.) Benth. 

179. Monotropa hypopithys L. 

180. Monotropa uniflora L. 
*181. Morus rubra L. 

182. Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. 

183. Obolaria virginica L. 

184. Oenothera biennis L. (O. pycnocarpa D.) 
*185. Onoclea sensibilis L. 

#*186. Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 

*187. Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr. ) DC. 

188. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch. 

189. Oxalis grandis Small. 

190. Oxalis stricta L. 

191. Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. 
#*192. Pastinaca sativa L. 

193. Penstemon digitalis Nutt. 

#*194. Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. 



Plant Taxonomy 377 

Table 1 — Continued 



#*195. Phleum pratenae L. 

196. Phlox divaricata L. 

197. Phryma leptoatachya L. 

198. Phytolacca americana L. 

199. Pilea pumila (L. ) Gray. 
#200. Plantago lanceolata L. 

201. Plantago rugellii Decne. 

*202. Platanua occidentalia L. 

203. Podophyllum peltatum L. 

204. Polemonium reptans L. 

205. Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. 
*206. Polygonum erectum L. 

207. Polygonum pennaylvanicum L. 

208. Polygonum peraicaria L. 

209. Polygonum acandena L. 
*210. Polygonum virginianum L. 

211. Polyatichum acroatichoidea (Michx. ) Schott. 

*212. Populua deltoidea Marsh. 

213. Populua grandidentata Michx. 

#*214. Portulaca oleracea L. 

#*215. Potentilla recta L. 

216. Potentilla aimplex Michx. 

*217. Prenanthea altiaaima L. 

218. Prunella vulgaria var. lanceolata (Bart.) Fern. 

219. Prunua aerotina Ehrh. 

220. Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) Durand & Jackson 

221. Quercua alba L. 

222. Quercua coccinea Muenchh. 

223. Quercua borealia Michx. var. maxima (Marsh.) Ashe. 

224. Quercua velutina Lam. 

225. Ranunculua abortivua L. 

226. Rhua glabra L. 

227. Rhua radicana L. 

228. Ribea cynoabati L. (Groaaularia cynosbati D. ) 
*229. Roaa multiflora Thunb. 

230. Rubua alleghenienaia Porter 

*231. Rubua occidentalis L. 

232. Rubus odoratus L. 

233. Rudbeckia hirta L. 
*234. Rumex criapua L. 

235. Sabatia angularia (L. ) Pursh. 

236. Salix interior Rowlee 

237. Salix nigra L. 

238. Sambucua canadenaia L. 

239. Sanguinaria canadenaia L. 

240. Sanicula canadenaia L. 
*241. Sanicula. trifoliata 

#*242. Saponaria officinalia L. 

243. Saaaafraa albidum ( Nutt. ) Nees. 

244. Scirpua atrovirena Willd. 

245. Scirpua lineatua Michx. 

246. Scrophularia marilandica L. 

247. Sedum ternatum Michx. 

248. Senecio aureua L. 

249. Senecio glabellua Poir. 
#*250. Setaria faberii Herm. 

*251. Sida apinoaa L. 

*252. Silene virginica L. 

253. Siayrinchium graminoidea Bickn. 

254. Smilacina racemoaa (L.) Desf. 
*255. Smilax hiapida Muhl. 



378 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1 — Continued 

256. Smilax rotundifolia L. 

257. Solanum carolinense L. 

258. Solidago caesia L. 
*259. Solidago canadensis L. 

260. Solidago canadensis var. scabra (Muhl.) T. & G. 
(Solidago altissima D. ) 

*261. Solidago flexicaulis L. (Solidago latifolia D. ) 

262. Solidago graminifolia (L. ) Salisb. 

263. Solidago juncea Ait. 

264. Stachys tenuifolia Willd. 

265. Stellaria pubera Michx. 

266. Strophostyles helveola (L.) Ell. 

267. Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt. 
*268. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moenuch. 

#*269. Taraxacum officinale Weber 

#270. Thlaspi arvense L. 

*271. Tilia american L. 

272. Tradescantia subaspera Ker. 

#*273. Trifolium pratense L. 

#*274. Trifolium repens L. 

275. Trillium gleasoni Fern. 

*276. Trillium recurvatum Beck. 

277. Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. 

(Specularia perfoliata D. ) 

278. Triodia flava (L.) Smyth. 

*279. Triosteum perfoliatum var. aurantiacum (Bickn. ) Wieg., 

(Triosteum aurantiacum D. ) 
280. Tsug a canadensis (L. ) Carr. 
*281. Ulmus americana L. 
*282. Ulmus rubra Muhl. 
*283. Urtica dioica var. procera (Muhl.) Wedd. 

( Urtica procera D. ) 
*284. Uvularia grandiflora Sm. 

285. Vaccinium vacillans Torr. 

286. Valeriana pauciflora Michx. 
#*287. Verbascum thapsus L. 

*288. Verbena urticifolia L. 

*289. Verbesina alter nifolia (L. ) Britt. (Actinomeris alter ni folia D. ) 

290. Vernonia altissima Nutt. 

#*291. Veronica arvensis L. 

292. Viburnum acerifolium L. 

293. Viola eriocarpa Sch. 

294. Viola papilionacea Pursh. 

295. Viola striata Ait. 

296. Viola triloba Sch. 

297. Vitis aestivalis Michx. 
*298. Vitis riparia Michx. 

*299. Woodsia obtusa (Spreng. ) Torr. 
300. Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. 

Of the 300 species, 96 are new county records. Vouchers for each 
will be deposited in an Indiana herbarium at a future date. Many of 
these species are relatively common, (e.g. Trillium, recurvatum and 
Ulmus rubra), since Jackson County was not actively botanized by 
Charles Deam. Twenty-seven of these county records are non-native 
species which may have moved into the area in recent years. 

Several taxa considered rare in the state were identified in the 
preserve, including Rubus odoratus, Juglans cinerea, Monotropa hy- 
popithys, Tsuga canadensis, and Liparis liliifolia. 



Plant Taxonomy 379 

The species list will be periodically updated and any additions to 
it would be welcomed by the authors. Inventories of such state nature 
preserves will lead to increased knowledge of plant distributions, and 
aid in the preserve's proper management. 

Acknowledgements 

Our thanks to Dr. Theodore J. Crovello, University of Notre Dame 
for a computer list of the known flora of Jackson County. Gerould 
Wilhelm of The Morton Arboretum, in Lisle, Illinois, assisted in 
identification of several species, particularly grasses and sedges. 



Literature Cited 

1. Deam, Charles C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Dept. Conservation, Indianapolis, 
1236 p. 

2. Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of Northeastern 
United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Co., Indiana, Princeton, New 
Jersey. 810 p. 



SCIENCE EDUCATION 

Chairman: H. Marvin Bratt 
Ohio State University Marion, Marion, Ohio 47803 

Chairman-Elect: William G. Wert 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47803 

Utilizing Predicted Grades. Charles L. Gehring, Professor of Life 
Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana. The aver- 
age scores for the 1978 Scholastic Aptitude tests (SAT) follows: 
Nationally, Verbal-427 and Math-467; Indiana, Verbal 412, and Math- 
455; Indiana State University, Verbal-390, and Math-422. I.S.U. has 
an "Open Admissions Policy" which obviously skews the scores to the 
lower side. This author has organized and coordinated a nonmajors 
general biology course for 15 years, and course enrollment ranges from 
650 to 850 students per semester. The 736 enrolled in the course during 
the Fall 1979, represent the spectra of aptitudes, attitudes, motivation, 
etc. Is there a prism available which reveals the various portions of 
the spectra? 

This author utilizes predicted grades (based on: SAT-verbal, SAT- 
math. Converted High School Rank, and a constant) to identify three 
major segments of the course enrollment. One, the F and D students; 
two, the B+ and A students, and three, the C, C+, and B students. 
Unfortunately, group three (C, C+, and B) students receive less at- 
tention and consideration, and receive less encouragement than either 
of the other groups. As a result the attrition rate of this group is 
extremely high; therefore much of the potential of this group is never 
realized. It is time to look for those factors which will provide the 
proper environment for this large segment of our student population. 
Society cannot afford to waste /squander these minds. 

Using a "Discovery" Approach to Teaching the Scientific Method. Wil- 
liam G. Wert, Associate Professor of Life Sciences, Indiana State 

University, Terre Haute, Indiana. This is a method by which I 

have most successfully been able to lead students through the scientific 
method, by suggestions and giving them the feeling of having actually 
performed problem solving, with student involvement and discovery, 
making it a game. Key points have been observation, interpretation of 
facts, discarding unusuable hypothesis, creation of new hypotheses and 
the use of imagination. The student's handling of things involves a 
reward and feeling of accomplishment and a final discovery that they 
have used the scientific method. This method allows all the students 
to inquire and discover as they proceed through the steps of the scien- 
tific method without realizing this until they have actually accomplished 
it. The whole class really gets involved and interested as the problem 
is first presented to them and continues until the final discovery is 
made. This method can be accomplished by utilizing a chalk board, 
three series of sixteen blocks or squares drawn on the chalk board and 
four each of four different key colored blocks of construction paper to 

380 



Science Education 381 

fit the squares on the board. Many modifications of this method may be 
used depending on the room facilities such as magnetic chalk board, 
projection facilities, or the various individual preferences of the 
teacher and the level of sophistication of the class. 

EXPER SIM as an Aid in Developing High School Science Propects. 

Gary E. Dolph, Indiana University at Kokomo, Kokomo, Indiana. 



As any judge at a high school science fair knows, the number of un- 
imaginative projects presented greatly exceeds the number of innovative 
projects. However, this lack of innovation is not an accurate repre- 
sentation of the ability of the students. It is a reflection of the in- 
structor's success in getting the students to ask the right questions 
and to develop a research strategy to answer those questions. In 
practice, science is taught by having the students carry out "classical" 
experiments from a laboratory manual. Scientific method, the basis for 
developing an innovative science fair project, cannot be taught in 
this format. EXPER SIM is a set of computer programs and instruc- 
tional materials which may be used to teach research techniques. 
EXPER SIM does not emphasize data collection. The data for an 
individual experiment are already stored in the computer. Instead, 
EXPER SIM allows the student to develop research strategies to 
extract the correct data from a large pool of possible answers. By 
using EXPER SIM, a considerable amount of time can be saved, while 
the student compares the results of different experimental designs. Once 
the students have learned how to develop their own research designs, 
they can proceed to the actual laboratory experiments required for 
their science projects. Currently, EXPER SIM programs can be 
purchased from CONDUIT or developed by the individual instructor. 

Lap-Dissolve Slide Projection Sequences Used in Teaching Chemistry 
Concepts. G. M. Bodner and Thomas J. Greenbowe. Department of 
Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Most sci- 
ence educators agree that students learn 'better' when the scientific 
phenomena under discussion can be demonstrated. Recent work on 
concept formation has led to two suggestions: (1) what student learn 
through the use of lecture demonstrations or other visual effects (slides, 
video-tape, film) is different from what they learn during a verbal 
presentation; (2) illustrating live demonstration with companion line 
drawings is better than just performing the demonstration or showing a 
picture of the phenomena. 

We will describe a technique known as Lap-Dissolve Slide Projec- 
tion (LD) which enhances the instructors repertoire of presenting 
science concepts and demonstrating scientific phenomena. In LD, two 
matched slide projectors are focused on the same screen, allowing 
their images to overlap and then the image thrown by one projector 
is slowly dissolved into the image from the other projector. Several ad- 
vantages of LD relative to video-tape and film will be discussed. We 
will demonstrate how the LD technique is applied to certain aspects 
of teaching chemistry, including (1) SN 1 and SN., reaction mechanisms; 
(2) 3-D concepts used in crystal structure; (3) correlating live 



382 Indiana Academy of Science 

demonstrations and representative line drawings in atomic structure; 
(4) illustrating concepts such as paramagnetism of liquid oxygen. 

Electrochemistry Demonstrations with an Overhead Projector. C. R. 

Ward, T. J. Greenbowe, and D. A. Davenport. Department of Chem- 
istry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. The overhead 

projector, a common piece of equipment in most lecture rooms, can 
serve as a versatile projection source for many chemistry demonstra- 
tions. We have developed a series of clear plexiglass templates to fa- 
cilitate working with solutions during demonstrations with an overhead 
projector. The templates serve to securely hold the beakers, electrodes, 
salt bridge, and interconnecting wiring to the overhead projector. An 
inexpensive and easily made hydrogen electrode for use with the tem- 
plates will be demonstrated along with additional electrochemical 
demonstrations. Also, a unique sacrificial electrode will be demon- 
strated. 

Attitudes Towards Teaching Science: A Demographic Study. Marvin 
Bratt. Early and Middle Childhood Education, The Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Marion, Ohio 43302. In an attempt to isolate demographic 

variables which may contribute to a teacher's atitude towards teaching 
science, a questionnaire was distributed to 81 students and teachers 
in the teacher education program at The Ohio State University during 
1978-79. In addition, each teacher completed the Bratt Attitude In- 
ventory, an inventory of attitudes towards the teaching of science. 
The scores on the attitude inventory were correlated with each of 
the demographic variables using the Pearson Product Moment Co- 
efficient of Correlation. The study yielded eleven (1) significant cor- 
relations of interest to science educators. 

The results of the demographic study and correlations are reported 
as well as interesting data on the subjects' backgrounds in science. The 
data suggest that renewed effort is needed in supplementing the back- 
grounds of elementary teachers in the area of science. 

Agronomic Coop Intern Program for Undergraduate Students. C. L. 
Rhykerd*, B. 0. Blair, A. R. Hilst, R. C. Keen, and A. D. Goecker, 
Department of Agronomy and School of Agriculture, Purdue University, 

W. Lafayette, Indiana. More than half of the undergraduate students 

in the School of Agriculture at Purdue University have non-rural 
backgrounds. This lack of practical agricultural experience places these 
students at a disadvantage in agricultural courses in the University 
as well as the agricultural job market upon graduation. A coop intern 
program was initiated in the School of Agriculture at Purdue Uni- 
versity in 1975 to provide the non-rural students an opportunity to 
obtain "hands on" experience in agriculture. This program requires an 
extra year for the student since the student must spend four school 
terms working in some phase of agriculture. Upon graduation, in 
addition to the B.S. degree diploma the student also receives a certificate 
which documents his completion of the agricultural coop intern program. 

To-date more than 40 students have been involved in the agronomic 
coop intern program. The students which have completed the program 



Science Education 383 

have had numerous job opportunities upon graduation and have ad- 
vanced quite rapidly in their agronomically related jobs. 

Types of agronomic coop internships include seed, fertilizer and 
agricultural chemical companies, state and federal agencies such as 
ASCS, SCS, and the U.S. Weather Bureau, grain and livestock farms, 
and golf courses and lawn care services. 

The agronomic coop intern program has been well received by our 
undergraduates. Students involved in the program have become highly 
motivated by their "hands on" experience resulting in improved 
academic performance upon return to campus. 

Field Studies for Elementary Children: A Role for Colleges in their 
Communities. Larry Yoder and Marvin Bratt, The Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Marion, Ohio 43302. The authors were asked by elementary 

teachers and by the GATEWAY project, a program for gifted ele- 
mentary children in the Marion City Schools (Ohio) to conduct field 
trips indoors and out of doors on the Marion campus of The Ohio State 
University. Activities were designed to present experiences in ecology, 
conservation, biology, and earth science; and they utilized the assistance 
of faculty and students in botany and education at the university. 
Elementary students visited the animal room and biology and geology 
laboratories, and in all areas they were encouraged to touch and examine 
the displays. Visitors out of doors had the opportunity to fish, collect 
and observe small invertebrates, hike the trails and wade in the cattail 
pond. In addition, small groups of students were asked to make extended 
observations while they remained quiet and motionless. These half-day 
visits were enthusiastically received, and we are considering all age 
groups as we develop our natural area on campus. We have developed 
a printed guide of objectives for campus field trips which is distributed 
to area teachers. Our project is one example of how those in higher edu- 
cation can contribute to the needs of schools that are near a college 
campus. 



SOIL AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE 

Chairman: Gary C. Steinhardt 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47800 

Chairman-Elect: Donal P. Franzmeier 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47306 

Loess Distribution in Wabash County, Indiana and Characteristics of 
Late Wisconsin tills in Northeastern Indiana. D. P. Franzmeier, G. C. 
Steinhardt, and R. B. Bryant, Agronomy Department, Purdue Uni- 
versity, West Lafayette, Indiana. Loess distribution was studied in 

an area along the eastern front of the Mississinewa Moraine in Wabash 
County, Indiana. The thickness of the loess deposit was determined 
from soil cores taken along a north-south and an east-west transect. 
Similar thicknesses of loess were observed on both the early Wood- 
fordian age (Tazewell) Cartersburg till and the late Woodfordian 
age (Cary) New Holland till. The thickness of the loess deposit ranged 
from zero to 134 cm and varied randomly. In the north-south transect 
it tended to be thickest near the Wabash River. The results suggest a 
multiplicity of loess sources in the area. 

Unleached till samples were collected and characterized at each 
sampling site in the study area. In support of the state soil survey 
program, the Purdue soil characterization laboratory has characterized 
numerous additional samples of unleached till throughout northeastern 
Indiana. These data support three groupings of tills based on particle- 
size distribution. Tazewell till beyond the Union City and Packerton 
moraines generally have 8 to 18 percent clay and 40 to 60 percent 
sand. Tills from the Fort Wayne and Wabash moraines have 30 to 
40 percent clay and 15 to 25 percent sand. Tills associated with the 
Union City, Mississinewa, Salimonie, and Packerton morainal systems 
have textures that are intermediate between these two groups. 

Nitrogen fertilizer had a pronounced effect on dry matter yield 
and percent crude protein. Very little response was observed from the 
application of P and k fertilizer. Mineral composition of the Kentucky 
bluegrass harvested from the eight fertilizer treatments and the three 
replications for the four cuttings was determined. 

Composition of the Clay Mineralogy of the Argillic and Fragipan 
Horizons of Soils of the Cincinnati Catena. G. C. Steinhardt and D. P. 
Franzmeier, Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 

Indiana. We studied the clay mineralogy of the argillic and fragipan 

horizons of soils and the Cincinnati catena sampled in Jennings County, 
Indiana. These soils were developed in two zones of Wisconsin age 
loess above a paleosol at about 2m of Illinoian age. The clay min- 
eralogy of the two horizons were quite similar both qualitatively 
and quantitatively. We found kaolinite the dominant mineral, illite and 
vermiculite intermediate and montrmoillonite lowest. The only constant 
quantitative trend that was found was an increase in kaolinite content 

384 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 385 

when the argillic horizon was founded in upper loess and the fragipan 
was found in the lower loess. The conclusion of this study is that clay 
mineralogy is probably not as important in fragipan development as 
other properties such as amorphous materials. 

Acid Rainfall Sensitive Soils of the Eastern United States. Thomas G. 
VanHorn and William W. McFee, Department of Agronomy, Purdue 

University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Acidity in precipitation has 

increased to the point where concern has been expressed over its possible 
effects on the soils of the eastern United States. With cation exchange 
capacity (CEC) as the basis for sensitivity, soil associations of each 
state east of the Mississippi River were determined to be sensitive 
(<6.2 me/lOg), slightly sensitive (6.2-15.4 me/lOOg) or non-sensitive 
(> 15.4 me/lOOg). Each state was mapped according to the sensitivity 
of its soil associations and these were generalized into a single 
1:250,000 map. Much of New England, northern and eastern New York, 
and the eastern states was found to be slightly sensitive. Also, large 
portions of the South; southern portions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and 
Indiana; northern Michigan and northwestern Wisconsin were generally 
slightly sensitive. Land use, however, was not taken into account; thus, 
showing a much larger slightly sensitive area than would normally be 
expected. 



Predicting Soil Temperatures with Air Temperature and Soil Moisture 1 

Patrick McGarrahan and Robert F. Dale 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

Introduction 

Knowledge of soil temperatures is important for making spring 
planting decisions and for modeling early crop growth and development. 
Since low soil temperature delays mineralization of soil organic nitrogen 
and inhibits nitrification of ammonium, soil temperature information 
is also important for planning nitrogen needs and timing for fertilizer 
application. Yet soil temperature observations are not available for 
many areas. Although there are more soil temperature stations in 
Indiana than in any other state, there are only 12 stations for which 
daily maximum and minimum soil temperatures are currently published 
in Climatological Data, Indiana (USDC, EDS, 1978). This number con- 
trasts to more than 90 stations for which air temperatures are avail- 
able. 

For planting decisions and modeling corn growth and development 
50 °F (10°C) generally is used as the critical base soil temperature for 
corn seed germination and plant growth. At West Lafayette, the mean 
daily minimum temperature at the 4-in (10-cm) depth for a bare soil 
reaches 50 °F about May 5 (Fig. 1), and most corn planting in Indiana 
occurs in May. The growing point of the corn plant rises above the 
ground surface about mid-June. In this paper, several methods are 
examined for estimating daily maximum and minimum soil temperatures 
from air temperatures and soil moisture during May and June at West 
Lafayette, Indiana. 

Estimating soil temperature by any method is difficult because of 
the complex interaction of factors affecting it. Solar radiation is the 
driving force for both air and soil temperature. Yet, there are even 
fewer stations observing solar radiation than soil temperature. Soil 
characteristics which affect its temperature include moisture, ground 
cover, slope, texture, and organic matter. The nearer the surface, the 
greater the diurnal range in soil temperatures (Carson, 1961, p. 54-59). 
Below a depth of about 20 in (50 cm) the diurnal temperature variation 
is negligible, and only the seasonal trend in soil temperature can be 
sensed. (Schaal et al., to be published). Since corn is planted and 
nitrogen is incorporated in the top few inches of the soil, it is this layer 
near the surface with which we are concerned in this paper. Maximum 
and minimum air temperatures, soil moisture, and an interaction term 
of air temperature with soil moisture were included as variables in 
six regression models to predict maximum and minimum soil tempera- 
tures at the 4-in (10-cm) depth in bare soil. 

DATA 

Weather data were taken from the National Weather Service- 
Purdue University Agronomy Farm Station, West Lafayette 6 NW, 

386 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 




27 10 24 II 25 

FEB MAR 



15 29 12 27 10 24 
JUL AUG SEP 



7 21 28 4 II 
OCT NOV 



Figure 1. Weekly mean maximum and minimum soil and air temperatures from 
January 27 -November 25, West Lafayette, Indiana. Soil temperatures -4 in (10 cm) 
under grass sod are plotted for July-September, the period when a com canopy generally 

covers the ground. 



Indiana (USDC, EDS, 1962-1966, 1977-1978). The soil temperatures 
used were measured with a Palmer thermometer with a mercury bulb at a 
4-in (10-cm) depth under a bare soil surface, in a Udollic Ochraqualf, 
Toronto silt loam. Air temperatures were measured with liquid-in-glass 
max and min thermometers in a standard cotton region shelter. Be- 
cause the observation time was 8 AM, maximum soil and air tempera- 
tures were set back one day to agree with their likely date of occurrence. 
Precipitation and evaporation values were used in a soil moisture pro- 
gram (Stuff and Dale, 1978) to estimate the daily percent plant-avail- 
able soil mosture (PAV 15 ) in the top 6 in (15 cm). Precipitation was 
measured with a standard 8-in rain gage and evaporation from a 
standard Class A pan. 

The regressions were developed over a five-year period, 1962-1966. 
In these years the soil thermometers were most frequently checked and 
calibrated, and also the data were already on computer files. Data for 
1977 and 1978 were used for all independent tests, although soil 
temperature data were missing for June 2-12, 1977. 

Air and soil temperature normals were based on the 1941-1970 and 
1961-1977 periods, respectively. Soil temperatures averaged 3°F above 
normal in both May and June 1962-1966. Air temperatures were 2°F 
and 1°F above normal in May and June 1962-1966, respectively. The 
1977 and 1978 test years provided a greater range in air and soil tern- 



388 Indiana Academy of Science 

peratures than that used to develop the models. In 1977 there was a dry, 
early spring and in 1978 a wet, late spring. Monthly mean temperatures 
and departures from normal are shown in Table 1. May 1977 was un- 
usually warm. May daily maximum air temperatures averaged 81 °F, 
almost 10 °F above normal, and daily maximum soil temperatures 
averaged about 8°F above normal. June continued above normal. In 
contrast, 1978 soil temperatures averaged below normal. 

Surface soil moisture generally decreases as the spring season pro- 
gresses. There were a lack of low PAV 15 values in the regression devel- 
opment years. The mean daily PAV 15 for May 1962-1966 was 90% and 
for June 84%. May had many 100% PAV ir , values, i.e., the top 6-in 
(15-cm) soil layer was at its water holding capacity. There were only 
19 days with PAV 15 less than 80% and one day less than 70% out of 
155 (31 x 5 yrs) days. The range in PAV 15 was greater in June, but 
still there were no days with less than 50% and only three days with 
less than 60% plant available soil moisture. 

There was less precipitation and lower soil moisture in spring 1977 
than in spring 1978. May 1977 had 3.96 inches of rain, but most of it 
occurred during the first week, allowing considerable soil drying during 
the last three weeks of May. June 1977 had only 1.87 inches of pre- 
cipitation. The daily PAV 15 averaged 85% for May and June 1977. 
By contrast, May and June 1978 had 4.26 and 5.92 in. of precipitation, 
respectively. Rain fell on 26 days in the two months. Daily PAV 15 
averaged 94%, and was below 80% on only one day. 

Table 1. Daily soil and air temperature means and departures from normal at West 
Lafayette, Indiana, May and June, 1977 and 1978. 





Bare Soil Temperatui 
10-cm Depth 


e 




Air Tempi 


erature 






Mean 


Departure 


Mean 


Depar 


ture 




1977 


1978 


1977 


1978 


1977 


1978 


1977 


1978 


May Daily Maximum 
May Daily Minimum 
June Daily Maximum 
June Daily Minimum 


77.4 
59.7 
83.8 
66.7 


63.8 
51.5 

78.2 
62.4 


+7.9 
+5.5 
+3.8 
+2.8 


—5.7 

—2.7 
—1.8 
—1.5 


80.8 
56.5 
81.9 
60.2 


67.0 
49.0 
81.3 
59.3 


+9.6 

+7.1 
+1.3 
+1.8 


—4.2 
—0.4 
+0.7 
+0.9 



Methods and Procedures 

Daily maximum and minimum soil temperatures were estimated 
with the following regression models: 

T s = b + VT) + b 2 (CD) [1] 

T s = b + VT) + b 2 (CD) + b 3 (PAV) 15 [2] 

T 9 = b + VT) + b 2 (CD) + b 3 (T)(PAV 15 ) [3] 

T s = b + VT) + b 2 (CD) + b 3 (PAV 15 ) + 

b 4 (T)(PAV 15 ) [4] 

T s max t = b + b^Tmax^ + b 2 (CD) + b 3 (Tmin t ) [5a] 

T s min t = b + b^Tmin^ + b 2 (CD) + b 3 (Tmax t . 1 ) [5b] 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 



389 



where: T\ 



CD 
PAV ig 

T s max t 

T s min t 

Tmax, 

Tmax t _ 1 

Tmin f 



— bare soil temperature at 4-in (10-cm) depth, maxi- 
mum or minimum, °F. 

= air temperature, maximum or minimum, correspond- 
ing to that for T s , °F. 

= climatological day number. 

= percent available moisture in the top 6 in (15 cm) 
of soil. 

= maximum soil temperature on day t, °F. 

r= minimum soil temperature on day t, °F. 

= maximum air temperature on day t, °F. 

= maximum air temperature on day t-1, °F. 

= minimum air temperature on day t, °F. 



The parameters in models [1] through [5b] were fitted to the 
weather data for 1962-1966 at West Lafayette, Indiana. Separate 
regression equations were developed for the months of May and June. 

Climatological day number (CD) was included to consider the 
"normal" upward temperature trend in May and June. The CD is 1 
on March 1st and increases daily by one. Although the upward trend 
in air and soil temperatures tends to level off at the end of June, CD 
was included in all regression equations. 

To compare the significance and goodness of fit of the models, 
F-tests and R 2 (coefficient of determination) values were calculated for 
each equation. The regression models also were tested independently 
with the 1977 and 1978 data. Mean daily absolute errors of prediction, 



were calculated, where T s is the observed soil tempera- 
ture and T s is that predicted. As a control the mean daily soil temper- 
ature for the respective CD was also used to predict the daily soil 
temperature for the two test years. 

Results and Discussion 

The F and R 2 values for the five regression models are shown in 
Table 2. All equations were highly significant. Including PAV ir) in the 
regressions did not significantly increase the R 2 values. Only for the 
May daily maximum soil temperatures was the R 2 for model [2] more 
than 0.01 greater than that for model [1]. Nor did including the inter- 

Table 2. Goodness of fit tests for indicated T and regression model, 1962-1966. 



Reg. 
Model 



May Daily 

Maximum 

F R-' 



May Daily 

Minimum 

F R- 



June Daily 

Maximum 

F K- 



June Daily 

Minimum 

F R 2 



[11 


185 


.71 


252 


.77 


228 


.76 


167 


.69 


t2| 


159 


.76 


178 


.78 


158 


.77 


113 


.70 


[3] 


162 


.76 


175 


.78 


157 


.76 


113 


.70 


[4| 


121 


.76 


186 


.78 


122 


.76 


85 


.70 


[5a] 


123 


.71 






151 


.76 






[5b] 






220 


.81 






132 


.73 



390 Indiana Academy of Science 

actions in models [3] and [4] improve upon the R 2 compared with the 
more simple models [1] and [2], Model [5b] had the highest R 2 when 
estimating May and June daily minimum T s . 

The fitted regression coefficients and standard errors of estimate 
are shown in Table 3 for [1], [2], [5a] and [5b]. The air temperature 
coefficients in [1] and [2] were relatively stable, and their standard 
errors of estimate ranged from 5% to 8% of the computed coefficient. 
The PAV 15 coefficient was negative in [2] for all four cases. In [5b] 
both air temperature coefficients, b J and b 3 , were important for esti- 
mating minimum soil temperatures, but in [5a] the b 3 coefficient was 
not significant when predicting maximum soil temperatures. 

A scatter diagram of soil temperature on air temperature for indi- 
cated PAV 15 is shown in Figure 2 for May 1-5 daily maximum soil 
temperature. The fitted regression equations [2], [3], and [4] for all 
May daily maximum temperatures, evaluated for CD = 64 (May 3), 
are shown for PAV 15 values of 100% and 80%. PAV 15 was negatively 
correlated to soil temperature. For example, a 20% decrease in PAV 15 
resulted in a 4-5 °F increase in T s at a constant air temperature in May. 
A comparative PAV 15 decrease in June yielded a 2-3 °F increase in T s . 
The effect of soil moisture was similar in models [2], [3], and [4], as 
shown in Figure 2. 

The mean daily absolute prediction errors for the independent test 
years, 1977 and 1978, for equations [1], [2], [5a] and [5b] are shown in 
Table 4. Results for models [3] and [4] were similar to those for model 
[2] and are not shown. The regression models predicted T s better in 
1977 than in 1978. In 1977 the mean daily absolute errors were between 
2.2°F (June daily min, [5b]) and 4.2°F (June daily max, [1] and [5a]), 
and averaged 3.1 °F. The results for the models with soil moisture [2] 
were disappointing. Model [2] had slightly higher prediction errors 
than did [1] in May 1977. Including the previous day's maximum tem- 
perature ( [5b] ) lowered minimum temperature prediction errors in all 
four cases. To be of value, the regression models must do better pre- 
dicting T s , than does the daily climatological mean. They did so in 1977. 
Absolute daily prediction errors with models [1], [2], [5a], and [5b] 
were 4-5° lower in May and 0-2° lower in June. Climatology provided 
better results in June than in May because in 1977 soil temperatures 
departed less from normal in June. 

The regression model prediction errors were greater in 1978 than 
in 1977, probably because temperature conditions in 1977 were more 
similar to those during the 1962-1966 period used to develop the re- 
gression equations than were temperature conditions in 1978. Mean 
absolute prediction errors in 1978 averaged 4.1 °F for the regression 
models, up 1°F from those in 1977. In contrast to 1977, [2] had slightly 
lower prediction errors than [1] in 1978. Again, [5b] did better than 
[1] when estimating minimum soil temperatures, but [5a] did no better 
than [1] in predicting maximum soil temperatures. The regression 
models estimated T^ much better than climatology in May 1978. How- 
ever, climatology (daily T s ) did better than [1], [2,] [5a], or [5b] 
in June 1978. In June, and if temperatures average near normal, cli- 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 



391 



+ 






1 + 



£ 



Ph 






c 









Ph 



n -Q 


^ 


s 


£ 








X 




a 








& 




>t 












rj 




Q 






*J 


>> 


w rr* 


=s 



Ph 



(M O <M O 



+ 1 +1 



io o ■»* o 



+1 +1 



H N O C9 

■«* •"* «* W 

d eg © ■* 

i-H eg 

+ 1 +1 



eg 


m 


>> 


CD 


t-H 


H 


t- 


CO 


eg 




t- 


CO 


■* 


CO 


eg 


o 


«J 


co 


o 


eg 


o 


O 




Q 


O 




© 






11 


c 

3 




+1 




+1 


eg 


OS 




CO 


IO 


<* 


lO 


eg 


CO 




CD 


CO 


CD 


CO 



Ttl O ■<* O 



+1 +1 



<B n a a 

00 -tf © CO 

00 CO CD IO 
i-H 

+ 1 +1 



+ 1 



+ 1 



eg © eg o eg o 



+1 II +1 



M ® W IO (D 51 

CJS CO i-H CO c— CO 

m © io o m © 

© d © 

+1 +1 +1 



£ 


in 


t- 


OS 


,_, 


-* 


oc 


3 


CO 


co 


JO 


<* 


CO 


CO 


a 


CO 


o 


eg 


© 


CO 


o 


© 




d 




d 




a 




+1 




+ 1 




+1 


£ 














>. 










































cC 














Q 














01 


H 


CO 


00 


i- 


,-H 


CO 


3 


© 


o 


in 
in 


o 


OS 

m 


© 



m eg eg 

05 t- O 

m co co ^o 



-<* eg W 
in t> 

m eo 



+ 1 +1 +1 



i—i — c3 



II II II 



•t eg o t— eg © 

.— i © t* © eg t-h 

i-J ■"* eg t- i-H "# 

I +1 " +1 I +1 



^ i—i eS 



392 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 4. Mean daily absolute error for indicated predicted soil temperature, and 
regression model, 1977 and 1978, West Lafayette, Indiana. 















, °F 










T s - 


A 




Reg. 


May Daily 


May Daily 




June 


Daily 


June Daily 


Model 


Maximum 


Minimum 




Maximum 


Min 


imum 




1977 


1978 


1977 


1978 




L977 


1978 


1977 


1978 


[1] 


2.6 


4.1 


2.9 


3.7 




4.2 


5.1 


2.7 


4.5 


[2] 


3.4 


4.0 


3.2 


3.3 




3.9 


4.5 


2.7 


4.3 


[5a] 


2.6 


4.1 








4.2 


5.1 






[5b] 






2.8 


2.5 








2.2 


4.1 


Daily T s 


8.2 


8.4 


7.1 


4.6 




6.1 


3.5 


2.8 


3.9 



•)80 




60 65 70 75 80 

DAILY MAX. AIR TEMPERATURE, SHELTER °F 

Figure 2. Scatter diagram of soil temperature on shelter air temperature for indicated 

percent plant available-soil moisture (PAVis) in the top 6 in (10 cm), May 1-5, 1962- 

1966, West Lafayette, Indiana. Regressions [*], [3], and U] plotted for 100% and 

80% PAVis. Soil temperatures taken at b-in (10-cm) depth under bare soil. 



matology may be as good an estimator of daily soil temperatures as 
the regressions. The regressions did better predicting T s when air tem- 
peratures departed more from normal. 

Soil moisture was not as effective in the regression equations as 
expected for several reasons. The biggest problem was a lack of low 
soil moisture values. A wider range in soil moisture would possibly 
have resulted in a better relation with soil temperature. Estimates of 
PAV lf) may also be in error. Verification of the soil moisture model has 
been done principally with soil moisture for the top 3.5 ft (105 cm) 
of soil, not for the top 6 in (15 cm). 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 393 

Conclusions 

The linear regression models discussed in this paper were reason- 
ably accurate predictors of daily soil temperatures in May and June. 
Model [1], because of its simplicity and comparable accuracy, was the 
best model choice for predicting daily maximum soil temperatures. Mini- 
mum soil temperatures were best predicted with [5b], which included 
the preceding day's maximum air temperature as a variable. Including 
soil moisture terms in the regression equations did not improve them, 
perhaps because of the narrow range in PAV 1; - available for parameter 
estimation. Further testing is needed with a greater range in both soil 
moisture and temperature. Solar radiation should also be examined as 
a predictor variable in the regression equations. If monthly air temper- 
ature were near normal, the climatological mean daily maximum and 
minimum soil temperatures were good estimators of ambient soil 
temperatures. 



References 

Carson, J. E. 1961. Soil temperature and weather conditions. Argonne National Lab- 
oratory ANL-6470, Argonne, Illinois. 244 p. 

Schaal, L. A., J. E. Newman, and K. L. Scheeringa, K. L. 1980. Temperature of 
Indiana soils. Purdue University Agr. Exp. Stn. Bull. (In publication process). 

Stuff, R. G. and R. F. Dale. 1978. A soil moisture budget model accounting for shallow 
water table influences. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42 :637-643. 

U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Environmental Data and Information Service. 1962-1966, 1977, 
1978 Climatological Data, Indiana, 67-71, 82, 83. 



High Rates of Residual Nitrogen Fertilizer Change 
Corn Leaf Composition and Yields 

Russell K. Stivers, Department of Agronomy- 
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

Introduction 

Residual N is important because of energy conservation and possible 
control of pollution. Donohue et al. (3) found carryover the first year 
at rates greater than 84 kg N/ha for orchard grass (Dactylis Glomerata) . 
However, in the second residual year N carryover was observed at only 
the 672 and 1,344 kg N/ha rates. White, Dumenil, and Pesek (7) found, 
using oats as the test crop, that carryover N from a previously fer- 
tilized corn crop varied from insignificant amounts to 49% of that 
applied on the previous corn crop. Barber (1) found that carryover N 
for corn amounted to about one-third of the previous two year's ap- 
plications on Raub silt loam soil. 

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the influence of 
high rates of residual nitrogen fertilizer on corn (Zea mays L.) leaf 
composition and yields on two important Indiana soils. 

Materials and Methods 

Corn was grown on two soils which had received varying rates of 
N and limestone in an earlier experiment reported by Stivers (5). The 
soils were 1 km apart on the Purdue Agronomy Farm. The plots were 
arranged in a randomized complete block design of four replications of 
five annual rates of N-O, 168, 336, 672 and 1,344 kg N/ha 1969-1972— on 
each of two soils, a Fincastle silt loam classed as an Aerie Ochraqualf 
and on a Chalmers silty clay loam classed as a Typic Argiaquoll. The 
form of N applied was urea. Soil samples were taken in July, 1972. 
The plow layer of the Fincastle silt loam soil had an average soil pH 
of 6.5. The range in soil pH was from 6.8 with the no N treatment to 
6.2 with 1,344 kg N/ha. Bray No. 1 P averaged 72 ppm in this soil. 
There was no apparent relation to N treatment. Quick-test exchangeable 
K averaged 151 ppm, and there was no relation to N treatment. Cation 
exchange capacity was 16.3 meq/100 g of soil, and the average organic 
matter (Walkley-Black procedure) percent was 2.3. Agricultural ground 
limestone had been applied 1969-1971 at rates that increased as rates 
of N increased, with 9 mt/ha on the no N treatment, to 27.6 mt/ha on 
the 1,344 kg N/ha treatment. No more limestone was applied during 
1972-1974. 

Chalmers silty clay loam had an average soil pH of 6.4. The range 
in pH was from 6.7 with no N to 6.1 with 1,344 kg N/ha. Bray No. 1 P 
in this soil averaged 106 ppm with no relationship to N treatment. 
Quick-test exchangeable K averaged 275 ppm and had no apparent 
relation to N treatment. Cation exchange capacity was 32.5 meg/lOOg 
soil, and average organic matter content was 4.4 percent. No agricultural 
ground limestone had been applied 1969-1971 on the no N, 168 kg/ha 

394 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 395 

and the 336 kg N/ha treatments on this soil. However, 7.2 mt/ha of 
limestone had been applied on the 672 kg N/ha treatment and 17.3 
mt/ha of limestone had been applied on the 1,344 kg N/ha treatment. 
Limestone was applied to keep soil pH above 6.0. No limestone was 
applied on this soil in 1972-1973. 

During the winter of 1972-1973, 112 kg/ha of P 2 O g and the same 
amount of K.,0 fertilizer was broadcast on each of the two soil areas 
before plowing. In April 1974, 156 kg/ha of K 2 fertilizer and 6.9 
kg/ha of fertilizer borate containing 20.2 percent B were broadcast on 
all plots of the Fincastle soil which was plowed in late April the same 
year. 

An insecticide was applied in 1972 for soil corn insect control, 
Pioneer 3369A hybrid corn was planted on both soil sites on May 4, 
1973, and on the Fincastle site on May 7, 1974. Only the Fincastle soil 
site was used in 1974. Final plant populations were approximately 58,000 
plants /ha in both years of the residual study. Herbicides and cultivation 
were used for weed control. 

Corn ears were hand harvested in both years. Harvest areas were 
7.9 m long and two 76-cm rows wide in both 1973 and in 1974. Moisture 
percentages in the grain and Brunson's (2) tables were used to convert 
ear corn weights to shelled corn with 15.5% moisture. Both grain yields 
and composition of corn ear leaves at tasseling were taken from the 
same two of four replications at each soil site. Two replications were 
used because of insufficient funds for plant analysis of more replications. 
Corn leaf samples (eight or more leaves per sample) were taken at 
the mid-silk stage, dried, and then ground in a stainless steel mill to 
pass through 1 mm openings. The leaf samples were analyzed by In- 
ternational Minerals and Chemical Corporation for all nutrient ele- 
ments except N. Percent N was determined by A. J. Ohlrogge, Purdue 
University. An emission spectrograph was used for determining P, K, 
Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Fe in the leaf tissue. A kjeldahl procedure was 
used for total N. 

Statistical Methods used are described by Snedecor and Cochran 
(4). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Nitrogen, Ca, Mn, and Fe concentrations in corn ear leaves, and 
corn grain yields increased significantly, (p <0.05) on both Chalmers 
and Fincastle soils as rates of N applied 18 months previously increased 
from none to 1,344 kg/ha (Table 1). On Fincastle soil, ear leaf con- 
centrations of P, K, Mg, and Zn also increased as rates of N increased. 
The highest significant (p <0.01) correlation coefficient of leaf nutrient 
concentration with yield on both soils was with N. This was +0.93 on 
the Chalmers soil and +0.97 on the Fincastle soil. Nitrogen concentra- 
tion was significantly correlated with concentrations of Ca, Mn, and 
Fe in leaves from the Chalmers soil. On the Fincastle soil, N concentra- 
tion was also significantly correlated with P, K, Mg and Zn concentra- 
tions in corn leaves grown in this first residual N year. 

Increases in concentration of Mn, Fe, P, K, and Zn in the corn 
leaves in this experiment with increasing rates of N are thought to be 



396 Indiana Academy of Science 

due to their increasing availability in the soil where more hydrogen 
ions were released particularly in localized soil areas where urea 
granules were applied and roots absorbed nutrients. The lower soil pH 
values associated with the higher rates of N support this belief. Had 
soil tests for Mn, Zn, and Fe been run, it is believed that test values 
would have been greater at the lower soil pH values. However, there 
was no apparent relationship between N treatment of soil and soil tests 
for either available P or K just prior to the start of this experiment. 
Walker and Peck (6) although working with a lower maximum rate of 
N (358 kg N/ha), found that, in most cases, there was no increase in 
either Ca or Mg in corn leaves as rates of N increased. They also 
found increases in concentrations of N, P, K, Mn, and Zn, and corn 
yields as rates of N applied to the soil increased. 

The change in N concentration from 1.10 percent with no N to 
2.86 percent with the 1,344 kg N/ha rate on Fincastle soil was much 
greater than the 1.67 percent with no N to 2.68 percent N with the 
1,344 kg N/ha rate on Chalmers soil (Table 1). The yield change from 
232 kg/ha with no N to 10,255 kg/ha with 1,344 kg N/ha was greater on 
Fincastle than the corresponding yield change from 3,362 kg/ha with 
no N to 9,032 kg/ha with the 1,344 kg N/ha treatment on Chalmers 
soil. The higher percentage of organic matter, 4.4 percent in Chalmers 
soil as compared to 2.3 percent in Fincastle soil, no doubt contributed to 
higher grain yields on the no N treatment of the Chalmers soil. 

In the second residual cropping year 30 months after N application 
on Fincastle soil, N concentrations in ear leaves from the 1,344 kg 
N/ha rate were 1.99 percent as compared to 1.15 percent with no N, 
and the difference between the two was significant (Table 2). Per- 
centages of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe were positively and significantly 
(p <0.01 correlated with N concentration in ear leaves. The correlation 
between yield and percentage of N in leaves was +0.91 (p <0.01). 
Calcium and Fe, as well as N, were significantly and positively correlated 
with yield. 

Increases in Ca and Mg concentration were positively correlated 
with increases in percentage of N in corn leaves grown on the Fin- 
castle soil in both years (Tables 1 & 2). Percentages of N in the corn 
leaves significantly (p <0.05) increased as previously applied rates of N 
increased. With increasing rates of N previously applied, increasing 
rates of agricultural ground limestone had been applied to bring soil 
pH above 6.0. Hence, the increasing concentrations of Ca and Mg in the 
corn leaves on the Fincastle soil were probably due to their greater 
availability in the soil. In the leaves from the Chalmers soil, Ca concen- 
tration increased as the three lower rates of N increased even though 
no limestone was applied in 1969-1972. 

Yields of corn grain increased (p <0.05) from 1,251 kg/ha with no 
N to 8,295 kg/ha with 1,344 kg N/ha in the second residual year (Table 
2). However, many leaves had visual N deficiency symptoms even at 
the 1,344 kg N/ha rate. 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 



397 



<e, 






C T3 



M 



_ t~ 

G £ as 

C W 

^ «H OS 



IN Ol M N N 1(5 » 

O IC O <N CO 1/5 OS 

CO CM ■*)< CM O rH ^ 

M ■* ^f «C OS N -L 



t- ^ I© © l-t ^ 

ia is v t- do h 



d 00 






wasoac~cOf<o© 

ft iH 04 tH M lH _|_ I 



io ^ 



o o o o o 



S++ 



odddodoo 
+ + 



•- 



N O ■* W b 
CO -<* -* CO -* 



+ + 



M N » IM M ^ . ■ 

£ o o 

+ + 



q M N W N W 

■""' o" d o ©' o" 



+ 



£ 2 



a 








o 


# 


'>> 


X, 








d 


X 


X 


fc 


O 00 


«£> CM 


<* 


Q 


:tj 


<p 


so 


CO t- 


-* 


£ 


1 


A1 




co <o 


M 


CO 






t4 


J 


^ 


7. 



N a N ^ 115 Ol I- 
« « l» N lO (N a 
Ol 00 r-t IC <M eo _• 



O N ± 

fl ~ 



+ + 



os os 



N ffl H t- M 10 

oa oa 10 »o o ft 



- + + 



000000 



OS OJ 
d ° 



04 


CM 


l> 


CO 


rr 


x> 


rr 


■* 


CO 


CO 


■* 


tO 


\a 





55 


OS 



oooooooo 



+ + 



t-ftc-ooftc^ 10 



+ + 



000000 



+ + 




c 





as as 

ft CO 


CO 


'■£> 
X 


l- 


fe 


H 


ft CM 


N 


04 


O 



+ 



z 2 



O 00 (O N ■* A 
«£> CO t- ■>* (— 1 

H CO tO W tfl 

i-r J 



1 1 



CJ, w 

-2 c c 

v 0) U 

<v 5 

SB 5G 



£ 



g oc au 

u cn 33 



398 



Indiana Academy of Science 



'et % 






H 00 00 N 19 M H 

lO t- O CD O^ OS OS 

N t- H M N M ^ 

H H M ■* 00 N 



t- N C- 00 -* 
lO CD CD CO t- 



+ 



tc oo « 

£ © <? 

+ + 



OS 00 05 O iH 17 
.-I i-H i-H <M <N W 



++ 



+ + 



00000 



M 



Ph 



+ + 



CO OS CO &0 <M CO 

Tf •>* lO y ® °° 

OOOOO 

+ + 



^ 



10 lO lO lO UJ 



Tt o 10 o> m ™ ™ 

to 10 in IB J" N N 

^OO 
+ + 



OOOOO 



+ + 





lO <B 00 ffi Ol !" 
.-1 CO •<# CD OS ""* 


i-l iH iH iH tH O 






00 (C N Tf 
CD CO C- ■* 
rH CO CO CO 



0) 0) 

> • 

0> 01 



o3 cd 



_o> 


a 


C 


'0 





01 


CC 




>h 


«C 


0> 


OJ 


Oi 


to 


to 


O 






CJ 


X! 


T3 


s 


-P 


-t-> 


_o 


c 


C 


-i_> 


ca 


Kl 


03 


CJ 


CJ 




|g 


cC 


"3 








'3 


C 


£ 


5 


M 









u 


W 


bo 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 399 

Literature Cited 

1. Barber, Stanley A. 1964. Carry-Over nitrogen. Nitrogen Solutions News Vol. 5, No. 
3:27-29. 

2. Brunson, Arthur M. 1960. Estimating corn yields prior to harvest. Purdue Univer- 
sity Agricultural Extension Service Extension Circular 472. 

3. Donohue, S. J., C. L. Rhykerd, D. A. Holt, and C. H. Noller. 1973. Influence of 
N fertilization and N carryover on yield and N concentration of Dactylis Glomerata. 
Agron. J. 65:671-674. 

4. Snedecor, George W. and William G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods. The Iowa 
State University Press, Ames, Iowa. U.S.A. 

5. Stivers, Russell K. 1972. High rates of urea fertilizer for corn (Zea Mays L.) on 
two soils, 1969-1971. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 81:306-311. 

6. Walker, W. M. and T. R. Peck. 1973. Nitrogen helps boost other corn nutrients. 
Crops and Soils Magazine 26, No. 1:12-14. 

7. White, W. C, L. Dumenil, and J. Pesek. 1958. Evaluation of residual nitrogen in 
Iowa soils. Agronomy Journal 50:255-259. 



Response of Poa pratensis L. to NPK on Shallow Muck Soil 

J. W. Lightner, C. L. Rhykerd, B. 0. Blair, B. J. Hankins, 

V. L. Lechtenberg, and J. M. Hertel 

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University 

West Lafayette, Indiana 

Summary 

There are .5 to .6 million ha of muck soils in northern Indiana 
which are suitable for agriculture. Areas with muck soils will vary 
from a few hectare to as much as 1000 ha. The larger areas, when 
properly drained, are used for high income crops such as mint and 
potatoes. The smaller muck areas are usually farmed in a similar 
manner to that of the remainder of the farm. The usual crops are corn 
(Zea mays L.) and soybeans {Glycine max (L.) Merrill) since the soils 
are too wet in the spring for wheat (Triticum aestivum. L.) production. 
Unfortunately, yields of corn and soybeans are often reduced to an 
uneconomical level on these muck soils due to excessive weed competition, 
late planting due to wet conditions, or early frosts resulting from cold 
air drainage. 

Because of the many problems associated with corn and soybean 
production some farmers are using these low-lying muck areas for 
pasture. Kentucky bluegrass {Poa pratensis L.) is very well adapted 
to these muck soils but very little information is available relative to 
its fertilizer requirements under these conditions. 

Since little is known about the NPK fertilizer requirements of 
Kentucky bluegrass pastures on muck soil an experiment was initiated 
on a Kentucky bluegrass pasture on the Pinney Purdue Agricultural 
Center in April, 1979 to study this problem. Dry matter yield and 
percent crude protein were determined for each of four cuttings taken 
throughout the 1979 growing season. 

It was found that N applied at the rate of 168 kg/ha increased 
dry matter yield from 6.3 to 8.2 mt/ha. This same rate of N increased 
crude protein production from 1153 kg/ha to 1983 kg/ha. Phosphorus 
and potassium had little effect on increasing overall dry matter pro- 
duction. 

INTRODUCTION 

Very little information is available relative to the response of 
cool-season grasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass, to NPK fertilizer 
when grown on muck soil. Tesar and Shepard (5) reported significant 
increases in dry matter production of orchardgrass, tall fescue, and 
smooth bromegrass when each was fertilized at rates of 50, 87, and 
249 kg/ha of NPK respectively on a well-drained Houghton muck soil. 

Research conducted on Edwards muck soil in northern Indiana 
demonstrated that a mixture of Kentucky bluegrass and birdsfoot 
trefoil when utilized as a pasture for beef cattle can be a profitable 
alternative to corn or soybeans on a shallow muck soil (1). However, 

400 



Soil and Atmospheric Science 401 

the Kentucky bluegrass and birdsfoot trefoil mixture must be properly 
grazed or the pasture will soon become predominantly Kentucky 
bluegrass. 

The following experiment was conducted to study the response of 
Kentucky bluegrass pasture to NPK fertilizer since many of these 
pastures are found in the muck areas of northern Indiana and very 
little research has been conducted relative to this problem. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

An experiment was initiated in April 1979 on a predominately 
Kentucky bluegrass pasture located on the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural 
Center near Wanatah, Indiana to determine the response of Kentucky 
bluegrass to NPK fertilizer. Eight combinations of NPK were evaluated 
as follows and expressed as kg/ha of N, P 2 O r) , and K 2 : 0-0-0, 0-0-448, 
0-224-0, 0-224-448, 168-0-0, 168-0-448, 168-224-0, and" 168-224-448, re- 
spectively. Three replicates of each treatment were employed giving 
a total of 24 plots. 

All fertilizers were applied as a single application on April 10. 
The sources of the NPK fertilizer elements were: ammonium nitrate, 
treble superphosphate, and muriate of potash, respectively. 

The plots were established on a permanent Kentucky bluegrass 
pasture. Each plot was approximately 3.3 m x 33 m. Since the plots 
were grazed by beef cattle, a 1.5 2 m cage was randomly placed on each 
plot in order to obtain a yield estimate as well as a forage sample 
for chemical analysis. 

The soil was an Edwards muck. Soil test results provided by the 
Purdue University Soil Testing Laboratory indicated that the organic 
matter content was 46%, pH of 5.1, and P and K values of 37 and 209 
kg/ha respectively. 

The caged areas were harvested 4 times during the 1979 growing 
season. The harvest dates were May 17, June 22, August 10, and Sep- 
timber 18. A Toro lawn mower with a collection bag was used to 
harvest the caged areas and to provide a plant sample for crude pro- 
tein analysis. Crude protein concentration was determined on the 
Kentucky bluegrass samples collected throughout the season using the 
technique outlined by Nelson and Sommers (4) and Bremmer and 
Edwards (2). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

The response of Kentucky bluegrass to the eight combinations of 
NPK fertilizer is shown in Table 1. The major increase in dry matter 
was to 168 kg/ha of N fertilizer which resulted in an increase of 
nearly two mt/ha. A small increase in dry matter yield resulted from 
applying 224 kg/ha of P 2 5 and 448 kg/ha of K 2 either with or without 
N. The application of N resulted in an increase of 30.2% while NPK 
increased dry matter yield by 41%. 

The crude protein concentration in Kentucky bluegrass also in- 
creased markedly with the application of 168 kg/ha of N (Table 2). A 
very large increase in crude protein, 19.3 to 27.8, was noted for the 



402 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Effect of NPK on dry matter yield of Kentucky bluegrass in 1979. 









Harvest 


Date 






Treatment 


May 17 


June 22 




Aug. 10 


Sept. 18 


Total 


Control 


2.0 


0.9 
1.1 
1.1 
1.3 
1.1 
1.1 
1.3 
1.1 




mt/ha — 
1.6 
1.8 
1.6 
1.6 
2.0 
1.8 
2.0 
2.0 


1.8 
2.0 
2.0 
2.2 
2.2 
2.0 
2.2 
2.7 


6.3 


K 


1.8 


6.7 


P 


1.8 


6.5 


PK 

N 


2.0 
2.9 


7.1 
8.2 


NK 
NP 
NPK 


2.7 
2.7 
3.1 


7.6 
8.2 
8.9 









first cutting on May 17 when the Kentucky bluegrass was in the early 
heading stage. There was a gradual decline in crude protein concen- 
tration as the growing season progressed for the forage from the plots 
receiving N fertilizer. This decline would suggest that Kentucky blue- 
grass, under these conditions, would respond to an even greater amount 
of N than the 168 kg/ha. Similar data for Kentucky bluegrass have 
been reported by Hojjati, et al (3) although the experiment was con- 
ducted on a mineral soil. 

Table 3 shows the very striking increase in total crude protein 
production on a hectare basis. Averaged over all treatments, the ap- 
plication of 168 kg/ha of N increased the total crude protein per hectare 
by 72%. 



Table 2. Effect of N fertilization on the crude protein concentration of Kentucky 

bluegrass. 



N 






Harvest Date 






kg /ha 


May 17 


June 2£ 


! Aug. 10 


Sept. 18 


Avg. 



168 


19.3 

27.8 


19.0 
23.8 


% Crude Protein - 
18.0 
22.2 


17.4 
20.5 


18.4 
23.6 


Table 3. 


Effect of NPK 


on crude protein production 


of Kentucky bluegrass. 








Harvest Date 






Treatment 


May 17 


June 22 


Aug. 10 


Sept. 18 


Total 


Control 
K 


388 
321 


170 
204 
196 
246 
266 
260 
321 
263 


— kg/ha — 
283 
315 

276 
280 
447 
371 
435 
414 


312 
346 
340 
369 
460 
424 
494 
561 


1153 

1187 


P 


355 


1166 


PK 

N 


413 
811 


1307 
1984 


NK 


686 


1742 


NP 
NPK 


754 
834 


2004 
2072 









Soil and Atmospheric Science 403 

These data indicate that the major limiting fertilizer element for 
producing Kentucky bluegrass on Edwards muck soil is N with only 
slight yield increases due to P and K. The application of 168 kg/ha 
of N resulted in approximately 30% increase in dry matter yield and an 
increase of 72%, in total crude protein. If yields of the magnitude 
obtained in this experiment were to be produced for several years, or 
if higher rates of N were to be applied, the response to P and K may 
increase as the levels in the soil are depleted. 



Literature Cited 

1. Blair, B. O., C. L. Rhykekd, R. E. Mullen, W. O. Jones, and J. J. Vorst. 1977. 
Ecological adaptation of certain forage species on shallow muck soils. Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci. 86:217-225. 

2. Bremmer, J. M. and A. P. Edwards. 1965. Determination and isoptope-ratio analysis 
of different forms of nitrogen in soils: I. Apparatus and procedure for distillation 
and determination of ammonium. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 29 :504-507. 

3. Hojjati, S. M., W. C. Templeton, Jr., and T. H. Taylor. 1977. Charges in chemical 
composition of Kentucky bluegrass, and tall fescue herbage following N fertilization. 
Agron. J. 69:264-269. 

4. Nelson, D. W. and L. E. Sommers. 1973. Determination of total nitrogen in 
plant material. Agron. J. 65:109. 

5. Tesar, M. B. and L. N. Shepard. 1963. Evaluation of forage species on organic 
soils. Agron. J. 55:131-134. 



ZOOLOGY 

Chairman: Richard C. McCracken, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46205 
Chairman-Elect: Robert R. Pinger, Muncie, Indiana 47304 

Effect of Light and Density on Post Weaning Growth of Deermice. T. J. 

McNitt, R. D. Lyng, and M. Balestra, Department of Biological Sci- 
ences, Indiana University-Purdue University of Fort Wayne, Indiana 

46805. Many biochemical and physiological activities are controlled by 

photoperiod. Certain activities of animals can adapt to light-dark cycles 
of less than or greater than 24 hours. We investigated the effects of a 
shortened daylength (21 hours) and density of animals on the post natal 
growth of Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi. Two separate populations of 
mice were maintained; one on 24-hour days (LD 16:8), the other on 
21-hour days (LD 14:7). At weaning, offspring from the 24-hour group 
were randomly assigned to cages containing 3, 4, 5 or 6 animals per 
cage. The same procedure was followed with offspring from the 21-hour 
day group. All of the offspring were from comparable litter sizes. Indi- 
vidual weights were taken at weaning and at weekly intervals for five 
weeks after weaning. The weaning weights of the animals on 21-hour 
days were significantly higher than those on 24-hour days. The highest 
growth rate was found in the animals on 24-hour days at all densities. 
The mean increase in weight from weaning to five weeks after weaning 
was 7.3±0.3 g for animals on 24-hour days and 4.9±0.4 g for animals 
on 21-hour days. The density effect was less pronounced. Animals housed 
3 per cage had the least weight gain and animals at 6 per cage had the 
highest weight gain. The interaction between light treatment and density 
showed that 4 animals per cage on 24-hour days had the highest growth 
rate followed by 6, 5, and 3 animals per cage. The post weaning growth 
rates of juvenile deermice are different depending upon the density of 
animals and the daily light-dark cycles under which they are reared. 

Occurrence of Argulus appendiculosus Wilson 1907 (Crustacea: Branchiura) 
in Indiana. Robert S. Benda, FWS, Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, 

South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007. 

During the summer of 1969 a single specimen of Argulus appendiculosus 
Wilson 1907 was collected in the White River from a longnose gar 
Lepisosteus osseus host. The area of collection was in Pike County near 
Petersburg, Indiana, below the confluence of the East and West Forks. 
The specimen was identified by R. F. Cressey, Curator of Crustacea, 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and is 
in the Institution's collection. 

Argulus Appendiculosus was described by Wilson in 1907. According 
to Cressey its recorded distribution was Vermont, Michigan, Kentucky, 
Iowa, Wisconsin, Texas, Wyoming and South Dakota. 

Transient Hyperinflation After Brief Period of Artificial Ventilation in 
Rabbits. Thomas A. Lesh, Department of Physiology and Health Science 
and Muncie Center for Medical Education, Ball State University, Muncie, 

404 



Zoology 405 

Indiana 47306. Dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) and arterial blood- 
gas tensions were measured in 5 anesthetized New Zealand White rab- 
bits: a) during natural respiration as a control; b) after 10 minutes of 
intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); c) continuing with 
IPPV, following a transient large hyperinflation (with expiration blocked 
for 4-5 sec and several increments of air added to the lungs, finally 
accumulating 3.2 ± 0.3 (SD) times the normal tidal volume). During 
IPPV, the ventilator was set to produce mild hyperventilation in order 
to suppress natural respiratory drive. Accordingly, arterial carbon diox- 
ide tension (PaC0 2 ) decreased significantly (15%) from control in 10 
minutes; however, oxygen tension (Pa0 2 ) changed only insignificantly 
(57r) from control. Cdyn decreased by 24 r / f . After hyperinflation, Cdyn 
rose again to a value at or slightly above control; PaC0 2 showed no 
significant further change; and Pa0 2 became significantly higher than 
both the control and preinflation values. These results point to an early 
onset of decreasing lung compliance when IPPV is begun, and to a 
beneficial effect of transient lung hyperinflation on compliance and pul- 
monary oxygen exchange. 

The Production of Antisperm Antibodies in Vasectomized Male Mice. 

Edward N. Mendelson and Larry R. Ganion, Department of Physiol- 
ogy and Health Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306. 

The immunological response of Swiss ICR mice to vasectomy has 

not been previously studied. The adult male rodents were divided into 
3 groups: bilateral vasectomized, sham vasectomized, and unoperated con- 
trols. In preparing the vasectomized animals the vas deferens were 
exposed via abdominal incisions, ligated, cut, and returned to the body 
cavity. A similar surgical procedure was followed in the preparation 
of the sham group, but the vas deferens were left intact. The Kibrick 
macroscopic gelatin agglutination technique was employed to detect 
the presence of antisperm antibodies in the sera of the 3 groups. The 
presence of sperm antibodies was signified by the development of a 
precipitate in the agglutination tubes upon the addition of sera to the 
gelatin suspended sperm. After 12 weeks, circulating sperm agglutinating 
antibodies were present in 18 (90.0 r /r) of 20 bilateral vasectomized Swiss 
ICR mice. There were no incidences of sperm agglutinins in either the 
8 sham vasectomized or 13 unoperated control animals. These data indi- 
cate that Swiss ICR mice produce antisperm antibodies in response to 
vasectomy. 

Behavior and Comfort of Calves Housed in Elevated Metal Stalls or 
Straw Bedded Pens. Jack L. Albright and Richard L. Miller, Depart- 
ment of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 

47907. A comparison of calves on elevated metal stalls with those 

housed in conventional pens was made. In the study 32 male and female 
Holstein-Friesian calves < 40 days of age were housed in a conventional 
calf barn in either (A) Elevated metal stalls and metal rod flooring 
.54 x 1.24 x .91 meters (21 x 48 x 36 inches) or (B) Conventional 
calf pens 1.2 x 2.17 x 1.2 meters (48 x 85 x 48 inches). Elevated pen 
flooring consisted of 5/16-inch round metal rods with approximately 
one inch from the center of the rod to another. Sixteen calves were on 



406 Indiana Academy of Science 

each treatment and two 24 hour continuous observations in March and 
April were taken for the time spent standing and lying. In both 24 
hour watches, calves in elevated stalls (A) stood significantly (P < .01) 
more than those in regular pens (B). The percentage of time spent 
standing for the first watch was (A) 36.5 (8.8 hours) and (B) 23.2% 
(5.6 hours) and for the second watch (A) 37.5 (9.0 hours) and (B) 
20% (4.9 hours). The average number of times each calf stood was not 
significant in the first watch (A) 10.2 and (B) 10.4 and approaches 
significance (P < .10) in the second watch (A) 8.3 and (B) 10.0. 
When 2.54 cm (1 inch) plastic mats were placed in the front portion 
of the elevated stalls, this did not significantly aid in terms of comfort. 
The calves on mats stood an average of 16 minutes more per day than 
those without mats. This is a matter of interpretation. These calves 
may have been more comfortable and able to stand longer. Related in- 
formation on feed consumption (milk replacer, calf starter and 
water) and miscellaneous factors (turning around in stalls, moving 
from foot to foot, chewing, sleep, scours, etc.) were taken. 

In comparing these calves on feed consumption data, all calves 
were fed once-daily in the afternoon. The elevated stall calves were 
much slower drinking their milk replacer-21.4 vs. 1.5 min. for the 
conventional housed calves. Grain consumption was shorter — 27 vs. 
49.5 minutes and water intake of 6.6 vs. 13.5 minutes/day/calf. 

Such miscellaneous behavioral traits as play (jumping and kick- 
ing) were less in the elevated stalls-1 instance vs. 8 where the calves 
had more room. Turning around in the stalls was a real problem in 
the elevated stalls with 18 instances vs. 1 in the conventional stalls. 
Rating restlessness or moving from foot to foot showed 4 vs. 1. Chew- 
ing on ears and tails was 7 vs. 4. Sleep was in favor of the conventional 
reared calves-13 vs. 8. Scours were difficult to measure but 1 case was 
observed for the elevated stall calves and none for the conventional 
calves. Previous to this experiment, considerable difficulty had oc- 
curred with the elevated stalls and our herdsmen had been bedding 
them with straw. Also, scours were such a problem that management 
dictated their removal and they are no longer in use. These data are 
for metal stalls with metal rods which may not be as conducive to 
the animals' overall well-being, foot structure, hocks, lower and upper 
leg, sternum etc. as perhaps elevated stalls that are of wood construc- 
tion or expanded metal. 



Effect of Experimentally Altered Thyroid States on 
5-Fluorouracil Metabolism in the Rat 

J. L. Esch, W. V. Kessler, and R. J. Vetter 

Bionucleonics Department, Purdue University, 

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

The metabolism of a number of drugs has been found to be in- 
fluenced by the thyroid condition of the animal (2, 3, 6, 7). The toxicity 
and therapeutic actions of these drugs were found to be enhanced in 
the hyperthyroid condition. The enhanced drug action has yet to be 
explained. 

Since chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (FU), must 
be administered at near toxic doses to be effective, any alteration in 
toxicity and effectiveness are particularly important. This study was 
conducted to determine if experimentally altered thyroid states affect 
the metabolism of 5-fluoro(2- 14 C) uracil (2- 14 C-FU) in adult female 
rats. 

Methods 
Animals 

Sprague-Dawley descendent female rats (Laboratory Supply Co., 
Indianapolis, Indiana) weighing 160-180 g were used throughout this 
investigation. With the exception of the time during which urine was 
being collected in the metabolism cages, the animals were housed indi- 
vidually in conventional metal cages with food and water being al- 
lowed ad libitum. The rats used in the preliminary toxicity study were 
acclimated for a period of 2 days before the experiment was begun. 
Those used in the metabolism study were acclimated for 1 day. 

Induction of Altered Thyroid States 

The hypothyroid state was induced with 6-w-propyl-2-thiouracil 
(PTU) prepared fresh daily. The daily dose was 2.0 mg PTU/0.5 ml/rat 
given by ip injection. The hyperthyroid state was induced with L- 
thyroxine (T 4 ) prepared fresh daily. The daily dose was 20 fig L- 
thyroxine sodium pentahydrate/0.5 ml /rat by ip injection. Euthyroid 
rats received 0.5 ml of normal saline by ip injection during the 15-day 
pretreatment period. These doses have been shown to produce the 
desired thyroid states (4). 

Preliminary Toxicity Study 

To determine the dose of FU that could be safely administered 
to the rats having the altered thyroid state, three groups of eight 
animals were pretreated for 15 days. On day 15, each treatment group 
was subdivided into four dosage groups of two animals each. Each 
dosage group was given either 0, 50, 75, or 100 mg FU/kg. The animals 
were observed and weighed daily for a period of 15 days after dosing. 

407 



408 Indiana Academy of Science 

Radionuclide and Counting 

The 2- 14 C-FU was determined to be radiochemically pure by thin 
layer chromatography and autoradiography. It was added to carrier 
FU to give a dosing solution which contained 18.5 /xCi/ml and 10 mg 
FU/ml. Each rat was given 50 mg/kg of the dosing solution (approxi- 
mately 18 AiCi) by ip injection. An aliquot of the dosing solution was 
prepared for a standard so that the total activity injected into each 
rat could be determined. 

Radioactivities in the samples and standard were measured in an 
Isocap 300 liquid scintillation counter (Amersham/Searle Corp., Arling- 
ton Heights, Illinois). The counting data were converted to disintegra- 
tions per minute by internal standardization using 14 C-labeled toluene 
as the standard. 

Metabolism Study 

A total of 18 female rats, purchased in three lots, was used. Three 
replicates, each consisting of three groups of two animals, were run 
on different days. The rats were randomly assigned to treatment groups 
and were pretreated for the 15-day period to establish the desired 
thyroid states. On day 15 all rats received 14 C-labeled FU. They were 
then placed in individual glass metabolism cages where C0 2 and urine 
were collected over a period of 24 hr (5). The C0 2 trapping solution 
consisted of a solution of 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-aminoethanol (2:1) 
and was changed at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hr. Urine was collected at 12 
and 24 hr. Aliquots of the trapping solutions and urine were counted 
in the liquid scintillation counter. The urine was then concentrated by 
lyophilization to reduce the time for autoradiography exposure. 

Thin Layer Chromatography and Autoradiography 

14 C-Labeled FU and urea were chosen as indicators of metabolism 
in the urine and were separated by thin layer chromatography. Plates 
precoated with a mixture of Adsorbosil 1 and Adsorbosil P-l (3:1) 
(Applied Science Laboratories, State College, Pennsylvania) were used 
for separation of the urine samples. The plates were developed in a 
solution of w-butanol, water, and acetic acid (80:20:10). 5-Fluorouracil 
spots were visible under short-wave ultraviolet light in a viewing 
cabinet (Chromato-Vue, Ultraviolet Products, San Gabriel, California). 
Urea could be visualized as bright yellow spots by lightly spraying 
with a solution of 1 g of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 57 ml of 
95% ethanol and 3 ml of HC1. After development the plates were 
sprayed with a protective polymeric coating of Neatan-new (Brinkman 
Instruments, Inc., Westbury, New York) and exposed to Kodak No- 
Screen medical x-ray film to determine where activity was located on 
the plates. The spots were scraped and counted in the liquid scintillation 
counter. 

Results and Discussion 

Preliminary Toxicity Study 

Weight loss and diarrhea were evident in all groups after dosing. 
The severity of the symptoms appeared to be less in the group of 



Zoology 



409 



animals which received the smallest dose of FU. All animals improved 
after the fourth day past FU injection. They all survived and gained 
weight until the experiment was terminated on day 29. The 50 rag/kg 
dose was chosen for the main metabolism study. 

Metabolism Study 

The percentages of the 2- 14 C-FU in the administered dose excreted 
in the C0 2 and urine were calculated from the radioactivities in the 
trapping solutions and urine and the total radioactivity injected. The 
percentages of the two metabolites in the urine were calculated from 
the radioactivities of the metabolites and the total radioactivity of the 
urine. The results are shown in Tables 1 and 2. 

Table 1. Percentage of administered dose excreted in expired CO., and urine in 

2b hr by rats receiving 2- 14 C-FU. 





Route of 








Replicate 


excretion 


Hypothyroid 


Euthyroid 


Hyperthyroid 


1 


CO, 










0-1 hr 


41.3 it 1.1a 


40.2 it 1.7 


40.4 it 0.56 




0-3 hr 


57.6 it 1.3 


56.2 it 1.4 


56.3 it 0.72 




0-6 hr 


60.3 ± 1.4 


59.8 it 0.42 


60.2 it 1.4 




0-12 hr 


63.9 ± 1.5 


63.6 it 1.0 


63.0 it 1.1 




0-24 hr 


66.5 ± 1.3 


66.1 it 0.81 


64.0 it 1.1 




Urine 










0-12 hr 


18.0 ± 0.601) 


18.4 ± 0.98 


19.0 ± 0.08 




12-24 hr 


3.1 ± 1.1 


3.0 it 1.5 


3.2 it 1.0 


2 


CO, 










0-1 hr 


40.2 ± 0.71 


39.2 ± 1.9 


39.7 ± 1.1 




0-3 hr 


57.3 it 1.6 


57.6 it 1.6 


56.5 it 1.2 




0-6 hr 


59.0 ± 1.3 


59.4 ± 0.95 


60.9 it 0.51 




0-12 hr 


62.2 ± 0.26 


62.2 it 0.53 


64.3 it 0.20 




0-24 hr 


63.4 ± 0.90 


65.2 it 0.16 


66.1 it 2.3 




Urine 










0-12 hr 


21.9 ± 0.21 


19.1 it 1.0 


18.0 it 0.10 




12-24 hr 


3.9 ± 1.4 


3.1 ± 0.87 


3.3 ±0.43 


3 


C0 2 










0-1 hr 


39.9 it 0.29 


41.3 it 0.19 


38.0 it 0.51 




0-3 hr 


55.2 ± 1.2 


55.8 it 1.9 


56.9 ± 1.8 




0-6 hr 


60.8 ± 1.0 


59.4 ± 0.48 


59.6 ± 0.17 




0-12 hr 


62.2 ± 0.78 


63.6 ± 0.05 


63.5 it 1.1 




0-24 hr 


67.1 ± 0.84 


66.0 ± 0.56 


66.4 it 1.3 




Urine 










0-12 hr 


19.2 ± 0.35 


18.8 ± 0.80 


19.1 ± 0.79 




12-24 hr 


3.0 it 1.1 


3.2 ± 0.28 


3.2 it 1.7 





a Cumulative mean it standard deivation for two rats. 
I> Values for urine are not cumulative. 



Each route of excretion and each metabolite were then statistically 
analyzed separately. The Foster-Burr test for homogeneity of variance 
(1) was performed first. Homogeneity of variance was obtained for 
CO., and the urinary metabolites without transformation. The 1/y trans- 
formation was needed for homogeneity of variance in the whole urine 
data. 



410 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 2. Percentages of 2- u C-FU metabolites in rat urine separated by 
thin layer chromatography. 





Time 


i and 








Replicate 


metabolite 


Hypothyroid 


Euthyroid 


Hyperthyroid 


1 


0-12 


hr 










FU 




78.0 ± 1.2a 


77.0 ± 0.50 


78.2 ± 1.2 




urea 




4.4 ± 1.0 


4.2 ±0.73 


4.7 ± 0.48 




12-24 


hr 










FU 




77.1 ±0.18 


76.0 ± 1.3 


76.6 ± 1.1 




urea 




4.4 ± 1.5 


4.2 ±0.70 


4.6 ± 1.4 


2 


0-12 


hr 










FU 




76.0 ± 1.0 


77.1 ± 1.2 


76.4 ± 0.58 




urea 




4.8 ± 1.6 


4.3 ± 1.8 


4.6 ± 0.92 




12-24 


hr 










FU 




76.1 ±0.64 


77.2 ± 1.4 


77.2 ± 1.9 




urea 




4.5 ±0.19 


4.7 ± 1.6 


4.2 ±0.46 


3 


0-12 


hr 










FU 




76.1 ± 0.69 


77.1 ± 1.1 


77.2 ± 0.46 




urea 




3.9 ± 1.4 


3.9 ± 0.60 


4.5 ± 0.37 




12-24 


hr 










FU 




77.8 ± 0.16 


76.0 ± 0.77 


76.3 ± 2.2 




urea 




4.1 ± 0.62 


4.5 ± 0.76 


4.1 ± 0.20 



a Percentages shown are for the urine sample chromatographed and do not refer to 
the percentage of the dose administered. Mean ± standard deviation. 

The results were further analyzed by analysis of variance (1). A 
three-way analysis of variance, with replication, time, and treatment 
as variables, was run separately for the cumulative CO.,, urine, and 
metabolite data. No significant (p > 0.05) replication effect was seen in 
any of the data groups. Time was highly significant for C0 2 and whole 
urine excretion as was expected, but had no effect on the fractionated 
components of the urine. The treatment effect was not significant 
(p > 0.05) for any of the data. 

The breakdown and excretion of 2- 14 C-FU in this investigation 
compared closely with results obtained in a previous study by Meeks 
et al. (5). They found that control rats exhaled 68% of the adminis- 
tered dose as 14 C0 2 in 24 hr as compared to approximately 66% in the 
present study. The rats in this study excreted approximately 24% of 
the administered dose in the urine over the 24-hr period. This per- 
centage compares favorably with the Meeks et al. study (5) which 
found 30% to be eliminated by this route in 24 hr with control rats. 
In all treatment groups, unchanged 2- 14 C-FU accounted for the highest 
percentage of urine activity. Labeled urea accounted for approximately 
4% of the total activity in the urine. 

The treatment effect was not significant in any of the parameters 
measured. Thus, there was no effect of the altered thyroid states on 
the metabolism of 2-^C-FU. 



Zoology 411 

Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, V. L. and R. A. McLean. 1974. Design of Experiments: A Realistic 
Approach. In Statistics (D. B. Owen, Editor), Vol. V. Dekker, New York. 418 p. 

2. Conney, A. H. and L. Garren. 1961. Contrasting effects of thyroxine on zoxazolamine 
and hexobarbital metabolism. Biochem. Pharmacol. 6:257-262. 

3. Glaubach, S. and E. P. Prick. 1931. Uber der beeinflussung der temperature- 
regulierung durch thyroxine II. Mitteilung: kokain-, perdain-, und novadain-wirkung 
bei thyroxine vor behandelten tieren. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Exp. Pathol. 
Pharmakol. 162:537-550. 

4. Mann, S. A., W. V. Kessler, G. S. Born, and R. J. Vetter. 1979. Effect of 
altered thyroid states on liver and kidney uptake of 109 Cd in rats. Toxicol. Appl. 
Pharmacol. 49:1-5. 

5. Meeks, M. J., W. V. Kessler, and J. N. Arvesen. 1972. The effect of whole-body 
irradiation on the metabolism of 5-fluorouracil-2- 14 C in the rat. Radiat. Res. 

52:82-87. 

6. Phillips, P. H., H. English, and E. B. Hart. 1935. The augmentation of the toxicity 
of Flurosil in the chick by feeding desiccated thyroid. J. Nutr. 10:399-407. 

7. Prange, A. J., M. A. Lipton, R. B. Shearin, and G. N. Love. 1966. The in- 
fluence of thyroid status on the effects and metabolism of pentobarbital and thiopental. 
Biochem. Pharmacol. 15:237-248. 



Effect of Experimentally Altered Thyroid States on the Uptake 
of Monovalent Cations in Liver and Muscle of Rats 

G. C. Marshall, W. V. Kessler, and R. J. Vetter 
Bionucleonics Department, Purdue University, 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 

Introduction 

Altered thyroid states, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, have 
been shown to produce modifications in bodily functions which include 
changes in protein synthesis and mitochondrial activity (3, 13) as well 
as changes in the uptake of metals and minerals (5-7, 10, 11, 16). The 
mechanism by which the changed uptake of metals occurs is not known. 
In fact, little is known about the action of thyroxine at the cellular 
level, although much research has been done in this area (14, 15). 

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of experimentally 
altered thyroid states on the uptake of the monovalent cations Na + , 
Rb + , and Cs+ in the liver and muscle of rats. These three cations all 
belong to the alkali metal group and have a large range in size. 

Materials and Methods 

Male Sprague-Dawley descendent rats (Murphy Breeding Labora- 
tories, Inc., Plainfield, Indiana) with a weight range of 180-200 g were 
used. They were housed in individual cages by random assignment 
and were given free access to food and water. A 2-day period of ac- 
climation was allowed before the experiment was begun. 

22 Na, 86 Rb, and 137 Cs were used as radiotracers for the cations. 
Injection solutions were made to contain the same number of atoms 
for each cation. The Na solution was made to contain 10 //.Ci of 22 NaCl 
and 0.18 mg of carrier NaCl per milliliter of water. The volume was 
adjusted for each rat to give 0.36 mg NaCl /kg. For Rb and Cs, the 
quantities were 0.36 mg of RbCl and 32 ^Ci of 8«RdC1 and 0.50 mg of 
CsCl and 16 /xCi of 187 CsCl per milliliter of water, respectively. The 
volumes injected were adjusted to give 0.72 mg RbCl/kg and 1.00 mg 
CsCl /kg. All radionuclides were determined to be radionuclidically pure. 
An aliquot of each solution was prepared for a standard so that the 
total activity injected into each rat could be determined. 

Propylthiouracil (PTU) was used to induce hypothyroidism. The 
dosing solution contained 2 mg PTU/0.5 ml /rat and was made fresh 
daily. L-Thyroxine was used to induce a state of hyperthyroidism. The 
dosing solution contained 20 /ag L-thyroxine sodium pentahydrate/0.5 
ml /rat and was made fresh daily. Euthyroidism was maintained with 
0.5 ml of normal saline per rat daily. The drug pretreatments were 
continued for 15 days and all doses were given by ip injection. In a 
preliminary experiment with a separate group of rats, a radioim- 
munoassay kit was used to measure serum thyroxine levels after the 
15-day pretreatment. The levels found for each treatment group were 
similar to those reported in the literature (10). 

412 



Zoology 413 

The studies on each cation were run separately. A total of 162 rats 
was used with 54 rats being run with each cation. The 54 rats for each 
cation were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, 
hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid. The 15-day drug pretreatment 
was begun to attain the desired thyroid state. The daily drug treatment 
was then continued until each rat was sacrificed since it has been 
shown that thyroxine levels in the blood decrease during the 24-hr 
period between thyroxine injections (4). On the 16th day, each rat was 
given either 21> Na, 8(i Rb, or 1S7 Cs by ip injection. The rats were randomly 
assigned to sacrifice times with six rats from each drug treatment 
group being sacrificed at 1, 2, or 5 days after injection with the radio- 
nuclide. 

The liver and an aliquot of the muscle were the samples taken 
from each rat. The muscle sample was taken from tissue surrounding 
the right femur. The samples were wiped to remove external blood 
and placed in preweighed, prelabeled plastic scintillation tubes so that 
tissue weights could be determined. The liver was sectioned, due to its 
large size, and placed in several tubes at a predetermined height which 
was approximately 1.25 cm below the top of the well of the counting 
crystal. The geometry error was minimized by placing all samples no 
higher than a predetermined height in the counting tubes. The tissue 
samples as well as the standards for the dosing solutions were counted 
in a small well-type Nal(Tl) scintillation counter. The counting error 
did not exceed 3%. 

Results and Discussion 

The percentage of the total activity injected per organ (P) (liver) 
and the percentage of the total activity injected per gram (A) (liver 
and muscle) were calculated by use of the activities in the tissues and 
the activities in the aliquots of the solutions injected. The P and A 
values for each cation were analyzed separately. The data were trans- 
formed when needed to achieve homogeneity of variance by the Foster- 
Burr test. A two-way analysis of variance was then run to test for 
treatment and time effects which were both found to be significant 
(P<0.05) (1). 

Since treatment by time interactions were significant, the data 
could not be pooled across time to analyze for treatment effects nor 
across treatments to analyze for time effects. Instead, the treatment- 
time combinations were regarded as nine separate treatments, with 
these treatments being analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance 
and a Newman-Keuls Sequential Range Test to determine which com- 
bination means were significantly different. The ranking of these treat- 
ment-time combinations were hard to interpret from a biological stand- 
point. It was therefore desirable to translate them back to their original 
treatment and time framework in which the treatment rankings were 
examined for each of the three sacrifice times, and the sacrifice time 
rankings were examined for each of the three treatments. The results 
are shown in Tables 1 and 2. 

For liver, s,; Rb and 1:<7 Cs were handled in a similar manner with 
the hypothyroid treatment causing the highest uptake of the radio- 



414 



Indiana Academy of Science 



Table 1. Newman-Keuls multiple comparison of the treatment means within 
each time for liver and muscle. 



Organ 



Time 
(days) 



% Activity/organ (P) 



% Activity/gram 
of tissue (A) 



22 Na 



Liver 



Muscle 



Liver 



Muscle 



Liver 



Muscle 



1 


P 


S 


T 


P 


s 


T 




1.54 
P 


1.80 


1.87 


0.14 


0.15 


0.16 


2 


S 


T 


S 


P 


T 




1.28 


1.36 


1.47 
P 


0.12 
S 


0.13 


0.13 


5 


S 


T 


T 


P 




0.91 


0.91 


0.91 


0.08 

s 


0.09 


0.10 


1 








T 


p 










0.12 


0.13 


0.15 


2 


T 


S 


P 










0.11 


0.11 


0.13 


5 


s 


T 


P 






86 Rb 




0.07 


0.07 


0.10 










1 


T 


S 


P 


T 


S 


p 




1.39 
T 


1.59 
S 


1.79 
P 


0.13 


0.14 


0.17 


2 


T 


S 


P 




1.19 
T 


1.37 
S 


1.57 
P 


0.11 


0.13 


0.16 


5 


S 


T 


P 




0.90 


0.98 


1.08 


0.08 


0.10 


0.11 


1 






T 


s 


P 










0.11 


0.11 


0.11 


2 


T 


s 


p 










0.10 


0.10 


0.10 


5 


S 


T 


p 






137 Cs 




0.07 


0.07 


0.07 










1 


T 


S 


P 


T 


S 


P 




3.22 
T 


4.19 
S 


5.90 
P 


0.30 


0.36 


0.57 


2 


T 


S 


P 




2.06 
T 


2.61 
S 


3.72 
P 


0.21 


0.25 


0.40 


5 


T 


S 


P 




1.06 


1.43 


2.01 


0.11 


0.12 


0.21 


1 






P 


S 


T 










0.25 


0.28 


0.34 


2 


P 


S 


T 










0.29 


0.33 


0.40 


5 


S 


P 


T 










0.30 


0.32 


0.34 



The designations represent the drug treatment group (P = propylthiouracil, S = 
saline, and T = thyroxine). They are arranged in order of increasing magnitude from 
left to right. Those underlined are not significantly different at P > 0.05 level. The 
mean value for each treatment is shown. 



Zoology 



415 



Table 2. Newman-Keuls multiple comparison of the effect of time within 
each treatment for liver and muscle. 



Organ 



Treatment 



</( Activity/organ (P) 



% Activity/gram 
of tissue (A) 



22 Na 



Liver 



Muscle 



Liver 



Muscle 



Liver 



Muscle 



Hypothyroid 


5 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 




0.91 
5 


1.28 
2 


1.54 

1 


0.10 

5 


0.13 


0.14 


Euthyroid 


2 


1 




0.95 


1.36 


1.80 


0.08 


0.12 


0.15 


Hyperthyroid 


5 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 




0.91 


1.47 


1.87 


0.09 


0.13 


0.16 


Hypothyroid 








5 
0.10 


2 
0.13 


1 
0.15 


Euthyroid 








5 
0.07 

5 


2 
0.11 


1 
0.12 


Hyperthyroid 


2 


1 










0.07 


0.11 


0.13 






^Rb 










Hypothyroid 


5 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 




1.C8 
5 


1.57 
2 


1.79 

1 


0.11 

5 


0.16 


0.17 


Euthyroid 


2 


1 




0.98 
5 


1.37 
2 


1.59 

1 


0.08 
5 


0.13 


0.14 


Hyperthyroid 


2 


1 




0.90 


1.19 


1.39 


0.10 


0.11 


0.13 


Hypothyroid 


5 


2 


1 










0.07 
5 


0.10 


0.11 


Euthyroid 


2 


1 










0.07 
5 


0.10 


0.11 


Hyperthyroid 


2 


1 






137 Cs 




0.07 


0.10 


0.11 








Hypothyroid 


5 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 




2.01 
5 


3.72 

2 


5.90 

1 


0.21 

5 


0.40 


0.57 


Euthyroid 


2 


1 




1.43 


2.61 


4.19 


0.12 


0.25 


0.36 


Hyperthyroid 


5 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 




1.06 


2.06 


3.22 


0.11 


0.21 


0.30 


Hypothyroid 








1 
0.25 


2 
0.29 


5 

0.32 


Euthyroid 


1 


5 


2 










0.28 


0.30 


0.33 


Hyperthyroid 


1 


5 


2 










0.34 


0.34 


0.40 



a The designations represent the time intervals after injection at which the rats were 
sacrificed (1, 2, and 5 days). They are arranged in order of increasing magnitude 
from left to right. Those underlined are not significantly different at P > 0.05 level. 
The mean value for each time is shown. 



416 Indiana Academy of Science 

nuclides for both P and A values (Table 1). No trend was seen for 22 Na. 
In liver tissue, NaK-ATPase causes Na to be pumped out and K to be 
pumped in. It has been reported that thyroid hormone causes an in- 
crease in NaK-ATPase activity in liver tissue (8). These results have 
been contradicted by Kovtunyak et al. (7), whose results showed an 
increase in ATPase activity in the liver during hypothyroidism. They 
also showed an increase in K in the liver during hypothyroidism. Since 
K, Rb, and Cs are transported into cells by a similar mechanism, that 
being facilitated diffusion (9), and an increase in K has been shown 
in the liver due to increased ATPase activity during hypothyroidism 
(7), an increased ATPase activity could be used to explain the facilitated 
diffusion of Rb and Cs into cells during hypothyroidism. An increase in 
Rb and Cs in the liver of the hypothyroid rats was found in the present 
study; therefore, this study supports the finding of Kovtunyak et al. 
A similar statement cannot be made for Na since no definite trend 
was seen. 

In muscle tissue, a difference was shown between the handling of 
137 Cs and the handling of 22 Na and possibly 8(5 Rb (Table 1). The hyper- 
thyroid treatment caused the highest uptake of 137 Cs while the hypo- 
thyroid treatment caused the highest uptake of 22 Na and 8G Rb, although 
the differences seen for 8<; Rb were not significant. For muscle, an in- 
crease in NaK-ATPase activity was reported during hyperthyroidism 
(2). This increase possibly explains the highest levels of 22 Na being 
seen in muscle when the pump activity was decreased during hypo- 
thyroidism and the 22 Na was not being pumped out of cells. The higher 
levels of 137 Cs in the hyperthyroid group support the increased pump- 
ing activity caused by thyroxine. 

The effect of the time of sacrifice (Table 2) showed a similar trend 
for all three radionuclides for all treatments in the liver with a general 
trend of the highest concentrations being seen on day 1 and the lowest 
on day 5. In muscle tissue, the same trend was followed for 22 Na and 
8<i Rb, but the results indicated that 137 Cs was being bound to some 
extent in muscle tissue. These findings are supported by the literature 
(12). 

Literature Cited 

1. Anderson, V. L. and R. A. McLean. 1974. Design of Experiments: A Realistic 
Approach. In Statistics (D. B. Owen, Editor), Vol. V. Dekker, New York. 418 p. 

2. Asano, Y., A. Liberman, and I. S. Edleman. 1976. Thyroid thermogenesis, rela- 
tionships between Na + -dependent respiration and Na + -K + -adenosine triphosphatase 
activity in rat skeletal muscle. J. Clin. Invest. 57 :368-379. 

3. Bacchus, H. 1976. Essentials of Metabolic Diseas3s and Endocrinology, University 
Park Press, Baltimore. 511 p. 

4. Galton, V. A. 1975. Thyroxine metabolism in the rat: effect of varying doses of 
exogenous thyroxine. Acta Endocrinol. 78:714-722. 

5. Jones, J. E., P. C. Desper, S. R. Shane, and E. B. Flink. 1966. Mg metabolism 
in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. J. Clin. Invest. 45:891-900. 

6. Kovtunyak, N. A. and P. I. Tsapok. 1971. The effect of thyroidectomy on the 
content of microelements in the pancreas, its morphology and function. Probl. 
Endokrinol. 17:101-104. 



Zoology 417 

7. Kovtunyak, N. A., P. I. Tsapok, and I. F. Myeshchishen. 1972. Adenosine triphos- 
phatase activity of the liver and the content of macro- and microelements in albino 
rats in experimental hypothyroidism. Probl. Endokrinol. 18:110-114. 

8. Layden, T. J. and J. L. Boyer. 1976. The effect of thyroid hormone on bile salt- 
independent bile flow and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in liver plasma membranes 
enriched in bile canaliculi. J. Clin. Invest. 57:1009-1018. 

9. Ling, G. and A. Schmolinske. 1954. Cellular selective ionic accumulation and 
permeability. Am. J. Physiol. 179:656. 

10. Mann, S. A., W. V. Kessler, G. S. Born, and R. J. Vetter. 1979. Effect of altered 
thyroid states on liver and kidney uptake of Cd-109 in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 
49:1-5. 

11. Marshall, G. C, W. V. Kessler, G. S. Born, and R. J. Vetter. 1977. Effects of 
altered thyroid states on cesium-137 accumulation in the liver of rats. Health 
Phys. 33:622-624. 

12. Mraz, F. R., M. LeNoir, J. J. Pinajian, and H. Patrick. 1957. Influence of potas- 
sium and sodium on uptake and retention of cesium-134 in rats. Arch. Biochem. 
Biophys. 66:177-182. 

13. Rawson, R. W., W. L. Money, and R. L. Greif. 1969. Diseases of the thyroid. In 
Duncan's Diseases of Metabolism (P. K. Bondy and L. E. Rosenberg, Editors), 
Vol. 2. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp. 753-826. 

14. Sterling, K. 1979. Thyroid hormone action at the cell level. N. Engl. J. Med. 
300:117-123. 

15. Sterling, K. 1979. Thyroid hormone action at the cell level. N. Engl. J. Med. 
300:173-177. 

16. Zerr, R. M., W. V. Kessler, S. M. Shaw, and G. S. Born. 1979. Effect of altered 
thyroid states on chromium uptake in rat blood. Bull. Environ Contam. Toxicol. 

21:85-88. 



The Ectoparasites and Other Associates of the Cottontail Rabbit, 
Sylvilagus floridanus, in Indiana 

Mary E. Wassel, John O. Whitaker, Jr., and 
Edwin J. Spicka 

Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University 
Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 

Introduction 

The cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus, is one of the most 
frequently hunted and handled mammals in Indiana. Rabbits are 
carriers of tularemia, a disease which affects rabbits and man and is 
transmitted by certain ectoparasites (4). A study of the ectoparasites 
of the cottontail, therefore, is important not only for rabbit welfare, 
but also to man. 

Ectoparasites previously reported from Sylvilagus floridanus in 
Indiana include the ticks Dermacentor variabilis, Haemaphysalis leporis- 
palustris and Ixodes dentatus, and the fleas Cediopsylla simplex, Epi- 
tedia wenmanni and Odontopsyllus multispinosus (5). In addition, the 
mite Cheyletiella parasitivorax has been found on the rabbit flea, 
Cediopsylla simplex, from Indiana cottontails (5). Loomis (3) reports 
several species of chiggers on the cottontail from Kansas, including 
the four species found in this study — Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, Neo- 
trombicula whartoni, N. lipovskyi and Euschoengastia setosa. 

The purpose of this paper is to present information on the ecto- 
parasites from 131 cottontail rabbits from Indiana. 

Methods 

A total of 131 rabbits was examined, 107 from Vigo County, and 
24 from Clay, Gibson, Jefferson, Knox, Lake, Marshall, Parke, Pike, 
St. Joseph, Sullivan, Tippecanoe, and Warren Counties. Most were road- 
kills, although 16 were shot, 5 were examined alive and 2 were killed 
by a dog. Twenty-eight of the rabbits were examined by manipulating 
the fur with a dissecting needle while examining it with a dissecting 
microscope. The ectoparasites on 18 rabbits were removed using a 
potassium hydroxide dissolving technique (2). Those on the remaining 
rabbits were removed using a washing technique (1), after examining 
them under a dissecting microscope for attached parasites. Ectoparasites 
were placed in 75% ethanol with 5% glycerin for a few days, cleared 
and stained in Nesbitt's solution, and mounted in Hoyer's solution. 

Results 

Of the 131 cottontail rabbits examined, 100 (76.3%) harbored 
ectoparasites. Four species of flea, 5 species of mites and 4 others 
identified only to family or genus, 4 chigger mites, 3 ticks, and one 
parasitic fly larva were found (Table 1). 

418 



Zoology 



419 



Table 1. External parasites of 131 cottontail rabbits, Sylvilagus floridanus, 
from Indiana. (31 rabbits had no ectoparasites.) 



Parasites 



Number of Parasites Rabbits Infested 
Total Average No. % 



Siphonaptera (fleas) 

Cediopsylla simplex (Baker, 1895) 
Odontopsyllus multispinosus (Baker, 1898) 
Ctenocephalides felis Bouche, 1835 
Orchopeas leucopus Baker, 1904 

Acarina 

Mites 

Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Megnin, 1878) 

Marsupialichus brasiliensis Fain, 1969 

Psorobia sp. 

Oribatidae 

Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese, 1911) 

Dermanyssus sp. 

Glycyphagidae 

Ornithonyssus bacoti Hirst, 1913 

Pygmephorus designatus Mahunka, 1973 
Chigger Mites (Trombiculidae) 

Eutrombicula alfreddugesi Oudemans, 1910 

Neotrombicula whartoni (Ewing, 1929) 

Euschoengastia setosa (Ewing, 1939) 

Neotrombicula lipovskyi (Brennan and 
Wharton, 1950) 
Ticks 

Ixodes dentatus Marx, 1899 

Haemaphy salts leporis-palustris 
(Packard, 1869) 

Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821) 

Diptera (flies) 
Cuterebra sp. 



249 


1.92 


53 


40.4 


15 


0.11 


9 


6.9 


3 


0.02 


2 


1.5 


1 


0.008 


1 


O.S 


1313± 


10.0 


19 


14.5 


150± 


1.15 


1 


0.8 


100± 


0.76 


1 


0.8 


35 


0.27 


14 


10.7 


12 


0.09 


9 


6.9 


2 


0.015 


2 


1.5 


2 


0.015 


2 


1.5 


1 


0.008 


1 


0.8 


1 


0.008 


1 


0.8 


531± 


4.05 


6 


4.6 


200 


1.53 


17 


12.9 


6 


0.05 


2 


1.5 


3 


0.02 


2 


1.5 


353 


2.69 


38 


29.0 


277 


2.11 


45 


34.3 


49 


0.37 


10 


7.6 



0.04 



3.1 



The common flea was Cediopsylla simplex, with 249 individuals 
taken. Cottontail rabbits are the major hosts of this flea in Indiana, 
but it is also found on carnivores which prey on rabbits. The next most 
common flea, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, is found primarily on rab- 
bits. Ctenocephalides felis is usually found on carnivores, while Orcho- 
peas leucopus is a rodent flea. 

The most abundant parasite found was Cheyletiella parasitivorax, 
a small mite commonly found on rabbits. It is also the mite occurring 
on the highest percentage of rabbits (14.5). Mites of the family Ori- 
batidae, not parasitic, but found in small numbers on many mammals, 
occurred on 10.7% of the rabbits. 

Chiggers were infrequent on rabbits, although Neotrombicula 
whartoni occurred on 12.9% of them. Eutrombicula alfreddugesi was 
the most abundant chigger, with 531± found. Both of these chiggers 
also occur on microtines. 

The most abundant tick occurring on the rabbits was Ixodes 
dentatus. Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, the most frequently oc- 
curring tick, is also found on ground-inhabiting birds. The tick Derma- 



420 



Indiana Academy of Science 



centor variabilis, occurring least frequently and in smallest numbers, 
also parasitizes small rodents. 

The parasitic bot fly larva, Cuterebra sp., was found on only 4 
rabbits. Botfly larvae (more than one species involved) occur on white- 
footed mice, squirrels and deer in Indiana. 

There is some indication of seasonal changes in parasite load 
(Table 2). The fleas C. simplex and O. multispinosus were most 
abundant in winter, while the ticks /. dentatus, H. leporis-palustris, 
and D. variabilis were most abundant in spring. The seasonal variations 
for C. simplex and I. dentatus were significant at the 99% level (x 2 =134 
for /. dentatus, x 2 =139 for C. simplex, 3 and 2 df, respectively), for H. 
leporis-palustris at the 95% level (x 2 «^89, 2 df). 

The infestation of rabbits by sex was investigated. Using Chi- 
square, the significance of the difference in infestation between males 
and females was tested at the 95%- level for five of the common ecto- 
parasites (C. simplex, O. multispinosus, I. dentatus, H. leporis-palustris, 
and D. variabilis). The ticks (I. dentatus, H. leporis-palustris, and D. 
variabilis) and the flea C. simplex were significantly more common on 
males than females (x 2 =5.6 or more). 

Many of the ectoparasites of <S. floridanus in Indiana in this study 
have previously been reported. To our knowledge, however, the fleas 
Ctenocephalides felis and Orchopeas leucopus, the 4 species of chiggers, 
and all the mites (except Cheyletiella parasitivorax) are reported for 
the first time on S. floridanus here. 

Table 2. Seasonal abundance of the common ectoparasites of 129 cottontail rabbits, 
Sylvilagus floridanus, from Indiana, given as mean number per host. 





Spring 


Summer 


Fall 


Winter 


# Rabbits 


45 


38 


21 


25 




March- 


June-* 


Sept.- 


Dec- 


Parasites 


May 


Aug. 


Nov. 


Feb. 


Cediopsylla simplex 


1.86 


0.92 


0.52 


5.00 


Odontopsyllus multispinosus 


0.06 


0.05 


0.05 


0.20 


Ixodes dentatus 


4.16 


0.89 


0.48 





Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris 


4.38 


1.21 


1.57 





Dermacentor variabilis 


0.78 


0.37 









Literature Cited 

1. Henry, L. G., and McKeever, S. 1971. A modification of the washing technique for 
quantitative evaluation of the ectoparasite load of small mammals. J. Med. Ent. 
8:504-505. 

2. Hilton, D. F. J. 1970. A technique for collecting ectoparasites from small birds 
and mammals. Can. J. Zool. 48:1445-1446. 

3. Loomis, R. B. 1956. The chigger mites of Kansas (Acarina, Trombiculidae) . Univ. 
Kans. Sci. Bull. vol. 37, pt. II, No. 19:1195-1443. 

4. Stannard, L. J., Jr., and Lysle R. Pietsch. 1958. Ectoparasites of the cottontail 
rabbit in Lee County, northern Illinois. 111. Nat. Hist. Survey Division Biol. Notes 
No. 38 (1-18). 

5. Wilson, N. 1961. The ectoparasites (Ixodides, Anoplura and Siphonaptera) of Indi- 
ana mammals. Unpubl. Ph.D. Dissertation, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana. 
527p. 



Observations on the Nasolabial Groove of the 
Plethodontid Salamander 

Eurycea quadridigitata 

David M. Sever, Department of Biology, 
Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 

Introduction 

The nasolabial groove is diagnostic for metamorphosed salamanders 
of the family Plethodontidae. This groove is a narrow depression in 
the skin extending ventrally from either external naris to the upper 
lip. The nasolabial groove functions to carry water borne chemicals 
from the substrate through the nasal passages and over the sensory 
epithelium of Jacobsen's organ (2). 

Associated with the nasolabial groove are the nasolabial glands, a 
group of subdermal exocrine glands that secrete through pores lining 
the border of the groove (4). Although the anatomy of the nasolabial 
glands has been described grossly, at the light microscopy level, and 
by transmission electron microscopy (3), the nasolabial groove has 
been described only macroscopically (1, 4). 

In this paper I describe the nasolabial groove of the dwarf sala- 
mander, Eurycea quadridigitata (Holbrook), as seen by scanning elec- 
tron microscopy. Examination of the nasolabial groove of this species 
is of special interest since there is sexual dimorphism of the snout 
related to the nasolabial glands (3). Sexually active males possess 
elongate projections from the upper lip called cirri. Cirri are composed 
of an extension of nasolabial glands ventral to the lip, and the nasolabial 
groove extends the length of the cirrus (3). Female and sexually in- 
active male E. quadridigitata lack cirri (3). 

Materials and Methods 

Individuals of Eurycea quadridigitata were collected 22 September, 
1973, 10.6 km NNW Ville Platte, Evangeline Parish, Louisiana. Males 
collected possessed cirri. The portion of the snout with the nasolabial 
groove was removed from both sides of the head of two males and 
one female. These tissue specimens from the snout were fixed 24 hours 
in 5% glutaraldehyde in Millonig's phosphate buffer, rinsed in the 
phosphate buffer, and post-fixed 90 minutes in a solution of 10% sucrose 
and 2% osmium tetroxide in the phosphate buffer. After dehydration in 
acetone and carbon dioxide, the tissue specimens were carbon-gold coated. 
The tissue specimens were viewed with a Cambridge Stereoscan Model 
600 using either 7 or 15 kV. 

Results 

The appearance of proximal portions of the groove is the same in 
male and female specimens (Fig. 1A-1C). The only sexual dimorphism 
occurs along distal portions of the groove. In the female, the groove 
terminates distally into a few short branches on a slight bulge from 

421 



422 



Indiana Academy of Science 




Figure 1. Scanning electron micrographs of the nasolabial area of a female Eurycea 
quadridigitata. A. Naris, showing nasolabial groove passing from postero-ventral 
border. Bulge on posterior border of naris is the crescentic fold. B. Length of the 
nasolabial groove alongside head. Note the parallel row of nasolabial gland pores along 
each side of groove. C. Detail of nasolabial groove. Note the nasolabial gland pores 
along groove and modification of surrounding epidermal cells. D. Termination of the 
groove on lip. Note abundance of pores, hypertrophy of the epidermis, secretory product 
lining the pores, and the branching of the groove. P = pores of nasolabial glands, 

V = ventral. 



the upper lip (Fig-. ID). In the males, the groove extends the length of 
the cirrus (Fig. 2). As the groove terminates ventrally, it forks into 
four or five branches that span the width of the distal tip of the cirrus 
(Fig. 2B). 

From the external naris to the lip, the nasolabial groove appears 
as a trough 20-30 ^m wide (Fig. 1B-C). Depth of the groove could 
not be measured, but the depth appears similar to the width (Fig. 1C) 
except the forks at the distal end of the groove appear shallower 
(Figs. ID, 2B and 2D). 

Along the main portion of the groove between the external naris 
and the upper lip are six or seven regularly spaced pores on each side 
of the groove (Fig. IB). These pores represent orifices of the nasolabial 
glands. Each pore is about 10-20 ^m in diameter and does not differ 
in appearance from pores of mucous glands scattered over the epi- 
dermis (Fig. 1B-C). 

The epidermis of the snout is smooth except along the border of 
the nasolabial groove where the epidermal cells appear relatively hyper- 



Zoology 



423 




Figure 2. Scanning electron micrographs of the nasolabial groove of a male Eurycea 
quadridigitata. A Nasolabial groove as it extends onto cirrus. B. Ventral tip of the 
cirrus. C. Side of the cirrus opposite to the nasolabial groove. D. Higher magnification 
of a terminal branch of the nasolabial groove showing hypertrophied epidermis and 
nasolabial gland pores lined with secretory product. 

trophied. These cells are raised and swollen, and the cell boundaries 
are quite distinct (Fig. 1C). In females, hypertrophy of the epidermis 
reaches its peak at the distal end of the groove, and orifices of the 
nasolabial glands are spread around the area (Fig. ID). In the males, 
the epidermis of the entire cirrus is hypertrophied, and orifices of naso- 
labial glands are scattered over the surface of the cirrus although pores 
are especially concentrated along the most distal end of the groove and 
among the forks (Fig. 2). 

A secretion product is present around the orifices of the nasolabial 
glands along the distal end and branches of the groove of the female 
(Fig. ID) and around the pores on the cirri of the males (Fig. 2). 

The crescentic fold, described by Whipple (4) as the external ex- 
pression of a muscle involved in closing the naris, appears as a bulge 
on the posterior edge of the naris (Fig. 1A). 



Discussion 

My observations differ in two respects from those of Whipple (4) 
on Desinognathus fuscus and Brown and Martof (1) on 13 species of 
plethodontids including Eurycea quadridigitata. These authors stated 
that nasolabial gland pores are each situated en slight elevations. In 
my samples, the pores are not elevated above contiguous epidermal cells 



424 Indiana Academy of Science 

(see especially Fig. IB, ID and 2D). Also, Whipple (4) and Brown and 
Martof (1) reported that two orifices nearest the external naris are 
especially definite in location. One of these orifices is at the upper end 
of the crescentic fold and the other is on the ventral edge of the naris 
just anterior to the junction of the naris and the nasolabial groove. In 
Desmognathus fuscus, these two pores are associated with the most 
highly developed nasolabial glands (4). In my specimens, two such 
distinctive pores adjacent to the naris could not be definitely identified. 
Perhaps this is because the most highly developed and numerous naso- 
labial glands in E. quadridigitata are not those in the nasal region 
but those along the ventral border of the lip (3). 

By tapping the nose on the substrate, the nasolabial groove trans- 
ports chemicals in surface fluids to Jacobsen's organ (2). In E. quadri- 
digitata, cirri are found only in sexually active males (3), and the 
nasolabial groove extends the length of the cirrus and extensively 
branches at the distal tip. It may be hypothesized that cirri are adapta- 
tions for perception of olfactory cues important in the breeding ac- 
tivities of male E. quadridigitata. 

Acknowledgments 

I thank D. E. Copeland, Department of Biology, Tulane University, 
for use of his laboratory facilities and A. Fitzjarrell for aid in prepara- 
tion of tissue and operation of the scanning electron microscope. 



Literature Cited 

1. Brown, C. E. and B. S. Martof. 1966. The function of the naso-labial groove of 
plethodontid salamanders. Physiol. Zool. 39:357-367. 

2. Brown, C. W. 1968. Additional observations on the function of the nasolabial 
grooves of plethodontid salamanders. Copeia 1968 :728-731. 

3. Sever, D. M. 1975. Morphology and seasonal variation of the nasolabial glands of 
Eurycea quadridigitata (Holbrook). J. Herpetology 9:337-348. 

4. Whipple, I. L. 1906. The naso-labial groove of lungless salamanders. Biol. Bull. 
11:1-26. 



Rice Rat (Oryzomys cj. palustris) Remains 
from Southern Indiana Caves 

Ronald L. Richards 

8141 Pickford Drive 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46227 

Living rice rats have never been recorded within Indiana. The rice 
rat had been on Indiana's hypothetical lists of Evermann and Butler in 
1894 (6), Hahn in 1909 (11), and Lyon in 1936 (16). Lyon then noted 
that the rice rat should be looked for in the southern counties, and that 
owl pellets (as rice rats are primarily noctournal) should be examined 
for their remains. Indiana's first rice rat remains were recorded from 
the Angel Mounds archaeological site in southerly Vanderburgh County 
(1, 2). Mumford (1969) affirmed the Angel Mounds material to be 
Indiana's only record (17). Presently, rice rat populations occur no 
closer to Indiana than extreme southern Illinois and the lower half 
of Kentucky (Fig. 1). 




Figure 1. Recent and past distribution of the rice rat. Modem range: stippled area 
(data from Hall and Kelson, 1959); Archaeological sites: dots; Cave sites: A, Anderson 
Pit Cave, B, Brynjidfson #2 Cave, M, Meyer Cave, P, Passenger Pigeon Cave and Raptor 

Roost. 



The rice rat inhabits marsh and swamp borders with dense ground 
cover, but may also occur in drier upland areas that have tall grasses 
or weeds (17, 26). Away from coastal areas an annual rainfall of 
at least 40-45 inches seems necessary (27); southern Indiana presently 
receives ca. 40-44 inches (25). The northern range of the rice rat does 
fluctuate (12). 

Two Indiana caves and sub-recent deposits of a raptor roost have 
recently produced rice rat remains (Fig. 1). Recovered from Anderson 
Pit Cave, Monroe County, was a left dentary portion, paired maxillae, 
and a left premaxilla, all teeth absent. The remains occurred deep 
within the cave in the sediments of an ancient woodrat nesting area 



425 



426 Indiana Academy of Science 

(24, preliminary faunal list) in general association (upper deposit) 
with a more recently discerned late Pleistocene-early Recent fauna 
that included the extinct giant armadillo, Dasypus bellus (middle de- 
posit) and 57 other vertebrate species. 

From Passenger Pigeon Cave, Harrison County, a shallow "shelter- 
like" limestone cave and crawlway, were recovered three left and two 
right dentaries, three left and three right fragmented innominates, two 
left femora, and one right tibiofibula. One innominate had hair matted 
into the acetabulum, and seemed to be of more recent, perhaps owl 
pellet, accumulation than the other bones. Remains occurred within the 
loose, dusty dirt within the upper foot of sediment. Located just above 
the base of the Ohio River bluffs, an extensive faunal accumulation in 
the chamber was heavily augmented by raptor roost debris, woodrat 
collection, and predator-scavenger activities. 

One hundred feet east of this cave, sheltered up on a bluff cove, 
was an extensive deposit of raptor refuse (eg. disintegrated owl 
pellets). Only one element of the rice rat, a complete left dentary 
(Fig. 2), was recovered from the lowermost level of refuse (ca. 6 inch 
maximum depth) to the more than one thousand dentaries of Microtus. 
Accumulation in this cove seems to have dwindled in more recent years. 
Examination of modern raptor debris along the bluff base for the last 
several years has failed to produce extant rice rat material. While 
locally the older deposits contained rice rat and woodrat (Neotoma 
floridana), recent accumulations are of the Norway Rat (Rattus cf. 
norvegicus). Rice rat identifications were confirmed by John E. Guilday, 
Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh. 

Six subspecies of 0. palustris occur in the Eastern United States. 
A second species, O. couesi, ranges into the Southwest from Mexico. 
The two species can be separated by skulls or teeth (12, 13). The Angel 
Mounds material represents O. palustris. The material re-examined was: 
2 skulls; 5 partial skulls; 11 dentaries; 34 femora; 16 tibiofibulae; 17 
innominates; 4 humeri; 2 scapulae; 4 ulnae; a sacrum; several vertebrae, 
and cranial and long bone fragments (minimum number of individuals: 
23). The Indiana cave and roost material was too incomplete for 
species determination, but was assigned to O. cf. palustris on geo- 
graphic grounds. 

An extinct form, 0. palustris fossilis, is known from the Kansan 
glacial of Texas (5), late Illinoian glacial of Kansas (14), and the 
Sangamon interglacial of Texas (4) and Kansas (13). Dentally sep- 
arable (13, 27), none of the Indiana cave material to date appears to 
represent this extinct form. 

Recent O. palustris appear to be progressively larger from south 
to north as well as from west to east (Table 1, part A), suggesting a 
classical positive "Bergman's Response". The subrecent (usually ar- 
chaeological) specimens follow the same trend, with some regional vari- 
ation (eg. some Illinois and Iowa data), and appear slightly larger 
than the recent material. The Iowa data are of alveolae, which give a 
longer measurement than the teeth (compare parts B and C, lower 
toothrow). While the upper molars from the Angel site are larger than 



Zoology 



427 




■ ■' ■ ■ " - . 




* 




•<1! 







J f I 11 



Figure 2. Le/t denial o/ a nee ra£ (Oryzomys cf. palustris) /rom a tfarW SO n Cott^t, 
raptor roosi. Note the dentine "core" of the heavily ivorn molars. Scale: X 2; mm. grid. 

those from Iowa, the reverse is true of the lower molars, perhaps due 
to the small sample size from the Angel site (part B). Though the 
Indiana cave and roost specimens might have dentitions similar in 
size to those from Angel Mounds (as indicated by empty alveolar 
toothrow, part C), the general size of the cave and roost elements is 
smaller. Postcranial material is visibly smaller. The difference does not 
seem to be related to age class. The cave and roost specimens also 
have a more frequent and pronounced depression of the area between 
the vertical dentary ramus and the labial side of the posterior tooth- 



428 Indiana Academy of Science 

Table 1. Comparison of recent and sub-recent rice rat material from several localities. 1 , 2 

Parameter N XT O.R. 

Locality 

A. Cranial 

Length, upper toothrow : 

Texas, recent 

Kentucky, Illinois, recent 

New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, recent 

Arkansas, sub-recent 

Angel Mounds, Indiana, sub-recent 

Illinois, sub-recent 

Iowa, sub-recent (alveoli measurements) 

Pennsylvania, West Virginia, sub-recent 

Length, incisive foramen : 
Texas, recent 
Kentucky, Illinois, recent 
New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, recent 
Arkansas, sub-recent 
Angel Mounds, Indiana, sub-recent 
Illinois, sub-recent 
Iowa, sub-recent 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, sub-recent 

Length, Ml : 

Angel Mounds, Indiana, sub-recent 
Iowa, sub-recent 

Width, Ml : 

Angel Mounds, Indiana, sub-recent 
Iowa, sub-recent 

B. Dentary 
Length, lower toothrow : 

Indiana raptor roost (moderate wear) 
Angel Mounds, Indiana 
Iowa (alveolar measurement) 

Length, ml : 

Indiana raptor roost (moderate wear) 

Angel Mounds, Indiana 

Iowa 

Width, ml : 

Indiana raptor roost (moderate wear) 

Angel Mounds, Indiana 

Iowa 

C. Indiana cave, roost, and Angel Mounds 
comparison 

ml-m.3, empty alveolar length : 
Passenger Pigeon Cave 
Angel Mounds 

Diastema length : 

Anderson Pit Cave 

Passenger Pigeon Cave and raptor roost 

Angel Mounds 

Dentary, thickness 15 : 

Passenger Pigeon Cave and roost 
Angel Mounds 



14 


4.4 


4.0-4.7 


11 


4.80 


4.5-5.0 


7 


4.86 


4.8-5.3 


4 


4.70 


4.5-4.9 


3 


4.81 


4.70-4.98 


11 


4.88 


4.4-5.1 


17 


4.91 


4.55-5.40 


12 


5.22 


4.7-5.7 


14 


6.3 


4.4-7.3 


3 


6.75 


6.0-7.2 


7 


6.81 


6.4-7.3 


3 


6.70 


6.3-6.9 


8 


6.95 


6.53-7.38 


5 


6.69 


6.0-7.9 


6 


7.12 


6.20-7.85 


11 


6.92 


6.5-7.6 


5 


2.23 


2.12-2.36 


26 


2.15 


2.00-2.25 


5 


1.42 


1.32-1.50 


25 


1.32 


.90-1.50 



1 


4.67 


4.67 


2 


4.79 


4.78-4.80 


60 


4.83 


4.45-5.10 


1 


1.80 


1.80 


7 


1.94 


1.84-2.00 


51 


1.95 


1.75-2.20 


1 


1.21 


1.21 


7 


1.25 


1.22-1.27 


52 


1.28 


1.15-1.45 



5 


5.05 


4.80-5.25 


4 


5.04 


4.70-5.45 


1 


3.10 


3.10 


4 


3.76 


3.4-4.0 


10 


3.94 


3.3-4.66 


2 


2.16 


2.06-2.25 


11 


2.24 


2.18-2.40 



Zoology 



429 



Table 1 — Continued 



Dentary, depth* : 

Passenger Pigeon Cave and roost 
Angel Mounds 

Dentary, length 5 : 

Passenger Pigeon Cave and roost 
Angel Mounds 



3 


3.22 


3.06-3.40 


11 


3.46 


3.21-3.92 


2 


16.74 


16.45-17.03 


7 


17.46 


15.47-20.17 



1 Non-Indiana data from Johnson, 1972. 

2 Indiana measurements by ocular micrometer accurately calibrated at about 15 X, or 
by dial calipers. 

:i Measured from ventral surface at widest part of masseteric ridge. 

* Measured along a line through mental foramen to lowermost swelling of symphysis. 

5 From condyle to anterior point of dentary, toothrow horizontal. 



row. These differences in the Indiana material may be biased by the 
small number of specimens available, or might well represent local or 
temporal population characteristics. Guilday records an aberrant rice 
rat skull from an eastern archaeological site with a "broad rostrum 
and exceptionally large cheek teeth" (8). The association of the rice 
rat with man in the Indian settlements could have provided a new 
"optimum" habitat that locally relaxed the food or predator controls 
of body size, or the larger size could be typical of physiological ad- 
justments in filling northerly and easterly "vacant" ecological niches, 
given present temperature and moisture gradients (eg. "Bergman's 
Response"). No taxonomic distinction between "wild" and "commensal" 
rice rat populations, however, would seem justified with the material 
and data at hand. 

Few wild rice rats reach one year of age (26); by epiphyseal union, 
most of the Indiana material did represent young adults. A fractured 
tibiofibula from the Angel Mounds site had healed in a shorter, mis- 
aligned position. 

Bones of the rice rat have been found in archaeological sites north 
of its present range in Iowa (15), Illinois (3, 18, 19, 21), Indiana (1, 2), 
Ohio (8), Pennsylvania (7, 8), and West Virginia (8, 10) (Fig. 1). 
Because of its close association with prehistoric maize cultivation, the 
rice rat is thought to have been a commensal pest of Indian settlements, 
rather than an indicator of past warmer temperatures (9). Rice rat 
bones associated with burrow systems have been recovered from refuse 
pits of Indian settlements (10). While most of the sites are dated ca. 
1000 A.D. (15), the Scovil site in Illinois had an earlier, 450 A.D. date, 
where maize was not among the cultigens recovered (18). The general 
associations of rice rat with such mild-wintered extinct species as the 
giant armadillo, Dasypus bellus, in Brynjulfson #2 Cave, Missouri (22), 
and in Anderson Pit Cave, Indiana, and the abundant rice rat remains 
in Meyer Cave, Illinois (20), however, might predate the archaeological 
associations. O. palustris has been recovered from the Pleistocene of 
Ladds, Georgia (23) and from Florida (28). Parmalee and Oesch (22) 
do not support a maize related rice rat extension. Johnson (15), regard- 
ing archaeological and ecological evidence, believed that an amelioration 
of climate during the Scandic climatic episode allowed for the range 



430 Indiana Academy of Science 

expansion, where the rice rat became established as a commensal pest 
in the Indian settlements, perhaps allowing; it to survive mild climatic 
change. This author, further judging by its fossil and sub-fossil cave 
associations, believes that the rice rat could have extended its range 
northerly during mild-wintered moist climatic phases (as might have 
Dasypus bellus), perhaps as early as late Pleistocene-early postglacial 
times, and with the development of prehistoric crop cultivation could 
well have maintained relict populations in the "artificial" niche when 
conditions became unfavorable for its northerly distribution. 

Acknowledgments 

I thank John E. Guilday, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, for 
examining the Indiana cave and roost specimens, and William R. Adams, 
Indiana University ethnozoological laboratory, for loan of the Angel 
Mounds material. Dave Rieg-er expertly produced Figures 1 and 2. Aid 
in the field was provided by especially P. David Miles and Gordon 
Lindamood, and also Bruce Ogle, D. Bert Haddix, John Linn, and Mike 
Riedlinger. 



Literature Cited 

1. Adams, W. R. 1949. Faunal remains from the Angel site. MS thesis, Department 
of Anthropology, Indiana University, Bloomington. 56 p. 

2. Adams, W. R. 1950. Food animals used by the Indians at the Angel site. Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci., 59:19-24. 

3. Bakek, F. C. 1936. Remains of animal life from the Kingston Kitchen midden site 
near Peoria, Illinois. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 29:243-246. 

4. Dalquest, W. W. 1962. The Good Creek formation, Pleistocene of Texas, and its 
fauna. Jour. Paleontol. 36(3) :568-582. 

5. Dalquest, W. W. 1965. New Pleistocene formation and local fauna from Hardeman 
County, Texas. Jour. Paleontol., 39:63-79. 

6. Evermann, B W., and A. W. Butler. 1894. Preliminary list of Indiana mammals. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 3:124-139. 

7. Guilday, J. E. 1961. Prehistoric Record of Scalopus from Western Pennsylvania. 
Jour. Mammal., 42(1) :117-118. 

8. Guilday, J. E., and W. J. Mayer-Oakes. 1952. An occurrence of the Rice Rat 
(Oryzomys) in West Virginia. Jour. Mammal., 33(2) :253-255. 

9. Guilday, J. E., P. S. Martin, and A. D. McCrady. 1964. New Paris No. 4: A 
late Pleistocene cave deposit in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. Natl. Speleol. Soc. 
Bull., 26(4) :121-194. 

10. Guilday, J. E., and D. P. Tanner. 1965. Vertebrate remains from the Mount 
Carbon site, (46-Fa-7), Fayette County, West Virginia. The West Virginia Arch., 
18:1-14. 

11. Hahn, W. L. 1909. The mammals of Indiana. 33rd Ann. Rept. Indiana Dept. Geol. 
Natur. Res. (1908): 417-654,659-663. 

12. Hall, E. R. and K. R. Kelson. 1959. The mammals of North America. 2 vols. The 
Ronald Press Co., New York. 1038 p. 

13. Hibbard, C. W. 1955. The Jinglebob interglacial (Sangamon?) fauna from Kansas 
and its climatic significance. Contr. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich., 12(10) :179-228. 

14. Hibbard, C. W. 1963. A late Illinoian fauna from Kansas and its climatic signif- 
icance. Paps. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., XLVIII: 187-221. 



Zoology 431 

15. Johnson, P. C. 1972. Mammalian remains associated with Nebraska Phase earth 
lodges in Mills County, Iowa. MS thesis, Dept. of Geol., Grad. Coll., Univ. Iowa. 77 p. 

16. Lyon, M. W., Jr. 1936. Mammals of Indiana. Amer. Midi. Natur., 17(1) :l-384. 

17. Mumford, R. E. 1969. Distribution of the mammals of Indiana. Indiana Acad. Sci. 
Monogr. 1, Indianapolis. 114 p. 

18. Munson, P. J., P. W. Parmalee, and R. A. Yarnell. 1971. Subsistence ecology of 
Scovill, a Terminal Middle Woodland village. Amer. Antiquity, 30(4) :410-431. 

19. Parmalee, P. W. 1957. Vertebrate remains from the Cahokia site, Illinois. Trans. 
Illinois State Acad. Sci., 50:235-242. 

20. Parmalee, P. W. 1967. A recent bone deposit in southwestern Illinois. Natl. Speleol. 
Soc. Bull., 29(4) :119-147. 

21. Parmalee, P. W. 1971. Faunal materials from the Schild Cemetery site, Greene 
County, Illinois, Appendix A: p. 142-143, in G. H. Perino, 1971, The Mississippian 
component at the Schild site (No. 4), Greene County, Illinois. Illinois Arch. Surv. 
Bull., 8:1-148. 

22. Parmalee, P. W. and R. D. Oesch. 1972. Pleistocene and Recent faunas from the 
Brynjulfson caves, Missouri. Illinois State Mus. Repts. Invest., No. 25. Springfield. 
52 p. 

23. Ray, C. E. 1967. Pleistocene mammals from Ladds, Bartow County, Georgia. Bull. 
Georgia Acad. Sci., 25(3) :120-150. 

24. Richards, R. L. 1972. The Woodrat in Indiana: Recent fossils. Proc. Indiana Acad. 
Sci., 81 :370-375. 

25. Schaal, L. A. 1966. Climate. Pp. 156-170, in A. A. Lindsey (ed.), 1966, Natural 
Features of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 597 p. 

26. Schwartz, C. W. and E. R. Schwartz. 1959. The wild mammals of Missouri. Univ. 
Missouri Press, Columbia. 341 p. 

27. Slaughter, B. and W. L. McClure. 1965. The Sims Bayou local fauna: Pleistocene 
of Houston, Texas. Tex. Jour. Sci. 17:404-417. 

28. Webb, S. D. (ed.). 1974. Pleistocene mammals of Florida. Univ. Florida Press, 
Gainesville. 



Habitat Associations of Small Mammals in Southwestern Indiana 

Robert K. Rose, Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion 

University, Norfolk, Virginia and Richard McKean, Wapora, Inc., 

6900 Wisconsin Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C. 20015 

Introduction 

There is relatively little information about the small mammals of 
southern Indiana. With changes in nomenclature based on Jones et al. 
(6), Mumford (10) listed the following with statewide distribution: 
Cryptotis parva (least shrew), Blarina carolinensis (southern short- 
tailed shrew), Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole), M. ochrogaster 
(prairie vole), Synaptomys cooperi (southern bog lemming), Peromyscus 
leucopus (white-footed mouse), and Mus musculus (house mouse). Sorex 
cinereus (masked shrew), common in the northern half of the state, also 
is known from the Wabash River watershed, including Posey County, 
and Mumford believed Sorex longirostris (southeastern shrew) and 
Zapus hudsonius (meadow jumping mouse) to be present in low numbers 
throughout southern Indiana. 

This study was designed to determine the habitat associations, dis- 
tribution, and relative abundance of the species of small mammals in 
the six counties bordering the Ohio River in southwestern Indiana, but 
especially shrews in the genus Sorex. Mumford (10) reported that only 
28 southeastern shrews had been taken in Indiana prior to 1966, none 
from any Indiana county bordering the Ohio River. However, WAPORA, 
Inc. investigators, in studies conducted in Spencer County (unpublished), 
had captured 36 southeastern shrews, all but one by pitfall trapping. 
These results suggested that the supposed rarity of this shrew may 
have reflected poor sampling methods rather than low population densi- 
ties. Consequently, a second objective of this study was to determine the 
relative efficiencies of snap vs. pitfall traps for sampling southeastern 
shrews. This objective was particularly important since the southeastern 
shrew is believed to be rare throughout much of its range, and is 
considered to be imperilled in several states. 

Materials and Methods 

Alternating oldfield and forest study plots were established at 6 km 
intervals along 280 km of the Ohio River. Using USGS topographic 
maps for reference and beginning at the southwestern boundary of 
Indiana (Posey County), marks were made on the maps at intervals 
of 6 km along the center line of the river. Plots were generally placed 
in the floodplain but where the escarpment was indefinite, absent, or 
at the river, the study area included lands to a line 4 km north of the 
center of the river. The entire study area (Figure 1) lies within the 
unglaciated part of Indiana, designated by Fenneman (2) as the 
Shawnee Section of the Interior Low Plateau Province. 

This method allocated to each county between 3 (Warrick County) 
and 13 sites (Perry County). In Spencer County seven sites were located 

432 



Zoology 



4)] 3 




Figure 1. The study area, showing the location of 25 oldfield (open circles) and 26 

forested (closed circles) study plots. Location 26, the location of previous studies in 

Spencer County, included k oldfield and 3 forested study plots. 



along the river and seven other sites (26 A-G on Figure 1) were added 
in the vicinity of previous small mammal studies. Forests, defined as 
areas with trees 10 cm or more dbh, were selected for study in which 
shrubs covered 15 percent or more of the ground. Oldfield sites with 
perennial herbaceous plants, particularly goldenrods (Solidago sp.), 
asters (Aster sp.), and broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) were se- 
lected whenever possible, but shrubs or saplings never constituted more 
than 15 percent of such oldfields. In both forests and oldfields, areas 
were sought in which a ground cover was formed by Japanese honey- 
suckle (Lonicera japonica) , Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinque- 
folia), grape (Vitis sp.), and other woody vines. With one exception, 
the bordering vegetation of the study plots was similar to that of the 
study site for a distance of at least 10 m from the margin. When 
possible, oldfield and forest plots were alternated. In all, there were 26 
forest and 25 oldfield study plots. 

Each study plot consisted of a 5 X 7 grid with trapping stations 
at 5 m intervals. At each station, one pitfall and one Museum Special 
snap trap were installed. The pitfall traps were polyethylene jars, 
160 mm tall and 78 mm inside diameter, sunk flush with the surface, 
and partially filled with water. No bait was used. The Museum Special 
traps were baited with a mixture of rolled oats and peanut butter. 
(One trap in use for one night equals one trap-night.) Each site was 
trapped for three days during each of two periods. At most sites, the 
second cycle of trapping was conducted no more than seven days after 
the first cycle had been completed. All traps were neutralized between 
cycles by covering the pitfall traps with a sprung snap trap. The seven 
sites in Spencer County at the location of previous study (Sites 26 A-G) 
were trapped for four, and in one instance five, cycles. 

Trapping was conducted from August through November 1977. 
Specimens were verified under the direction of John O. Whitaker, Jr., 
Curator, and are part of the Indiana State University mammal collection. 



434 Indiana Academy of Science 

Results 

In all, 454 small mammals of 10 species were obtained in 24,570 
trap-nights. White-footed mice and prairie voles, with 213 and 78 indi- 
viduals respectively, constituted 47 and 17 percent of the total (Table 
1). Southern short-tailed shrews and house mice each comprised about 
9 percent with the other species having smaller percentages. 

The western counties (Table 1), trapped during the early weeks 
of the study, had higher trap success, 2.38 per 100 trap-nights for Posey 
and 2.51 for Vanderburgh Counties. Spencer County, with the highest 
number of trap-nights, also had the highest number of species, ten. 
Nevertheless, trap success for the county was slightly below average for 
the study, 1.65 per 100 trap-nights. 

Oldfield habitat was more productive than forest (Table 2), both 
in terms of kinds (10 vs 7) and in individuals (261 vs 189.7, an adjusted 
number). Nearly all southeastern shrews, prairie voles, house mice, 
and meadow jumping mice were trapped in oldfields, but masked shrews, 
southern short-tailed shrews, white-footed mice, and woodland voles were 
collected more frequently in forested areas. 

A comparison of the effectiveness of snap and pitfall traps is given 
in Table 3. Pitfall traps captured more species (10 vs 8) and also cap- 
tured more individuals in seven of the ten species. However, three of 
the common species (white-footed mice, prairie voles, and house mice) 
were captured more frequently in snap traps, resulting in a greater 
number of total captures obtained by snap than by pitfall traps. Fur- 
thermore, the capture rate was more than twice as great for snap traps 
than for pitfall traps, 2.47 vs 1.22 captures per 100 trap-nights. 

Discussion 

Along the Ohio River in southwestern Indiana, white-footed mice 
were numerically dominant in forests and oldfields, but prairie voles 
were nearly as numerous in oldfields. 

Most of the species appeared to be distributed along most of the 
280-km study area, but both masked and southeastern shrews may have 
disjunct populations. The masked shrew was found in Posey and Vander- 
burgh (plus one specimen in Spencer) Counties, and the southeastern 
shrew in Spencer and Perry Counties. 

Short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice are occupants of wood- 
lands in the eastern United States (1, 5, 9), but they have considerable 
flexibility in the habitats that provide adequate resources to support 
their populations. For example, white-footed mice are frequent colonizers 
of disturbed areas, including areas altered by fires, grazing, floods and 
other disturbances (7, 8). 

Least shrews are known to be primarily associated with upland, 
oldfield habitats. Whitaker (13) reported that he has taken approxi- 
mately 150 least shrews from field areas in Indiana, but none from 
woods. 

Less is known of the habitat relationships of Indiana shrews in the 
genus Sorex. In previous studies in Spencer County (WAPORA, unpub- 



Zoology 



435 



M ^ H ft l- t- lO i-l ft ^ © 



-H V 



CO 00 lO 00 CO 00 i-l 
rl H i* H t- N 



■<* O O l-H 
kO i-H t- 



00©0<MCNJi-It-IOiHCO«0©i-i 



-S •§ 

£ s 

© to 



O ft 04 CD C- O i-l 



5> 

a, 



m 



l-H © O ft O © i-l 
i-H i-l "<J< i-H CO 



"« © 



«2 b 



© © © © i-H © © OOOiHi-IO© 



4 



t-OiHioOi-HOOOOCOlflC-OCM 



IfliOOfti-ii-IIMOOlMOOOOJ 



0) 

u 

4= 

GO 




0) 

43 


4) 

CO 

3 
O 

£ 




4) 


be 
c 

a 

E 

0) 




CO 

3 


£ 

c* 
_C 

'ft 

£ 


to 

"c3 

3 
_'> 


CO 

43 

to C 

.2 ft 

CJ cfl 


c 

to 

CO 
4) 


c 


£ 


to 

T3 




0) 


"3 

> 


be 




to 


-9 


ft +-- 


CJ 

3 


01 


0) 


0> 


+-> 






43 


3 


3 




M «H 


to 




;_, 




o 


o 


T3 











r-H O 




w 

+-> 

3 


CO 

+-> 
CO 

Cfl 


'3 
i 

+■> 

O 




>H 
tt) 

2 


> 
* 

'cfl 


C 

o 

o 


3 


s 

cu 
to 
3 


X 


O 
cfl 


cfl 
+-> 

o 


Cfl 


ft 
cfl 

H 



W 


0) 


4= 

W 


£ 


Fh 

Pl, 


£ 




in 


s 









436 



Indiana Academy of Science 






SO tJ 

00 ^} 



>* v. 

5 to 



-2 a 
* is 



■T3 



T3 8 



S 05 

8 .9 



g S 








a, 
e 


<x> 


•+-. 




o 


"+-, 




© 


*. 




V 


•*i 


-o 


s 


s 


« 


S 




s 


a ts 




tt 


"B 


1~ 
09 


8 


s 


e 


■~> 




"e 




^ 



0> 


T3 


S-t 


03 


3 




-u 




a 


CO 


ci 


.2 


V 


« 


O 


o> 

a 

CO 


+-> 




a 


CS 


0> 


c 






0) 


J= 


Ph 


-tJ 



3 # 03 



fin 



13 ,a 

o S 



■* CM © t- © 00 t- O 



00 Ci lO 00 CI 00 ot> 

OeOOOO«£)lOi-HOOcN05 



O O (M 00 t- 



© co © eq eo o o 

o ec ^f 8> •* o o 



0) o> 0) 



41 * 



Oj O 

9> -C 



5 , ._. 
m A w 









c 




CO 

a 
o 


CO 




0) 

a 
o 






s 
a 




£ 

60 


"3 

3 

IS 


CO 


13 




* 

"3 


03 

to 


0> 


'ft 

£ 


-3 


0) 

"o 

0) 


cy 


03 


> 


o 


CO 


(h 


ft 


+■> 






rQ 


a 


fl 




CO 


O 


© 


T3 




o 


i|-j 






o 


> 


c 


c 


£ 

03 
a; 
3 





<S 


c« 


1 

+-> 

IS 


_0> 
U 


ea" 

o 

o 


it 

o> 

X 
+-> 
3 
Q 


o 

Bj 

0) 


O 


o 



^^K^ 



Zoology 



437 



«S ft 

b * 

3 V. 

•w to 

o .S 

^ ~^ 

&■$ 

■*■> s 

s * 

s » 

£ o 
ft"- 

t9 -2 

e cs 

«■ '? 

-° 5* 

s g 

s ^ 



a .5 



ft 




ft 


►o 




5 




s 


*» 


^ 


o 




«K 


» 








o 


a. 
o 


'ft 


s 

95 


gi 




-e 


►8 


s 


s 


95 


B 






t3 




Ci> 


e 






95 

Cv 


•~ 


£ 


a. 


O 




•*-, 


05 


"B 


"3 


£ 


© 


e 


-c 




so 


2 


£ 




a 


"e 



2 8 



O 
95* 



3 _0) 



ft 


0/ 


CO 


a 


CJ 


w 


tH 


CO 







■p 


c 


c 


2 


u 




U 


'£ 


ft, 





s .2 



00 


01 


* 


CM 

i— I 


Ah 




" — ' 






bt> 






c 












a 






a 






CO 






« 






+■> 


















cO 






«H 










i< 






OJ 


ft! 




-fi 



CO t- 00 >* 


O 00 00 t- 


CM 00 CO CM 


O! N CO 



rH O CM rH 



O M i« if 00 N 



« O O ^i M N !fl O N IN M 
CSOCOt-T-iCOt-O t- CO 



rH CO © O rH 



S 3 

0) o 

J3 £ OJ 

. *G o 

S T3 <D 0) > 



4) 



o ,5 

IV) XJ to 



5 <V 
4 ^ 



5 > 



O rg 



£ c 

3 



ft 3 






.92 -S 55 

'£ X! -c 

•3 § "§ 



C > v ^ j 
CO X t -1 c -1 H 

3 co 



^^KS 



438 Indiana Academy of Science 

lished), 27 of 36 (75%) of southeastern shrews were captured in oldfield 
habitats, nearly identical to the proportion (14 of 18, or 78%) observed 
in the present study. Southeastern shrews are found in oldfields for the 
most part, but some were captured in forested study areas. Perhaps its 
optimal habitat is similar to that of Microtus pinetorum, the woodland 
vole, which seems to be primarily at the forest edge rather than either 
within forests or oldfields (3). In the present study, slightly more than 
half of the woodland voles were taken from forests, but many forest 
plots contained Japanese honeysuckle or other understory vegetation, 
and some of the oldfields contained trees and shrubs (especially at the 
margin of the study plots). Consequently, many of the study areas 
contained sections that might best be classified as forest edge (ecotone), 
both in terms of light penetration and vegetation height. Of 26 south- 
eastern shrews taken by Tuttle (12) in Tennessee, 24 were from 
habitats overgrown by honeysuckle. In the present study as well, slightly 
more than half of southeastern shrews were found in association with 
dense honeysuckle. 

Eleven of 13 masked shrews, S. cinereus, were captured in forested 
plots. For southeastern and masked shrews, some evidence of mutual 
exclusion was observed, i.e., the presence of one species signalled the 
absence of the other species, except at the forested study plot in Spencer 
County at Site 23 (Fig. 1), where one specimen of each species was 
obtained. This represents the single exception for all of the WAPORA, 
Inc. studies of small mammals in southern Indiana. Although the ecology 
of the two Sorex species has not been reported in Indiana, two sympatric 
species of Sorex (S. vagrans and S. obscurus) have been studied by 
Hawes (4) in British Columbia, Canada. Studying known individuals 
that had been captured, marked and released, Hawes concluded that 
the physical separation of the two species was due to each species having 
a competitive advantage in its optimal habitat. It is likely that a 
similar situation exists between S. cinereus and S. longirostris from 
southern Indiana, tending to restrict the masked shrew to forested 
habitats and the southeastern shrew to oldfields. Indirect evidence in 
support of this hypothesis is given by Tuttle and Whitaker (pers. 
comm.) who state that in Wisconsin and northern Indiana, respectively, 
where S. longirostris is absent, S. cinereus occurs in a range of habitats, 
including oldfields. 

Earlier studies had indicated that southeastern shrews were sampled 
effectively only by pitfall traps. This study supports that finding; all 
18 southeastern shrews were taken in pitfall traps. The masked shrew, 
nearly identical in size and shape, was also more effectively trapped 
by pitfalls; 12 of 13 individuals were taken by that method. Placement 
of one pitfall and one snap trap at each trapping location permits a 
statistical analysis of trap effectiveness. Applying Fisher's Exact Prob- 
ability Test (11, pp. 94-104), the probability of catching all 18 south- 
eastern shrews in one type of trap based on chance alone is less than 
0.0005. Similarly, the probability for masked shrews is 0.034. Thus, 
there is a significant difference in the frequency of capture that is 
attributable to the method of trapping. Tuttle (12) caught 23 of the 26 
southeastern shrews in pitfall traps. Consequently, it does seem likely 



Zoology 439 

that the inability of snap traps to catch the southeastern shrew has 
contributed in a real way to its supposed rarity in Indiana and elsewhere. 

Acknowledgments 

This study was conducted as part of an environmental study under 
a contract with American Electric Power Service Corporation for 
Indiana & Michigan Electric Company. Thanks are due the many land- 
owners who consented to the use of their land. We are grateful to 
R. Hall, W. Lee, W. McClain, C. Rhodehamel, and J. McCormick, all 
of whom participated in the study in some capacity. Thanks are also 
due John Whitaker and Tom French of Indiana State University, both 
for verifying the identifications of Sorex and for reviewing an earlier 
version of this paper. Melissa Wieland made the figure. 



Literature Cited 

1. Choate, J. R. 1971. Notes of geographic distribution and habitats of mammals eaten 
by owls in southern New England. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 74 :212-216. 

2. Fenneman, N. M. 1938. Physiography of eastern United States. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., New York. 714 p. 

3. Fitch, H. S. 1950. Home ranges, territories, and seasonal movements of vertebrates 
of the Natural History Reservation. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. Hist., 11:63-326. 

4. Hawes, M. L. 1977. Home range, territoriality, and ecological separation in sympatric 
shrews, Sorex vagrans and Sorex obscurus. J. Mammal., 58:354-367. 

5. Hirth, H. F. 1959. Small mammals in old field succession. Ecology, 30:417-425. 

6. Jones, J. K., Jr., D. C. Carter, and H. H. Genoways. 1975. Revised checklist of 
North American mammals north of Mexico. Occ. Paps. Mus. Texas Tech. Univ. #28. 
14 p. 

7. Kirkland, G. L., Jr. 1977. Responses of small mammals to the clearcutting of north- 
ern Appalachian forests. J. Mammal., 58:600-609. 

8. Krefting, L. W. and C. E. Ahlgren. 1974. Small mammals and vegetation changes 
after fire in a mixed conifer-hardwood forest. Ecology, 55:1391-1398. 

9. Miller, D. H. and L. L. Getz. 1977. Factors influencing local distribution and species 
diversity of forest small mammals in New England. Canadian J. Zool., 55:806-814. 

10. Mumford, R. E. 1969. Distribution of the mammals of Indiana. Indiana Academy of 
Science, Monograph, 1 :1-114 p. 

11. Siegel, S. 1956. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., New York. 312 p. 

12. Tuttle, M. D. 1964. Additional record of Sorex longirostris in Tennessee. J. Mammal., 
45:146-147. 

13. Whitaker, J. O., Jr. 1967. Habitat and reproduction of some of the small mammals 
of Vigo County, Indiana, with a list of mammals known to occur there. Occ. Pap. 
C. C. Adams Center for Ecological Studies #16. 24 p. 



INDEX 



Adalis, Dorothy, 233 

Adler, Jeffrey, 231 

Adriamucin, 101 

Aedes Triseriatus, 204, 208 

Aerial Photographs, Historical, 224 

Aerial Surveys of Flood Plains, 224 

Agrotis ipsilon, black cutworm, 218 

Air Pollution, 231, 233 

Air Pollution — Effects on Crops, 234 

Air Pollution Effects of Vegetation, 233 

Air Pollution, Perception of, 320 

Air Quality, Coal Mine, 250 

Air Quality Standards, 320 

Albright, Jack L., 405 

Aldrich, James R., 353 

Algae, 148 

Altered Liver Tumorigenesis, 100 

Alton site, 84 

Amish Children, 83 

Analgetics, 136 

Anatomy of Arundo, 92 

Angelica atropurpurea L. in Indiana, 91 

Animal Behavior, 207, 405 

Anselmino, Lisa, 103 

Antagonists, narcotic, 136 

Anthropology, 82 

Antisperm, 405 

Apical Growth, 97 

Apolynaceae, 94 

Archeological zones, 82 

Argulus appendiculosus, 404 

Armentano, Thomas V., 234 

Art, Mexican, 82 

Arthropods, economic, in Indiana, 210 

Artificial ventilation, 404 

Arundo donax L., 92 

Aspen, 146 

Ault, Curtis H., 275 

Axoplasmic Transport, 102 



B-lactam synthesis, 131 

Bacone, John A., 359 

Bacteria, Isolation, 340 

Balestra, M., 404 

Barr, Rita, 343 

Barrens vegetation, 147 

Bats, 205 

Beachy, Philip A., 97 

Bedrock, 272 

Benda, Robert S., 404 

Bennett, Gary W., 205 

Benthos, 173 

Benzazapropellanes, 136 

Berry, William J., 208 

Beta-alanine, 103 

Biological Survey Committee, 12 

Birds of Indiana, 68 

Black Walnut, germination, 94 

Blackburn, Janie K., 340 



Blair, B. O., 151, 382, 400 

Bloom, William W., 327 

Boardman, Larry, 131 

Bock, P. L., 129, 130 

Bodner, G. M., 381 

Boneham, Roger F., 310 

Brassicaceae, 352 

Bratt, Marvin H., 380, 382, 383 

British science, nineteenth century, 330 

Brodie, Gregory A., 300 

Brown, Earle (necrology), 44 

Bryson, Scott J., 341 

Buck, John, 232 

Burke, Christopher B., 191 



Calcium-binding protein, 102 

California Encephalitis virus, 204 

Calmodulin, 102 

Campaigne, E., 136 

Cancer, 114 

Cancer therapy, 103 

Cantaloupe Production in Indiana, 215 

Carcinogens Removal of, 231 

Carnahan, Walter H., 350 

Caryophyllaceae, 98 

Catt, Paul E., 133 

Cavendish Laboratory, 330 

Caves, Indiana Rice Rat bones in, 425 

Chaney, W. E., 215 

Chang, William, 340 

Charophyte morphology, 356 

Charophyte taxonomy, 356 

Chemistry teaching, 381 

Chironomus riparius, 207 

Chloroform Removal, 231 

Chlorophyll estimation, 340 

Chlorophyta, 148 

Chloroplasts, 343 

Chromatography, 133 

Cinnamic Acid, 99 

Claridon Prairie, 94 

Clark County, 355 

Clay mineralogy, 384 

Clean Lakes Program, 180 

Climatology, 386 

Clostridium welchi, 105 

Cochran, Donald R., 82 

Cockroach Control, 205 

Committees, Academy of Science, 5 

Computerized Literature Bank, 39 

Constitution, of the Academy, 57 

Cook, Donald J., 131 

Cooperative Education, 382 

Corrigan, Robert M., 205 

Cottontail rabbits, ectoparasites, 418 

Craig, George B. Jr., 208 

Crane, Frederick L., 101, 343 

Crayfish, 232 

Crayfishes Cave, 147 



441 



442 



Index 



Creek, Kim E., 99 

Crovello, Theodore J., 39, 352, 354 

Culex restuans, 208 

Cuticle, 103 

Cuticular variation, 94 

Cyclotron Resonance, 351 

Cytochalasin A, 97 

Daily, Fay Kenoyer (necrologist), 44, 356 

Dale, Robert F., 386 

Davenport, D. A., 382 

Davis, D. G., 225 

Davis, Patricia G., 272 

Decker, Timothy J., 232 

Deermice, 404 

Dehydration of 2-Methyl-l-Phenylcyclohex- 

anol, 130 
Delleur, J. W., 188 
Denning, Bernard E., 231 
DeSanto, Janice T., 130 
Deutscher, S. L., 99 
DeWeese, Robert, 130 
DeYoung, Donald B., 350 
Dilcher, David L., 95 
Dineen, Clarence F., 173 
DiNoto, Vincent A., 350 
Diols, 129 

Dolph, Gary E., 94, 381 
Dragonflies, American, 328 
Dryophyllum mooni, 93 
Dunn, Howard E., 130, 231, 255 

Eastern White Pine, 234 

Eberly, Kara, 103 

Eclipse of, 79-274 

Ecology Aquatic, 148 

Ecology, Terrestrial, 142 

Ectoparasites, of cottontail rabbits, 418 

Edmonds, Richard F., 246 

ElGENMANN, CARL H., 144 
Electro chemistry, 382 
Electron Transport, 343 
Electronic polarizations, 129 
Elliott, William L., 98, 100 
Elwood, Indiana, 232 
Embarrass River, 133 
Endangered Plants, 359 
Enucleated cells, 120 
Environmental Assessment, 231 
Environmental Geology, 300, 310 
Enzyme activity, 128 
Epidemiology, 341 
Esch, J. L., 407 
Eu(fod) 2 , 129 

Fall Meeting, Academy of Science, 22 

Ferritin uptake, 102 

Financial Report, Academy of Science, 31 

Fish, Durland, 208 

Fish Pathology, 341 

Flora of Indiana, 353 

Floristic Inventory, 372 

Flow Forecasting, 189 

Forensic Anthropology, 82 



Forest structure, 146 
Forman, Michael, 99 
Fossil insects, 206 
Fountain County, 310 
Franzmeier, Donal P., 384 
Fungi, 97 

Gammon, J. R., 143 

Ganion, Larry R., 405 

Garber, Lawrence L., 131 

Gateway Project, 383 

Gehring, Charles L., 380 

Gingery, Walter George (necrology), 45 

Giorgini, 190 

Glacial Lake Quincy, 273 

Glycosyl transferases, 99 

Godish, Thad, J., 231, 233, 246, 268 

Goecker, A. D., 382 

Golgi Apparatus, 99, 100 

Gommel, William R., 274 

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., 218 

Gray, Donald D., 191 

Gray, Henry A., 272 

Gray, Lois M., 372 

Greenbowe, Thomas J., 381 

Grimstad, P. R., 204 

Grollig, S. J., Francis X., 82 

Grove, Stanley N., 97 

Guanidine hydrochloride, 128 

GUSTAFSON, D. P., 120 

Habitats of mammals, 432 

Hale, Edward M., 340 

Hallerberg, Arthur Edward (necrology), 

47 
Halogen substitution, 129 
Hamilton County, Indiana, 300 
Hamsters, 233 
Han, Ji, 188 

Hankins, B. J., 146, 151, 400 
Hansen, Uwe J., 350, 351 
Harris, Patricia A., 351 
Harrison Co., 147 
Hauser, Larry A., 352 
Heat Units, 206 
Hedge, Cloyce L., 359 
Heinstein, Peter F., 98 
Hellenthal, Barbara J., 354 
Hellenthal, Ronald A., 204 
Hemlock Bluff Nature Preserve, 372 
Hendricks, Elaine G., 354 
Hendrickson, Donald A., 340 
Hepatomas, 98 
Herbicide, aquatic, 145 
Hertel, J. M., 400 
Heusler Fault, 275 
High School Science Projects, 381 
Hilst, A. R., 382 
Hoban, Bridget, 208 
Hobbs, III, H. H., 147 
Honey Bees, 215 
Hospitalization and Nosocomial Infections, 

341 
Houck, Mark H., 189 



Index 



443 



Household Carbon Filters, 231 
Howe, Robert H. L., 132, 190, 232 
Howe, Roberta C, 132 
Huber, R. T., 206 

HUNCHBERGER, ROBERT A., 149 

Hyperthermia, 114 
Hypothyroid, 407 

Uludas, 188 

Indiana Junior Academy of Science, 36 
Indiana University Biological Station, His- 
tory, 143 
Indians, Pre-history, 84 
Industrial emissions, 320 
Insecticide, 205 
Insect-plant coevolution, 206 
Insects, economic, in Indiana, 210 
Ionophore A-23187, 97 
Iqbal, Zafar, 102 
Isoelectric pH, 132 

Jackson County, 372 
Jackson, Marion T., 159 
Jacobs, M. E., 103 
Jansen, Mark, 207 
Jarial, Mohinder, 102 
Jensen, Richard J., 353 
Jet Streams, 272 
Johnson, Eric R., 128 
Jones, Jay H., 93 

JORGENSEN, ANDREW, 130 

Jupiter Effect, 350 

Keen, R. C, 382 
Keith, James, 147 
Keller, Clifton, 352 
Kessler, W. V., 114, 407 
Kirkpatrick, Charles M., 145 
Klosterman, Jane E., 146 
Knops, Judith F., 353 
Koch, Robert L., II, 255 
Kritsky, Gene R., 206 
Kruger, T. L., 129 
Kurtz, Alan R., 97 

La Crosse Virus, 204 

Lake Monroe, 154 

Lake Restoration, 180 

Lakes, 142 

Lakes, Indiana, 142 

Lamprothamnium, transfers to, 356 

I and Use Planning, 300 

Lane, Susan Leigh, 93 

Langona, Michael R., 341 

Lechtenberg, V. L., 400 

Lembi, C. A., 148 

Lepidoptera: Sesiidae, 225 

Lepisosteus osseus, 404 

Lesh, Thomas A., 404 

Lesser Peachtree Borer, 225 

Lice, 204 

Lightner, J. W., 400 

Limnology, Applied, 180 

Lindley, Brenda R., 128 



Liquid Separation, 132 

Liver, Rat, 99 

Llewellyn, Mark J., 250 

Llewellyn, Ralph A., 250 

Loess in Indiana, 384 

Lotus corniculatus, 151 

Loucks, Orie L., 234 

Low, H., 101 

Lungs, hyperinflation, 404 

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 146 

Lyng, R. D., 404 

MacKellar, W. C, 101 

Macklin, William D., 95 

Malpighian tubules, 102 

Mammals, small Ditribution southwestern 

Indiana, 432 
Mars, Orbit, 350 
Maxwell, R. H., 355 
McCarthy, Jullanne, 83 
McCormick, Jack Sovern (necrology), 49 
McCracken, Richard C, 404 
McGarrahan, Patrick, 386 
McIntosh, Robert P., 142 
McKelvey, Paul T., 144 
McKinley, Marcus, 131 
McNitt, T. J., 404 
McReynolds, Harold E., 142, 143 
McReynolds, Mark, 154 
Melanoma, 114 
Mendelson, Edward N., 405 
Mennonite children, 83 
Metabolism, 407 

Meteorus leviventris (Wesmael), 218 
Mexico, 82 

Meyer, Robert W., 210 
Miles, Robert D., 274 
Militaiy Remains, 82 
Miller, Edward, 128 
Miller, Richard L., 405 
Miller, Richard W., 234 
MINDO/3, 130 

Molybdenum carbonyl complexes, 131 
Montgomery, Elwood B., 328 
Moody Diagram, 190 
Morone Mississippiensis, 154 
Morr£, Dorothy M., 100 
Morr£, James D., 98, 99, 100, 101 
Morris, Everett F., 92, 327 
Mosbo, J. A., 129, 130 
Mosquitoes, 208 
Mott, G. O., 151 
Mounds State Park, 82 
Mount Vernon Graben, 275 
Mouzin, T. E., 215 

N-acetyldopamine, 103 
Narcotic Antagonists, 136 
Nasolabial Groove, 421 

National Museum of Anthropology (Mex- 
ico), 82 
Necrology, 44 
Neff, Anton W., 105 
Nelson, A. K., 206 



444 



Index 



Nelson, Craig E., 149 

Nelson, Darrell W., 260 

Nerve Protein, 102 

New Harmony Fault, 275 

New Members of the Academy, 55 

Nisbet, Jerry J., 92 

Nitrogen fertilizer, 394 

Numerical taxonomy, 204 

Nyssa, I, 95 

Odonatology, Development, 328 

Officers, Academy of Science, 3 

Oliver, John E., 320 

1-substituted tetrazole complexes, 131 

Organ, John Ewing (necrology), 51 

Orpurt, P. A., 91 

Oryzomys, bones, 425 

Ossom, Ekpo, 146 

Ostraco^is cave, 147 

Otter Creek, 350 

Ounapu, Lois M., 129 

Oxygenation Process, 190 

Ozone, 233, 268 

Ozone Effects on Vegetation, 234 

Padmanabhan, G., 188 

Palaeodictyoptera, 206 

Paleo-Indian, 84 

Pang, E. L., 207 

Parasites, new distribution records, 210 

Parasitoid, 218 

Parke County, 310 

Particulate sampling, 246 

Particulates, 250 

Penicilliopsis, 92 

Perucca, Melissa, 350 

Phosphatase activities, 100 

Phosphines, 130 

Phospholipase C, 105 

Phosphorus ligands, 129 

Photochemical synthesis, 131 

Photoperiod, 233 

Photoperiod Pretreatments, 268 

Physicists, Mid-Victorian, 330 

Physics Division, Meeting 1935-78, 350 

Physiographic Regions, S. Ind., 290 

Pine, White, 146 

Pinger, R. R., 204, 404 

Plankton, 173 

Plant Communities, 159 

Plants, color, 91 

Plasma Membrane, 101 

Plastocyanin, 343 

Plant Taxonomy, angiosperms, 355 

Plants in Indiana, 353 

Pocket gophers, 204 

Pollen, 98 

Pollution, in river water, 133 

Pollution, water, 350 

Pond communities, 149 

Porter Cave System, 273 

Prairie establishment, 94 

Presidential Address, 68 

Price, Roger D., 204 



Pronase, 128 
Protease, 128 
Protein denaturation, 128 
Pseudorabies Virus, 120 
Purichia, Nicholas Angelo (necrology) 
52 

Quercus, 353 

Rademacher, Lana, 231 

Radiation, 114 

Ramasarma, T., 101 

Rao, A. R., 189, 190 

Rat, liver, 412 

Rat, muscle, 412 

Rat, Myeloma, 103 

Reed, D. K., 215, 225 

Reed, Helen Evelyne (necrology), 53 

Refractions, molar, 129 

Residual nitrogen, 394 

Resource management, 143 

Reuter, Dianne L., 274 

Rhykerd, C. L., 146, 151, 382, 400 

Rice Rat, 425 

Richards, R. L., 425 

Ricketts, John A., 128 

RlNGLESPAUGH, RICHARD, 233 

Riparian zones, 143 
Risley, John M., 129 
Roger Cave System, 273 
Root model, 207 
Root growth simulation, 207 
Rodenticide, 205 
Rossmann, Ronald, 340 
Runoff, 191 
Runoff, Urban, 188 
Runstrom, Erik S., 205 

Salamander, 421 
Schuder, Donald L., 207 
Schwartz, Eugene, 129 
Science Education, 380 
Science History, 322 
Scientific institutions, 330 
Scientific method, 380 
Seasly, Thomas P., 354 
Senft II, W. H., 142, 149 
Seretto, Lisa M., 99 
Sever, David M., 421 
Sevier, John, 330 
Sewage Treatment, 340 
Sexine development, 98 
Shea, Gerald J., 272 
Shoup, Jane R., 98 
Siefker, Joseph R., 133 
Siewert, Horst F., 232 
Silene alba, 98 
Sinsko, M. J., 204 
Slope in Indiana, 290 
Smith, Sandra Schiller, 100 
Smucker, Jerry D., 97 
Soil, Shallow Muck, 400 
Soils, Cincinnati, 384 
Solar Energy, 350 



Index 



445 



Solar Hot Water Collector, 350 

Sorghum, use in prairie establishment, 94 

Sousa, Lynn R., 131 

Spencer, D. F., 148 

Spicer Lake, 173 

Spicka, Edwin J., 418 

Spleen cells, rat, 103 

Spore Germination, 97 

Spring meeting — Academy of Science, 16, 

20 
Squiers, Edwin R., 146 
Stadler, S. J., 320 
Steinhardt, Gary C., 384 
Stivers, Russell K., 394 
Storhoff, B. N., 129, 130 
Storm Drainage, 188 
Storm model, 188 
Stream Temperatures, 232 
Streams, Classification, 143 
Strunk, Kevin L., 273 
Succession, plant, 146 
Sulfur dioxide, 234 

Sulfur Dioxide Effects on Vegetation, 234 
Sullivan, Dan M., 275 
Sullivan, Patrick J., 231 
Sullivan, T. M., 114 
Sun, I. L., 120 
Superoxide dismutase, 128 
Susalia, Anne A., 91 
Swarming, 207 
Sweigard, James A., 97 

Sylvilagus floridanus, ectoparasites of, 418 
Symber, Diane M., 290 
Systematics, Biological Survey, 39 

Tanner, George F., 275 

Tanning, 103 

Taylor, Darlene K., 128 

Terre Haute, Air Pollution, 320 

Tetrahydropyrrolidoacenaphthenes, 136 

Thomomys, 204 

Thyroid, 407 

Tinkle, William J., 91 

Toebes, G. H., 189 

Tomak, Curtis H., 84 

Torke, B. G., 142, 180 

Torrey, Deborah, 145 

Trees, Distribution, 354 

Trivittatus virus, 204 

Tromley. N. J., 225 

Troxel, Karen S., 343 

Two-Pyridones, 131 



Unger, George, 350 
Usher, Roland W., 234 

Vail, David H., 207, 218 
Valparaiso University, 327 
Vascular Plants, 359 
Vasectomy, 405 
Vegetation, 147 
Vermillion County, 310 
Veselack, Marilyn S., 92 
Vetter, R. J., 114, 407 
Virus Incomplete, 120 
Volvox aureus, 149 

Wabash Valley Fault System, 275 
Walker, Michael, 130 
Walter, Vivian P., 99 
Waltz, Robert D., 354 
Warnes, Carl E., 340, 341 
Warren, Charles P., 82 
Washington County, 147 
Wassel, Mary E., 418 
Water Quality, 142 
Water Treatment, 255 
Water Treatment System, 231 
Water, Well, 190 
Webster, Dan J., 68, 154 
Weevil, Alfalfa, 206 
Wert, William G., 380 
West, Terry R., 300 
Whitaker, John O. Jr., 418 
White River, 341 
Willard, Kevin, 131 
Williams, Douglas B., 128 
Williams, Robert D., 94 
Wisconsin tills, 384 
Witmer, Samuel W., 353 
Wong, Larry, 234 
Wong, T. T. Y., 225 
Woolsey, Henry, 353 

Yazicigil, H., 189 
Yellow Bass, 154 
Yeo, Emily, 100, 101 
Yoder, Larry R., 94, 383 
Yokley, E. M., 136 
Yonker, James W., 207 
York, Alan C, 204 
Young, Julie, 94 

Zimmerman Pine Moth, 207 



.